RARE Orig George Washington Monument Dedication Invitation & Program 1885 D.C.

EUR 1.451,50 Buy It Now or Best Offer 12h 21m, EUR 18,05 Shipping, 14-Day Returns, Pay with PayPal and you're fully protected.

Seller: dalebooks (8.198) 100%, Location: Rochester, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 263777696377 Very RARE Original Washington Monument Dedication LOT 2 Pieces Invitation & Program February 21, 1885 For offer, rare and historically important pieces of history. Never offered on the market until now. Vintage, Old, Original, Antique, NOT a Reproduction - Guaranteed !! These are freshly de-accessioned from the Rocheser Historical Society, and were in their collection for decades. Purchased through a highly reputable auction house in charge of dispersing various paper items from the collection. The invitation is entitled Ceremonies on the completion of the Washington Monument, Capitol, Washington, D.C. .... Signed by Chairman of the Commission, John Sherman. Program is unused. Steel engraved (government) on thick card stock. Light green tint. The Program is entitled Order of proceedings adopted by the Congressional Commission for the dedication of the Washington Monument, February 21, 1885. [12 pages]. In very good condition. Light wear, a few small stains on invitation (minor); discard stamps and stamps of the historical society, and embossed seal on program. Fold mark to program, looks to have been once folded in half. Light soiling on back cover. Please see photos. If you collect 19th century Americana history, American political, politics, military related, etc. this is a treasure you will not see again! Add this to your image or paper / ephemera collection. Perhaps genealogy research importance too. Combine shipping on multiple bid wins! 1587 The Washington Monument is an obelisk on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate George Washington, once commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and the first President of the United States. Located almost due east of the Reflecting Pool and the Lincoln Memorial,[2] the monument, made of marble, granite, and bluestone gneiss,[3] is both the world's tallest stone structure and the world's tallest obelisk, standing 554 feet 7 11⁄32 inches (169.046 m) tall according to the National Geodetic Survey (measured 2013–14) or 555 feet 5 1⁄8 inches (169.294 m) tall according to the National Park Service (measured 1884).[A] It is the tallest monumental column in the world if all are measured above their pedestrian entrances.[B] It was the tallest structure in the world from 1884 to 1889. Construction of the monument began in 1848, and was halted from 1854 to 1877 due to a lack of funds, a struggle for control over the Washington National Monument Society, and the intervention of the American Civil War. Although the stone structure was completed in 1884, internal ironwork, the knoll, and other finishing touches were not completed until 1888. A difference in shading of the marble, visible approximately 150 feet (46 m) or 27% up, shows where construction was halted and later resumed with marble from a different source. The original design was by Robert Mills, but he did not include his proposed colonnade due to a lack of funds, proceeding only with a bare obelisk. The cornerstone was laid on July 4, 1848; the first stone was laid atop the unfinished stump on August 7, 1880; the capstone was set on December 6, 1884; the completed monument was dedicated on February 21, 1885;[14] and officially opened October 9, 1888. The Washington Monument is a hollow Egyptian style stone obelisk with a 500-foot (152.4 m) tall column and a 55-foot (16.8 m) tall pyramidion. Its walls are 15 feet (4.6 m) thick at its base and 1 1⁄2 feet (0.46 m) thick at their top. The marble pyramidion has thin walls only 7 inches (18 cm) thick supported by six arches, two between opposite walls that cross at the center of the pyramidion and four smaller corner arches. The top of the pyramidion is a large marble capstone with a small aluminum pyramid at its apex with inscriptions on all four sides. The lowest 150 feet (45.7 m) of the walls, constructed during the first phase 1848–1854, are composed of a pile of bluestone gneiss rubble stones (not finished stones) held together by a large amount of mortar with a facade of semi-finished marble stones about 1 1⁄4 feet (0.4 m) thick. The upper 350 feet (106.7 m) of the walls, constructed during the second phase 1880–1884, are composed of finished marble surface stones, half of which project into the walls, partially backed by finished granite stones.[15] The interior is occupied by iron stairs that spiral up the walls, with an elevator in the center, each supported by four iron columns, which do not support the stone structure. The stairs contain fifty sections, most on the north and south walls, with many long landings stretching between them along the east and west walls. These landings allowed many inscribed memorial stones of various materials and sizes to be easily viewed while the stairs were accessible (until 1976), plus one memorial stone between stairs that is difficult to view. The pyramidion has eight observation windows, two per side, and eight red aircraft warning lights, two per side. Two aluminum lightning rods connected via the elevator support columns to ground water protect the monument. The monument's present foundation is 37 feet (11.3 m) thick, consisting of half of its original bluestone gneiss rubble encased in concrete. At the northeast corner of the foundation, 21 feet (6.4 m) below ground, is the marble cornerstone, including a zinc case filled with memorabilia.[15] Fifty American flags fly 24 hours a day on a large circle of flag poles centered on the monument.[16] In 2001, a temporary screening facility was added to the entrance to prevent a terrorist attack.[17] In 2011, an earthquake slightly damaged the monument, mostly the pyramidion.[18] HistoryRationaleGeorge Washington (1732–1799), hailed as the father of his country, and as the leader who was "first in war, first in peace and first in the hearts of his countrymen" (in eulogy by Maj. Gen. 'Light-Horse Harry' Lee at Washington's funeral, December 26, 1799), was the dominant military and political leader of the new United States of America from 1775 to 1799. Even his former enemy King George III called him "the greatest character of the age."[19] At his death in 1799, he left a critical legacy; he exemplified the core ideals of the American Revolution and the new nation: republican virtue and devotion to civic duty. Washington was the unchallenged public icon of American military and civic patriotism. He was also identified with the Federalist Party, which lost control of the national government in 1800 to the Jeffersonian Republicans, who were reluctant to celebrate the hero of the opposition party.[20] Proposals for a memorialStarting with victory in the Revolution, there were many proposals to build a monument to Washington. After his death, Congress authorized a suitable memorial in the national capital, but the decision was reversed when the Democratic-Republican Party (Jeffersonian Republicans) took control of Congress in 1801.[21] The Republicans were dismayed that Washington had become the symbol of the Federalist Party; furthermore the values of Republicanism seemed hostile to the idea of building monuments to powerful men. They also blocked his image on coins or the celebration of his birthday. Further political squabbling, along with the North–South division on the Civil War, blocked the completion of the Washington Monument until the late 19th century. By that time, Washington had the image of a national hero who could be celebrated by both North and South, and memorials to him were no longer controversial.[22] As early as 1783, the Continental Congress had resolved "That an equestrian statue of George Washington be erected at the place where the residence of Congress shall be established." The proposal called for engraving on the statue which explained it had been erected "in honor of George Washington, the illustrious Commander-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States of America during the war which vindicated and secured their liberty, sovereignty, and independence."[23] Currently, there are two equestrian statues of President Washington in Washington, D.C. One is located in Washington Circle at the intersection of the Foggy Bottom and West End neighborhoods at the north end of the George Washington University, and the other is in the gardens of the National Cathedral. Ten days after Washington's death, a Congressional committee recommended a different type of monument. John Marshall, a Representative from Virginia (who later became Chief Justice of the United States) proposed that a tomb be erected within the Capitol. However, a lack of funds, disagreement over what type of memorial would best honor the country's first president, and the Washington family's reluctance to move his body prevented progress on any project.[24] Design Sketch of the proposed Washington Monument by architect Robert Mills (circa 1836)Progress toward a memorial finally began in 1833. That year a large group of concerned citizens formed the Washington National Monument Society. In 1836, after they had raised $28,000 in donations (equivalent to $1,000,000 in 2016), they announced a competition for the design of the memorial.[25]:chp 1 On September 23, 1835, the board of managers of the society described their expectations:[26] It is proposed that the contemplated monument shall be like him in whose honor it is to be constructed, unparalleled in the world, and commensurate with the gratitude, liberality, and patriotism of the people by whom it is to be erected ... [It] should blend stupendousness with elegance, and be of such magnitude and beauty as to be an object of pride to the American people, and of admiration to all who see it. Its material is intended to be wholly American, and to be of marble and granite brought from each state, that each state may participate in the glory of contributing material as well as in funds to its construction. The society held a competition for designs in 1836. In 1845, the winner was announced to be architect Robert Mills.[6]:2-2 The citizens of Baltimore had chosen him to build a monument to Washington, and he had designed a tall Greek column surmounted by a statue of the President. Mills also knew the capital well, having just been chosen Architect of Public Buildings for Washington. His design called for a circular colonnaded building 250 feet (76 m) in diameter and 100 feet (30 m) high from which sprang a four sided obelisk 500 feet (150 m) high, for a total elevation of 600 feet (180 m). A massive cylindrical pillar 70 feet (21 m) in diameter supported the obelisk at the center of the building. The obelisk was to be 70 feet (21 m) square[C] at the base and 40 feet (12 m) square at the top with a slightly peaked roof. Both the obelisk and pillar were hollow within which a railway spiraled up. The obelisk had no doorway—instead its interior was entered from the interior of the pillar upon which it was mounted. The pillar had an "arched way" at its base. The top of the portico of the building would feature Washington standing in a chariot holding the reins of six horses. Inside the colonnade would be statues of 30 prominent Revolutionary War heroes as well as statues of the signers of the Declaration of Independence.[27]:6–8[15]:13[28]:26–28 Criticism of Mills's design and its estimated price tag of more than $1 million (in 1848, equivalent to $20,000,000 in 2016) caused the society to hesitate. On April 11, 1848 the society decided, due to a lack of funds, to build only the obelisk. Mills's 1848 obelisk was to be 500 feet tall, 55 feet (17 m) square at the base and 35 feet (11 m) square at the top. It had two massive doorways, each 15 feet (4.6 m) high and 6 feet (1.8 m) wide, on the east and west sides of its base.[15]:15, 21 Surrounding each doorway were raised jambs, a heavy pediment, and entablature within which was carved an Egyptian-style winged sun and asps.[29][15]:23[28]:353+ Some of these details can be seen in the 1860 photograph below at Donations run out, after clicking on the image and viewing the original file at its highest magnification. This original design conformed to a massive temple which was to have surrounded the base of the obelisk, but because it was never built, the architect of the second phase of construction Thomas Lincoln Casey smoothed down the projecting jambs, pediment and entablature in 1885, walled up the west entrance with marble forming an alcove, and reduced the east entrance to 8 feet (2.4 m) high.[30][15]:90–91 The western alcove has contained a bronze statue of Washington since 1992–93. Also during 1992–93 a limestone surround was installed at the east elevator entrance decorated with a winged sun and asps to mimic Mills's 1848 design. Construction West side of Jefferson Pier with Washington Monument in backgroundThe Washington Monument was originally intended to be located at the point at which a line running directly south from the center of the White House crossed a line running directly west from the center of the Capitol. Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant's 1791 "Plan of the city intended for the permanent seat of the government of the United States ..." designated this point as the location of the equestrian statue of George Washington that the Continental Congress had voted for in 1783.[31][D] The ground at the intended location proved to be too unstable to support a structure as heavy as the planned obelisk, so the monument's location was moved 390 feet (118.87 m) east-southeast.[E] At that originally intended site there now stands a small monolith called the Jefferson Pier.[36][37] This offset caused the McMillan Plan to specify that the Lincoln Memorial should be "placed on the main axis of the Capitol and the Monument", about 1° south of due west of the Capitol or the monument, not due west of the Capitol or the monument.[38][F] Excavation and initial constructionConstruction of the monument began in 1848 with the excavation of the site, the laying of the cornerstone on the prepared bed, and laying the original foundation around and on top of the cornerstone, before the construction of its massive walls began the next year. Even though unpaid slave labor is not explicitly mentioned by Louis Torres or any other source, it would have been needed to augment the small paid labor force of skilled and unskilled workers totaling, for example, only 57 in 1849,[15]:18 compared to the peak total of 170 paid workers during the second phase of construction (1879–1884).[15]:66 Washington Monument Historian John Steele Gordon stated "I can't say for certain, but the stonemasonry was pretty highly skilled, so it's unlikely that slaves would've been doing it. The stones were cut by stonecutters, which is highly skilled work; and the stones were hoisted by means of steam engines, so you'd need a skilled engineer and foreman for stuff like that. Tending the steam engine, building the cast-iron staircase inside—that wasn't grunt work."[39] According to historian Jesse Holland, it is very likely that African-American slaves were among the construction workers, given that slavery prevailed in Washington and its surrounding states at that time, and slaves were commonly used in public and private construction.[40] Gordon's arguments are valid for the second phase (1879–1884) when every stone laid required a skilled stonemason. However, Holland's views are valid for the first phase (1848–1854) because most of its construction only required unskilled manual labor, assisted only by a steam engine to lift the stones because many weighed several tons each. Only a small number of stones used in the first phase required a skilled stonemason, the marble blocks on the outer surface of the monument (their inner surfaces were left very rough) and those gneiss stones that form the rough inner walls of the monument (all other surfaces of those inner stones within the walls were left jagged). The vast majority of all gneiss stones laid during the first phase, those between the outer and inner surfaces of the walls, from very large to very small jagged stones, form a pile of rubble held together by a large amount of mortar. The top surface of this rubble can be seen below at Walls in an 1880 drawing made just before the polished/rough marble and granite stones used in the second phase were laid atop it. The original foundation below the walls was made of layered gneiss rubble, but without the massive stones used within the walls. Most of the gneiss stones used during the first phase were obtained from quarries in the Potomac Valley. Almost all the marble stones of the first and second phases came from two Maryland quarries about 20 miles (30 km) north of downtown Baltimore. On July 4, 1848, the Freemasons, an organization to which Washington belonged, laid the cornerstone (symbolically, not physically).[28]:45, 136–143 According to Joseph R. Chandler:[28]:136, 140–141[41] No more Washingtons shall come in our time ... But his virtues are stamped on the heart of mankind. He who is great in the battlefield looks upward to the generalship of Washington. He who grows wise in counsel feels that he is imitating Washington. He who can resign power against the wishes of a people, has in his eye the bright example of Washington.[41] Two years later, on a torrid July 4, 1850, George Washington Parke Custis, the adopted son of George Washington and grandson of Martha Washington, dedicated a stone from the people of the District of Columbia to the Monument at a ceremony that President Zachary Taylor attended five days before he died from food poisoning.[42] Donations run out The partially completed monument, photographed by Mathew Brady; circa 1860Construction continued until 1854, when donations ran out and the monument had reached a height of 152 feet (46.3 m). At that time a memorial stone that was contributed by Pope Pius IX, called the Pope's Stone, was destroyed by members of the anti-Catholic, nativist American Party, better known as the "Know-Nothings", during the early morning hours of March 6, 1854 (a priest replaced it in 1982). This caused public contributions to the Washington National Monument Society to cease, so they appealed to Congress for money.[15]:25–26[43]:16, 215, 222–3 The request had just reached the floor of the House of Representatives when the Know-Nothing Party seized control of the Society on February 22, 1855. Congress immediately tabled its expected contribution of $200,000 to the Society, effectively halting the appropriation. During its tenure, the Know-Nothing Society added only two courses of masonry, or four feet, to the monument using rejected masonry it found on site, increasing the height of the shaft to 156 feet. The original Society refused to recognize the illegal takeover, so two Societies existed side by side until 1858. With the Know-Nothing Party disintegrating and its inability to secure contributions toward building the monument, it surrendered its possession of the monument to the original Society on October 20, 1858. To prevent future takeovers, Congress incorporated the Society on February 22, 1859.[25]:chp 3[28]:52–65 Post–Civil WarInterest in the monument grew after the Civil War. Engineers studied the foundation several times to determine if it was strong enough. In 1876, the Centennial of the Declaration of Independence, Congress agreed to appropriate another $200,000 to resume construction.[44] Before work could begin again, arguments about the most appropriate design resumed. Many people thought a simple obelisk, one without the colonnade, would be too bare. Architect Mills was reputed to have said omitting the colonnade would make the monument look like "a stalk of asparagus"; another critic said it offered "little ... to be proud of."[24] Monument plans and timeline of constructionThis attitude led people to submit alternative designs. Both the Washington National Monument Society and Congress held discussions about how the monument should be finished. The Society considered five new designs, concluding that the one by William Wetmore Story seemed "vastly superior in artistic taste and beauty." Congress deliberated over those five as well as Mills's original. While it was deciding, it ordered work on the obelisk to continue. Finally, the members of the society agreed to abandon the colonnade and alter the obelisk so it conformed to classical Egyptian proportions.[26] ResumptionConstruction resumed in 1879 under the direction of Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Lincoln Casey of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Casey redesigned the foundation, strengthening it so it could support a structure that ultimately weighed more than 40,000 tons. The first stone atop the unfinished stump was laid August 7, 1880 in a small ceremony attended by President Rutherford B. Hayes, Casey and a few others. The president placed a small coin on which he had scratched his initials and the date in the bed of wet cement at the 150-foot level before the first stone was laid on top of it.[15]:76 Casey found 92 memorial stones ("presented stones") already inlaid into the interior walls of the first phase of construction. Before construction continued he temporarily removed eight stones at the 150-foot level so that the walls at that level could be sloped outward, producing thinner second-phase walls. He inserted those stones and most of the remaining memorial stones stored in the lapidarium into the interior walls during 1885–1889.[43]:11–17 The bottom third of the monument is a slightly lighter shade than the rest of the construction because the marble was obtained from different quarries.[45] P.H. McLaughlin setting the aluminum apex with Thomas Lincoln Casey (hands up) The Washington Monument almost complete around 1884The building of the monument proceeded quickly after Congress had provided sufficient funding. In four years, it was completed, with the 100-ounce (2.83 kg) aluminum apex/lightning-rod being put in place on December 6, 1884.[44] The apex was the largest single piece of aluminum cast at the time, when aluminum commanded a price comparable to silver.[10] Two years later, the Hall–Héroult process made aluminum easier to produce and the price of aluminum plummeted, though it should have provided a lustrous, non-rusting apex.[G][46] The monument opened to the public on October 9, 1888.[47] DedicationThe Monument was dedicated on February 21, 1885.[14] Over 800 people were present on the monument grounds to hear speeches during a frigid day by Ohio Senator John Sherman, the Rev. Henderson Suter, William Wilson Corcoran (of the Washington National Monument Society) read by Dr. James C. Welling because Corcoran was unable to attend, Freemason Myron M. Parker, Col. Thomas Lincoln Casey of the Army Corps of Engineers, and President Chester A. Arthur.[44][28]:104[48] President Arthur proclaimed: I do now .... in behalf of the people, receive this monument .... and declare it dedicated from this time forth to the immortal name and memory of George Washington.[48] After the speeches Lieutenant-General Philip Sheridan led a procession, which included the dignitaries and the crowd, past the Executive Mansion, now the White House, then via Pennsylvania Avenue to the east main entrance of the Capitol, where President Arthur received passing troops. Then, in the House Chamber, the president, his Cabinet, diplomats and others listened to Representative John Davis Long read a speech written a few months earlier by Robert C. Winthrop, formerly the Speaker of the House of Representatives when the cornerstone was laid 37 years earlier, but now too ill to personally deliver his speech.[28]:234–260 A final speech was given by John W. Daniel of Virginia. The festivities concluded that evening with fireworks, both aerial and ground displays.[28]:260–285[49][50] Later history Diagram of the Principal High Buildings of the Old World, 1884. The Washington Monument is the tallest structure represented.At the time of its completion, it was the tallest building in the world, a title it retained until the Eiffel Tower was completed in 1889. It is the tallest building in Washington, D.C.[51][52] The Heights of Buildings Act of 1910 restricts new building heights to no more than 20 feet (6.1 m) greater than the width of the adjacent street.[53] This monument is vastly taller than the obelisks around the capitals of Europe and in Egypt and Ethiopia, but ordinary antique obelisks were quarried as a monolithic block of stone, and were therefore seldom taller than approximately 100 feet (30 m).[54] The Washington Monument attracted enormous crowds before it officially opened. For six months after its dedication, 10,041 people climbed the 900 steps and 47 large landings to the top. After the elevator that had been used to raise building materials was altered to carry passengers, the number of visitors grew rapidly, and an average of 55,000 people per month were going to the top by 1888.[55] The annual visitor count peaked between 1979 and 1997, where an average of 1.1 million visitors visited annually; however, from 2005 to 2010, the Washington Monument has had an average of only 631,000 visitors each year (due to restrictions placed on the number of visitors allowed per day).[56] As with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, the national memorial was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966.[57] In the early 1900s, material started oozing out between the outer stones of the first construction period below the 150-foot mark, and was referred to by tourists as "geological tuberculosis". This was caused by the weathering of the cement and rubble filler between the outer and inner walls. As the lower section of the monument was exposed to cold and hot and damp and dry weather conditions, the material dissolved and worked its way through the cracks between the stones of the outer wall, solidifying as it dripped down their outer surface.[58] The monument undergoing restoration in 1999For ten hours in December 1982, the Washington Monument and eight tourists were held hostage by a nuclear arms protester, Norman Mayer, claiming to have explosives in a van he drove to the monument's base. U.S. Park Police shot and killed Mayer. The monument was undamaged in the incident, and it was discovered later that Mayer did not have explosives. After this incident, the surrounding grounds were modified in places to restrict the possible unauthorized approach of motor vehicles.[59] The monument underwent an extensive restoration project between 1998 and 2001. During this time it was completely covered in scaffolding designed by the American architect Michael Graves (who was also responsible for the interior changes).[60] The project included cleaning, repairing and repointing the monument's exterior and interior stonework. The stone in publicly accessible interior spaces was encased in glass to prevent vandalism, while new windows with narrower frames were installed (to increase the viewing space). New exhibits celebrating the life of George Washington, and the monument's place in history, were also added.[61] A temporary interactive visitors center, dubbed the "Discovery Channel Center" was also constructed during the project. The center provided a simulated ride to the top of the monument, and shared information with visitors during phases in which the monument was closed.[62] The majority of the project's phases were completed by summer 2000, allowing the monument to reopen July 31, 2000.[61] The monument temporarily closed again on December 4, 2000 to allow a new elevator cab to be installed, completing the final phase of the restoration project. The new cab included glass windows, allowing visitors to see some of the 194 memorial stones embedded in the monument's walls. The installation of the cab took much longer than anticipated, and the monument did not reopen until February 22, 2002. The final cost of the restoration project was $10.5 million.[63] On September 7, 2004 the monument closed for a $15 million renovation, which included numerous security upgrades and redesign of the monument grounds by landscape architect Laurie Olin. The renovations were due partly to security concerns following the September 11 attacks and the start of the War on Terror. The monument reopened April 1, 2005, while the surrounding grounds remained closed until the landscape was finished later that summer.[64][65] 2011 earthquake damageCrack in a stone at the top of the monument after the 2011 Virginia earthquakeCrack in a stone at the top of the monument after the 2011 Virginia earthquakeRepairing the Washington MonumentRepairs on the Washington Monument in 2013On August 23, 2011, the Washington Monument sustained damage during the 5.8 magnitude 2011 Virginia earthquake;[66] over 150 cracks were found in the monument.[67] A National Park Service spokesperson reported that inspectors discovered a crack near the top of the structure, and announced that the monument would be closed indefinitely.[68][69] A block in the pyramidion also was partially dislodged, and pieces of stone, stone chips, mortar, and paint chips came free of the monument and "littered" the interior stairs and observation deck.[70] The Park Service said it was bringing in two structural engineering firms (Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. and Tipping Mar Associates) with extensive experience in historic buildings and earthquake-damaged structures to assess the monument.[71] Officials said an examination of the monument's exterior revealed a "debris field" of mortar and pieces of stone around the base of the monument, and several "substantial" pieces of stone had fallen inside the memorial.[69] A crack in the central stone of the west face of the pyramidion was 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide and 4 feet (1.2 m) long.[72][73] Park Service inspectors also discovered that the elevator system had been damaged, and was operating only to the 250-foot (76 m) level, but was soon repaired.[74] On September 27, 2011, Denali National Park ranger Brandon Latham arrived to assist four climbers belonging to a "difficult access" team from Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates.[69][73] The reason for the inspection was the park agency's suspicion that there were more cracks on the monument's upper section not visible from the inside. The agency said it filled the cracks that occurred on August 23. After Hurricane Irene hit the area on August 27, water was discovered inside the memorial, leading the Park Service to suspect there was more undiscovered damage.[69] The rappellers used radios to report what they found to engineering experts on the ground.[75] Wiss, Janney, Elstner climber Dave Megerle took three hours to set up the rappelling equipment and set up a barrier around the monument's lightning rod system atop the pyramidion;[72] it was the first time the hatch in the pyramidion had been open since 2000.[72] The external inspection of the monument was completed October 5, 2011. In addition to the 4-foot (1.2 m) long west crack, the inspection found several corner cracks and surface spalls (pieces of stone broken loose) at or near the top of the monument, and more loss of joint mortar lower down the monument. The full report was issued December 2011.[18] Bob Vogel, Superintendent of the National Mall and Memorial Parks, emphasized that the monument was not in danger of collapse. "It's structurally sound and not going anywhere", he told the national media at a press conference on September 26, 2011.[73] More than $200,000 was spent between August 24 and September 26 inspecting the structure.[69] The National Park Service said that it would soon begin sealing the exterior cracks on the monument to protect it from rain and snow.[75][76] On July 9, 2012, the National Park Service announced that the monument would be closed for repairs until 2014.[77] The National Park Service hired construction management firm Hill International in conjunction with joint-venture partner Louis Berger Group to provide coordination between the designer, Wiss, Janney, and Elstner Associates, the general contractor Perini, and numerous stakeholders.[78] NPS said a portion of the plaza at the base of the monument would be removed and scaffolding constructed around the exterior. In July 2013, lighting was added to the scaffolding.[79] Some stone pieces saved during the 2011 inspection will be refastened to the monument, while "Dutchman patches"[H] will be used in other places. Several of the stone lips that help hold the pyramidion's 2,000-pound (910 kg) exterior slabs in place were also damaged, so engineers will install stainless steel brackets to more securely fasten them to the monument.[81] The National Park Service reopened the Washington Monument to visitors on May 12, 2014, eight days ahead of schedule.[82][78] Repairs to the monument cost US$15,000,000,[67] with taxpayers funding $7.5 million of the cost and David Rubenstein funding the other $7.5 million.[83] At the reopening Interior Secretary Sally Jewell, Today show weatherman Al Roker, and American Idol Season 12 winner Candice Glover were present.[84] The monument continues to be plagued by problems since the earthquake, including in January 2017 when the lights illuminating it went out.[85] The monument was closed again in September 2016 due to reliability issues with the elevator system.[86] On December 2, 2016, the National Park Service announced that the monument would be closed until 2019 in order to modernize the elevator. The $2 to 3 million project will correct the elevator's ongoing mechanical, electrical and computer issues, which have shuttered the monument since August 17. The National Park Service has also requested funding in its FY 2017 President's Budget Request to construct a permanent screening facility for the Washington Monument.[87] ComponentsCornerstoneThe cornerstone was laid with great ceremony at the northeast corner of the lowest course or step of the old foundation on July 4, 1848. Robert Mills, the architect of the monument, stated in September 1848, "The foundations are now brought up nearly to the surface of the ground; the second step being nearly completed, which covers up the corner stone."[15]:20 Therefore, the cornerstone was laid below the 1848 ground level. In 1880, the ground level was raised 17 feet (5.2 m) to the base of the shaft by the addition of a 30-foot (9.1 m) wide earthen embankment encircling the reinforced foundation, widened another 30 feet in 1881, and then the knoll was constructed in 1887–88.[6]:B-36–B-39 [15]:70, 95–96 If the cornerstone was not moved during the strengthening of the foundation in 1879–80, its upper surface would now be 21 feet (6.4 m) below the pavement just outside the northeast corner of the shaft. It would now be sandwiched between the concrete slab under the old foundation and the concrete buttress completely encircling what remains of the old foundation. During the strengthening process, about half by volume of the periphery of the lowest seven of eight courses or steps of the old foundation (gneiss rubble) was removed to provide good footing for the buttress. Although a few diagrams, pictures and descriptions of this process exist, the fate of the cornerstone is not mentioned.[6]:2-7–2-8, 3-3–3-5, 4-3–4-4, B-11–B-18, figs 2.5–2.7, 3.2–3.6, 3.13, 4.8–4.11[15]:67–73 The cornerstone was a 24,500-pound (11,100 kg) marble block 2.5 feet (0.76 m) high and 6.5 feet (2.0 m) square with a large hole for a zinc case filled with memorabilia. The hole was covered by a copper plate inscribed with the date of the Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776), the date the cornerstone was laid (July 4, 1848), and the names of the managers of the Washington National Monument Society. The memorabilia in the zinc case included items associated with the monument, the city of Washington, the national government, state governments, benevolent societies, and George Washington, plus miscellaneous publications, both governmental and commercial, a coin set, and a Bible, totaling 73 items or collections of items, as well as 71 newspapers containing articles relating to George Washington or the monument.[25]:app C[28]:pp 43–46, 109–166 The ceremony began with a parade of dignitaries in carriages, marching troops, fire companies, and benevolent societies.[25]:chp 2[28]:44–48[49]:16–17, 45–47 A long oration was delivered by the Speaker of the House of Representatives Robert C. Winthrop.[28]:113–130 Then, the cornerstone was pronounced sound after a Masonic ceremony using George Washington's Masonic gavel, apron and sash, as well as other Masonic symbols. In attendance were President James K. Polk and other federal, state and local government officials, Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton, Mrs. Dolley Madison, Mrs. John Quincy Adams, and George Washington Parke Custis, among 15,000 to 20,000 others, including a bald eagle. The ceremony ended with fireworks that evening. Memorial stonesPhoto of the Washington Monument Memorial Stone from Utah (State of Deseret)Memorial stone from Utah representing the former provisional State of DeseretStates, cities, foreign countries, benevolent societies, other organizations, and individuals have contributed 194 memorial stones, all inserted into the east and west interior walls above stair landings or levels for easy viewing, except one on the south interior wall between stairs that is difficult to view. The sources disagree on the number of stones for two reasons: whether one or both "height stones" are included, and stones not yet on display at the time of a source's publication cannot be included. The "height stones" refer to two stones that indicate height: during the first phase of construction a stone with an inscription that includes the phrase "from the foundation to this height 100 feet" was installed just below the 80–90-foot stairway and high above the 60–70-foot stairway;[7]:sheet 25[43]:52 during the second phase of construction a stone with a horizontal line and the phrase "top of statue on Capitol" was installed on the 330-foot level.[7]:sheet 30[88] The Historic Structure Report (HSR, 2004) named 194 "memorial stones" by level, including both height stones.[6]:4-17–4-20, 5-6, "194" on 4-17 Jacob (2005) described in detail and pictured 193 "commemorative stones", including the 100-foot stone but not the Capitol stone.[43]:"193" on 1 The Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS, 1994) showed the location of 193 "memorial stones", but did not describe or name any. HABS showed both height stones, but did not show one stone not yet installed in 1994.[7]:sheets 22–25, 28–30 Olszewski (1971) named 190 "memorial stones" by level, including the Capitol stone but not the 100-foot stone. Olszewski did not include three stones not yet installed in 1971.[25]:chp 6, app D, "190" in chp 6 Of 194 stones, 95 are marble, 41 are granite, 30 are limestone, 9 are sandstone, with 19 miscellaneous types, including combinations of the aforesaid and those whose materials are not identified. Unusual materials include native copper (Michigan),[43]:147 pipestone (Minnesota),[43]:153 petrified wood (Arizona),[43]:213 and jadeite (Alaska).[43]:220 The stones vary in size from about 1.5 feet (0.46 m) square (Carthage)[I] to about 6 by 8 feet (1.8 m × 2.4 m) (Philadelphia and New York City).[43]:3, 90, 124, 218 Utah contributed one stone as a territory and another as a state, both with inscriptions that include its pre-territorial name, Deseret, both located on the 220-foot level.[43]:154–155 A stone at the 240-foot level of the monument is inscribed in Welsh: Fy Iaith, Fy Ngwlad, Fy Nghenedl, Cymry am byth (Our language, our country, our birthplace, Wales forever). The stone, imported from Wales, was donated by Welsh citizens of New York.[43]:170[90] Two other stones were presented by the Sunday Schools of the Methodist Episcopal Church in New York and the Sabbath School children of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia—the former quotes from the Bible verse Proverbs 10:7, "The memory of the just is blessed".[43]:190, 192 Another inscription, this one sent by the Ottoman government,[43]:128 combines the works of two eminent calligraphers: an imperial tughra by Mustafa Rakım's student Haşim Efendi, and an inscription in jalī ta'līq script by Kadıasker Mustafa İzzet Efendi, the calligrapher who wrote the giant medallions at Hagia Sophia in Istanbul.[91][92] One stone was donated by the Ryukyu Kingdom and brought back by Commodore Matthew C. Perry,[93] but never arrived in Washington (it was replaced in 1989).[43]:210 Many of the stones donated for the monument carried inscriptions which did not commemorate George Washington. For example, one from the Templars of Honor and Temperance stated "We will not make, buy, sell, or use as a beverage, any spiritous or malt liquors, Wine, Cider, or any other Alcoholic Liquor."[43]:140 (George Washington himself had owned a whiskey distillery which operated at Mount Vernon after he left the presidency.[94]) Aluminum apex Aluminum apex showing inscriptions on its east (left) and north (right) faces. Lightning rods not shown.The aluminum apex, at the time a rare metal as valuable as silver, was cast by William Frishmuth of Philadelphia.[10] At the time of casting, it was the largest piece of aluminum in the world. Before the installation it was put on public display at Tiffany's in New York City and stepped over by visitors who could say they had "stepped over the top of the Washington Monument". It was 8.9 inches (23 cm) tall before 3⁄8 inch (1 cm) was removed from its tip by lightning strikes during 1885–1934, when it was protected from further damage by tall lightning rods surrounding it. Its base is 5.6 inches (14 cm) square. The angle between opposite sides at its tip is 34°48'. It weighed 100 ounces (2.83 kg) before lightning strikes removed a small amount of aluminum from its tip and sides.[30] Spectral analysis in 1934 showed that it was composed of 97.87% aluminum with the rest impurities.[10] It has a shallow depression in its base to match a slightly raised area atop the small upper surface of the marble capstone, which aligns the sides of the apex with those of the capstone, and the downward protruding lip around that area prevents water from entering the joint.[15]:83–84 It has a large hole in the center of its base to receive a threaded 1.5-inch (3.8 cm) diameter copper rod which attaches it to the monument and used to form part of the lightning protection system.[15]:91 The four faces of the external aluminum apex all bear inscriptions in cursive writing (Snell Round hand), which are incised into the aluminum.[10] The apex was inscribed on site after it was delivered. Most inscriptions are the original 1884 inscriptions, except for the top three lines on the east face which were added in 1934. A wide gold-plated copper band that held eight lightning rods covered most of the inscriptions from 1885 until it was removed and discarded in 2013. The inscriptions that it covered were damaged and are now illegible. Only the top four and bottom two lines of the north face, the first and last lines of the west face, the top four lines of the south face, and the top three lines of the east face are still legible. Even though the inscriptions are no longer covered, no attempt was made to repair them when the apex was accessible in 2013. The following table shows legible inscriptions in blue and illegible inscriptions in red.[1]:93 No colors appear on the actual apex. The inscriptions occupy the lower portions of triangles, thus the inscribed upper lines are necessarily shorter than some lower lines. North faceWest faceSouth faceEast faceJoint CommissionatSetting of Cap Stone.—————Chester A. Arthur.W. W. Corcoran, Chairman.M. E. Bell.Edward Clark.John Newton.Act of August 2, 1876. Corner Stone Laidon Bed of FoundationJuly 4, 1848.First Stone at Height of152 feet laidAugust 7, 1880.Capstone set December 6, 1884.Chief EngineerandArchitect,Thos. Lincoln Casey,Colonel, Corps of Engineers.Assistants:George W. Davis, Captain, 14th Infantry.Bernard R. Green, Civil Engineer.Master Mechanic,P. H. McLaughlin.Repaired 1934,National Park Service,Department of the Interior. Laus Deo. Although most printed sources, Harvey (1903),[28]:295 Olszewski (1971),[25]:app C Torres (1984),[15]:82, 84 and the Historic Structure Report (2004),[6]:4-6–4-7 refer to the original 1884 inscriptions, the National Geodetic Survey (2015)[1]:90–95 refers to both the 1884 and 1934 inscriptions. All sources print them according to their own editorial rules, resulting in excessive capitalization (Harvey, Olszewski, and NGS) and inappropriate line breaks. No printed source uses cursive writing, although pictures of the apex clearly show that it was used for both the 1884 and 1934 inscriptions.[1]:92–95[95][96] A replica displayed on the 490-foot level uses totally different line breaks than those on the external apex—it also omits the 1934 inscriptions. In October 2007, it was discovered that the display of this replica was positioned so that the Laus Deo (Latin for "praise be to God") inscription could not be seen and Laus Deo was omitted from the placard describing the apex. The National Park Service rectified the omission by creating a new display.[97] Lightning protectionThe pyramidion, the pointed top 55 feet (17 m) of the monument, was originally designed with an 8.9-inch (23 cm) tall inscribed aluminum apex which served as a single lightning rod, installed December 6, 1884. Six months later on June 5, 1885 lightning damaged the marble blocks of the pyramidion,[98] so a net of gold-plated copper rods supporting 200 3-inch (7.6 cm) gold-plated, platinum-tipped copper points spaced every 5 feet (1.5 m) was installed over the entire pyramidion.[6]:3-10–3-11, 3-15, figs 3.17, 3.23[25]:chp 6[15]:91–92 The original net included a gold-plated copper band attached to the aluminum apex by four large set screws which supported eight closely spaced vertical points that did not protrude above the apex. In 1934 these eight short points were lengthened to extend them above the apex by 6 inches (15 cm).[99] In 2013 this original system was removed and discarded. It was replaced by only two thick solid aluminum lightning rods protruding above the tip of the apex by about one foot (0.3 m) attached to the east and west sides of the marble capstone just below the apex.[1]:23, 26[11] Until it was removed, the original lightning protection system was connected to the tops of the four iron columns supporting the elevator with large copper rods. Even though the aluminum apex is still connected to the columns with large copper rods, it is no longer part of the lightning protection system because it is now disconnected from the present lightning rods which shield it. The two lightning rods present since 2013 are connected to the iron columns with two large braided aluminum cables leading down the surface of the pyramidion near its southeast and northwest corners. They enter the pyramidion at its base, where they are tied together (electrically shorted) via large braided aluminum cables encircling the pyramidion two feet (0.6 m) above its base.[11] The bottom of the iron columns are connected to ground water below the monument via four large copper rods that pass through a 2-foot (0.6 m) square well half filled with sand in the center of the foundation. The effectiveness of the lightning protection system has not been affected by a significant draw down of the water table since 1884 because the soil's water content remains roughly 20% both above and below the height of the water table.[100] WallsShowing about 85 irregular large stones in mortar between empty shaft well and outer marble veneerCross section of rubble in shaft at 150 feet and typical of rubble below 150 feetDuring the first phase of construction (1848–1854), the walls were built with bluestone gneiss rubble, ranging from very large irregular stones having a cross section of about 5 by 10 feet (1.5 m × 3.0 m) down to spalls (broken pieces of stone) all embedded in a large amount of mortar. The outer surface is marble stones 14 to 18 inches (36–46 cm) thick in 2-foot (61 cm) high courses or rows horizontally encircling the monument. Although each course contains both stretchers (stones parallel to the wall) and headers (stones projecting into the wall), about two to three times as many stretchers as headers were used. Their joints were so thin that some stones pressed on bare stone below them, breaking off many pieces since it was constructed. The batter or slope of the outer surface is 0.247 inches per foot (2.06 cm/m, 1°11'). The inner surface has disorderly rows of smaller roughly dressed bluestone gneiss.[6]:B-49[7]:sheets 7–30[15]:18–19, 23, 105–6 The base of the first phase walls has an outer dimension of 55 feet 1 1⁄2 inches (16.80 m) square and a thickness of 15 feet (4.6 m). The interior well is 25 feet 1 inch (7.65 m) square and has square corners.[9] The weight of the first phase walls up to 150 feet (45.7 m) is 22,373 long tons (25,058 short tons; 22,732 tonnes).[9] During the second phase (1879–1884), the walls were constructed of smoothly dressed (ashlar) large marble and granite blocks (rectangular cuboids) laid down in an orderly manner (Flemish bond) with thick joints. Two-foot high marble surface stones, using an equal number of stretchers and headers, were backed by granite blocks from the 152-foot level (the first course above the rubble) to the 218-foot level, where marble headers become increasingly visible on the internal surface of the walls up to the 450-foot level, above which only marble stones are used.[J] Between the 150- and 160-foot levels the inner walls rapidly slope outward, increasing the shaft well from 25 feet 1 inch square to 31 feet 5 1⁄2 inches (9.59 m) square with a corresponding decrease in the thickness of the walls and their weight.[7]:sheets 4–5[15]:23 The second phase walls at the 160-foot level were 8 feet 7 1⁄2 inches (2.63 m) thick, which, combined with the larger shaft well, yields an outer dimension of 48 feet 8 1⁄2 inches (14.85 m) square at that level. The top of the second phase walls are 34 feet 5 1⁄2 inches (10.50 m) square and 1 foot 6 inches (46 cm) thick.[6]:3-7[9] The second phase interior walls have rounded corners (2-foot (0.61 m) radii). The weight of the second phase walls (from 150 feet to 500 feet) are 21,260 long tons (23,810 short tons; 21,600 tonnes). The walls of the entire shaft (combined first and second phases) are 500 feet 5 1⁄8 inches (152.530 m) high.[9] The first phase of the walls was constructed under the direction of William Dougherty. Its white marble exterior came from the Texas quarry now adjacent to and east of north I-83 near the Warren Road exit in Cockeysville, Maryland. The quarry was named for the Texas Station (no longer extant) and 19th-century town on the Northern Central Railway. During the first phase it was operated by Thomas Symington, but is now operated by LafargeHolcim and no longer produces building stone. The second phase of construction was under the direction of Lt Col/Col Thomas Lincoln Casey of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, who removed two defective courses added by the Know-Nothings and the last 152-foot course added by Dougherty before Casey began his construction. The next three courses of white marble (152–156 feet (46–48 m)) came from Sheffield, Massachusetts, while all courses above them came from the Beaver Dam quarry just west of the 19th-century town of Cockeysville.[15]:63[102][103] The latter quarry is located on Beaver Dam Road near its intersection with McCormick Road. During the second phase the quarry was operated by Hugh Sisson, but is now flooded, is called Beaverdam Pond, and is the home of the Beaver Dam Swimming Club. Both 19th-century towns are now within the city limits of Cockeysville. Pyramidion Rib structure of pyramidion with letter designations for coursesThe marble capstone of the pyramidion is a truncated pyramid with a cubical keystone projecting from its base and a deep groove surrounding the keystone. The aluminum apex replaces its truncated top. The inside upper edges of the topmost slabs on the four faces of the pyramidion rest on the keystone and in the groove. It has a large vertical hole through which a 1.5-inch (3.8 cm) threaded copper rod passes and screws into the base of the apex, which used to form part of its lightning protection system. The keystone and groove occupy so much of its base that only a small horizontal area near its outer edge remains. The weight of the capstone is transferred to both the inner and outer portions of the shiplap upper edges of the slabs. It weighs 3,300 pounds (1,500 kg), is 5 feet 2 inches (1.57 m) high from its base to its top, and is 3 feet (91 cm) square at its base.[15]:85[101]:80 The marble pyramidion has an extremely complex construction to save weight yet remain strong. Its surface slabs or panels are usually only 7 inches (18 cm) thick (with small thick and thin portions) and generally do not support the weight of slabs above them, instead transferring their own weight via 1-foot (30 cm) wide internal marble ribs to the shaft's walls. The slabs are generally 7 feet (2 m) wide and 4 feet 4 inches (1 m) high with a 2-inch (5 cm) vertical overlap (shiplap) to prevent water from entering the horizontal joints. Twelve such courses, the internal ribs, the marble capstone, and the aluminum apex comprise the pyramidion. Its height is 55 feet 0 inches (16.76 m). Its weight is 300 long tons (336 short tons; 305 tonnes).[9] The slope of the walls of the pyramidion is 17°24' from the vertical.[30] There are twelve ribs, three per wall, which spring from the 470-foot (143.3 m) level, all being integrated into the walls up to the 500-foot (152.4 m) level. All are free standing above 500 feet, relying on mortise and tenon joints to attach neighboring stones. The eight corner ribs terminate six courses above the shaft, each corner rib resting on its neighboring corner rib via a miter joint, forming four corner arches. Each such arch supports a pair of square corner stones, one above the other totaling one course in height. Each corner rib is linked to the nearest center rib at the sixth course via a marble tie beam. The four center ribs terminate eight courses above the shaft at a marble cruciform (cross shaped) keystone, forming two main arches that cross each other. Two stones, each one course high, are mounted on each of the four ribs, supporting two additional courses above the cruciform keystone, leaving two courses to support the capstone's weight by themselves.[6]:3-8–3-11[18]:6–10[104] The observation floor (nominally the 500-foot level) is 499 feet 4 1⁄2 inches (152.21 m) above the entry lobby floor or lowest landing level. It is 1 1⁄4 inches (3.2 cm) above the marble base of the pyramidion and the top of the shaft walls.[1]:56, 58, 65[7]:sheet 7, 31–35[9] Four pairs of 3-foot (91 cm) wide observation windows are provided, spaced 4 feet (122 cm) apart, inner stone edge to edge, all just above the lowest course of slabs (504-foot level). Six are 1 foot 6 inches (46 cm) high while two on the east face are 2 feet (61 cm) high for easier egress. All were originally provided with thin marble shutters in a bronze frame each of which could be opened inward, one left and the other right per wall.[6]:3-11 After two people committed suicide by jumping through the open windows in the 1920s, hinged horizontal iron bars were added to them in 1929.[6]:3-14[15]:85, 102 A ninth opening in a slab on the south face just below the capstone is provided for access to the outside of the pyramidion. It is covered by a stone slab which is internally removable. In 1931, four red aircraft warning lights were installed, one per face in one of its observation windows. Pilots complained that they could not be easily seen, so the monument was floodlit on all sides as well.[6]:2-14, B-39, B-41, B-52–B-53 In 1958, eight 14-inch (36 cm) diameter holes for new red aircraft warning lights were bored, one above each window near the top edge of the fourth course of slabs (516-foot level) in the pyramidion.[6]:2-28, 3-15, B-55[7]:sheet 12 In 1958 the observation windows were glazed with shatterproof glass. In 1974–1976, they were glazed with bulletproof glass and the shutters removed. New bulletproof glass was installed during 1997–2000.[6]:3-16, 3-18, B-49 The pyramidion has two inscriptions, neither of which is regarded as a memorial stone. One is the year "1884" on the underside of the cruciform keystone; the other is at the same level as that keystone on the north face of the west center rib containing the names and titles of the four highest ranked builders. Its inscription ("Chief Engineer ...") is almost identical to the inscription on the south face of the aluminum apex except for "U.S.", which is part of the phrase "14th U.S. Infantry" in the inscription inside the pyramidion, but the apex has only "14th Infantry". Additionally, the internal inscription does not use cursive writing and all letters in all names are capitals.[7]:sheet 35[18]:8 Foundation Cross section of foundation, both old and reinforced, showing dimensionsThe first phase began with the excavation of about 7 feet 8 inches (2.3 m) of topsoil down to a level of loam, consisting of equal parts of sand and clay, hard enough to require picks to break it up. On this "bed of the foundation" the cornerstone was laid at the northeast corner of the proposed foundation. The rest of the foundation was then constructed of bluestone gneiss rubble and spalls, with every crevice filled with lime mortar.[15]:23, 68 The dimensions of this old foundation were 23 feet 4 inches (7.1 m) high, 80 feet (24.4 m) square at the base, and 58 feet 6 inches (17.8 m) square at the top, laid down in eight steps, similar to a truncated step pyramid.[15]:18–19, 23, 47 At the center of the foundation a brick-lined 2-foot (60 cm) square well was dug to a depth of 20 feet (6 m) below the bed of the foundation to keep it dry and to supply water during construction.[15]:19 During the second phase, after determining that the proposed weight of the monument was too great for the old foundation to safely bear, the thickness of the walls atop the unfinished stump was reduced and the foundation was strengthened by adding a large unreinforced concrete slab below the perimeter of the old foundation to increase the monument's load bearing area two and one half times. The slab was 13 feet 6 inches (4.1 m) thick, with an outer perimeter 126 feet 5 1⁄2 inches (38.54 m) square, an inner perimeter 44 feet (13.4 m) square, with undisturbed loam inside the inner perimeter except for the water well. The area at the base of the second phase foundation is 15,992 square feet (1,485.7 m2). The strengthened foundation (old foundation and concrete slab) has a total depth of 36 feet 10 inches (11.2 m) below the bottom of the lowest course of marble blocks (now below ground), and 38 feet (11.6 m) below the entry lobby floor. Casey reported that nowhere did the load exceed 9 long tons per square foot (140 psi; 970 kPa) and did not exceed 3 long tons per square foot (47 psi; 320 kPa) near the outer perimeter.[9] To properly distribute the load from the shaft to slab, about half by volume of the outer periphery of the old rubble foundation below its top step was removed. A continuous sloping unreinforced concrete buttress encircles what remains. The buttress is 100 feet 4 inches (30.6 m) square at its base, 64 feet 6 inches (19.7 m) square at its top, and 20 feet 5 inches (6.2 m) high. The perimeter of the original top step of the old rubble foundation rests on the larger top of the concrete buttress. Its slope (lower external angle from the vertical) is 49°. This buttress rests in a depression (triangular cross-section) on the top surface of the concrete slab. The slab was constructed by digging pairs of 4-foot (1.2 m) wide drifts on opposite sides of the monument's center line to keep the monument properly balanced. The drifts were filled with unreinforced concrete with depressions or dowel stones on their sides to interlock the sections.[6]:3-3–3-5, figs 3.1–3.6, 3.9, 3.13, 4.11[15]:39, 47–48, 67–73 An earthen terrace 60 feet (18 m) wide with its top at the base of the walls and steep sides was constructed in 1880–81 over the reinforced foundation while the rest of the monument was being constructed. During 1887–88, a knoll was constructed around the terrace tapering out roughly 300 feet (90 m) onto the surrounding terrain. This earthen terrace and knoll serves as an additional buttress for the foundation. The weight of the foundation is 36,912 long tons (41,341 short tons; 37,504 tonnes),[9] including earth and gneiss rubble above the concrete foundation that is within its outer perimeter. Stairs and elevator North interior wall with its stairs and their wire screening.The monument is filled with ironwork, consisting of its stairs, elevator columns and associated tie beams, none of which supports the weight of the stonework. It was redesigned in 1958 to reduce congestion and improve the flow of visitors. Originally, visitors entered and exited the west side of the elevator on the observation floor, causing congestion. So the large landing at the 490-foot level was expanded to a full floor and the original spiral stair in the northeast corner between the 490- and 500-foot levels was replaced by two spiral stairs in the northeast and southeast corners. Now visitors exit the elevator on the observation floor, then walk down either spiral stair before reboarding the elevator for their trip back down.[6]:fig 3.31 The main stairs spiral up the interior walls from the entry lobby floor to the elevator reboarding floor at the 490-foot level. The elevator occupies the center of the shaft well from the entry lobby to the observation floor, with an elevator machine room (installed 1925–26) whose floor is 18 feet 10 inches (5.7 m) above the observation floor and an elevator pit (excavated 1879) whose floor is 9 feet (2.74 m) below the entry lobby floor.[7]:sheet 31–35[15]:61, 74 The stairs and elevator are supported by four wrought iron columns each. The four supporting the stairs extend from the entry lobby floor to the observation floor and were set at the corners of a 15-foot-8-inch (4.78 m) square. The four supporting the elevator extend from the floor of the elevator pit to 14 feet (4.3 m) above the observation floor and were set at the corners of a 9-foot-9 1⁄2-inch (2.98 m) square.[6]:3-6 The weight of the ironwork is 275 long tons (308 short tons; 279 tonnes).[9] Cast iron, wrought iron, and steel were all used. The two small spiral stairs installed in 1958 are aluminum. Most landings occupy the entire east and west interior walls every 10 feet from and including the east landing at the 30-foot level up to the west landing at the 480-foot level, east then west alternately. Three stairs with small landings rise from the entry lobby floor to the 30-foot level successively along the north, west and south interior walls. Landings from the 30-foot level up to the 150-foot level are 3 feet 2 1⁄4 inches (0.97 m) by 25 feet 1 inch (7.65 m), while landings from the 160-foot level to the 480-foot level are 7 feet 10 3⁄4 inches (2.41 m) by 31 feet 5 1⁄2 inches (9.59 m). All stairs are on the north and south walls except for the aforementioned west stair between the 10- and 20-foot levels, and the two spiral stairs. About one fourth of visitors chose to ascend the monument using the stairs when they were available. They were closed to up traffic in 1971, and then closed to all traffic except by special arrangement in 1976.[6]:3-18[15]:101 The stairs had 898 steps until 1958, consisting of 18 risers in each of the 49 main stairs plus 16 risers in the spiral stair.[25]:chp 7[105]:18 Since 1958 the stairs have had 897 risers if only one spiral stair is counted because both spiral stairs now have 15 risers each.[7]:sheets 6, 31–35[15]:72 These figures do not include two additional steps in the entry passage that were covered up in 1975 by a ramp and its inward horizontal extension to meet the higher (since 1886) entry lobby floor. One step was 3.2 feet (1 m) away from the outer walls and the other was at the end of the passage, 15 feet (4.6 m) away from the outer walls.[6]:3-17–3-18, figs 3.11, 3.32–3.33, 3.39 As initially constructed, the interior was relatively open with two-rail handrails, but a couple of suicides and an accidental fall prompted the addition of tall wire screening (7 feet (2.1 m) high with a large diamond mesh) on the inside edge of the stairs and landings in 1929. The original steam powered elevator, which took 10 to 12 minutes to ascend to the observation floor, was replaced by an electric elevator powered by an on-site dynamo in 1901 which took five minutes to ascend. The monument was connected to the electrical grid in 1923, allowing the installation of a modern electric elevator in 1925–26 which took 70 seconds. The latter was replaced in 1958 and again in 1998 by 70-second elevators.[6]:2-13, 2-15, 3-20–3-21, B-44, B-47, B-48[28]:102, 107–8 During 1997–2000, the wire screening at three platforms was replaced by large glass panels to allow visitors on the elevator to view three clusters of memorial stones that were synchronously lit as the elevator automatically slowed as it passed them during its descent.[6]:3-21, 4-16 Flags Overhead view showing all 50 American flags.Fifty American flags (not state flags), one for each state, are now flown 24 hours a day around a large circle centered on the monument. Forty eight American flags (one for each state then in existence) were flown on wooden flag poles on Washington's birthday since 1920 and later on Independence Day, Memorial Day, and other special occasions until early 1958. Both the flags and flag poles were removed and stored between these days. In 1958 fifty 25-foot (7.6 m) tall aluminum flag poles (anticipating Alaska and Hawaii) were installed, evenly spaced around a 260-foot (79 m) diameter circle. During 2004–05, the diameter of the circle was reduced to 240 feet (73 m). Since Washington's birthday 1958, 48 American flags were flown on a daily basis, increasing to 49 flags on July 4, 1959, and then to 50 flags since July 4, 1960. When 48 and 49 flags were flown, only 48 and 49 flag poles of the available 50 were placed into base receptacles. All flags were removed and stored overnight. Since July 4, 1971, 50 American flags have flown 24 hours a day.[6]:2-14–2-15, 4-1–4-2, B-35–B-36 [7]:sheet 3[16] Vesica piscisIn the 2004 grounds renovation, two large circles were added to the landscaping with the obelisk in the intersection or vesica piscis. The monument's vesica piscis is not ideal because neither circle passes through the center of its neighbor. Furthermore, both "circles" are slightly elliptical. Miscellaneous detailsThe total cost of the monument from 1848 to 1888 was $1,409,500[105] (equivalent to $30,000,000 in 2016).[106] The weight of the above ground portion of the monument is 44,208 long tons (49,513 short tons; 44,917 tonnes), whereas its total weight, including the foundation below ground and any earth above it that is within its outer perimeter is 81,120 long tons (90,854 short tons; 82,422 tonnes). The total number of blocks in the monument, including all marble, granite and gneiss blocks, whether externally or internally visible or hidden from view within the walls or old foundation is over 36,000.[8] The number of marble blocks externally visible is about 10,000. The monument stands 554 feet 7 11⁄32 inches (169.046 m) tall according to the National Geodetic Survey (measured 2013–14) or 555 feet 5 1⁄8 inches (169.294 m) tall according to the National Park Service (measured 1884).[A] In 1975, a ramp covered two steps at the entrance to the monument, so the ground next to the ramp was raised to match its height, reducing the remaining height to the monument's apex. It is both the world's tallest stone structure and the world's tallest obelisk. It is the tallest monumental column in the world if all are measured above their pedestrian entrances, but two are taller when measured above ground, though they are neither all stone nor true obelisks.[B] The tallest masonry structure in the world is the brick Anaconda Smelter Stack in Montana at 585 feet 1 1⁄2 inches (178.35 m) tall. But this includes a 30-foot (9.1 m) non-masonry concrete foundation, leaving the stack's brick chimney at 555 feet 1 1⁄2 inches (169.20 m) tall, only about 6 inches (15 cm) taller than the monument's 2015 height. If the monument's aluminum apex is also discounted, then the stack's masonry portion is 15 inches (38 cm) taller than the monument's masonry portion.[12][A][K] Security A low-profile ha-ha wall surrounds the monumentIn 2001, a temporary visitor security screening center was added to the east entrance of the Washington Monument in the wake of the September 11 attacks. The one-story facility was designed to reduce the ability of a terrorist attack on the interior of the monument, or an attempt to seize and hold it. Visitors obtained their timed-entry tickets from the Monument Lodge east of the memorial, and passed through metal detectors and bomb-sniffing sensors prior to entering the monument. After exiting the monument, they passed through a turnstile to prevent them from re-entering. This facility, a one-story cube of wood around a metal frame, was intended to be temporary until a new screening facility could be designed.[17] On March 6, 2014, the National Capital Planning Commission approved a new visitor screening facility to replace the temporary one. The 785-square-foot (72.9 m2) facility will be two stories high and contain space for screening 20 to 25 visitors at a time. The exterior walls (which will be slightly frosted to prevent viewing of the security screening process) will consist of an outer sheet of bulletproof glass or polycarbonate, a metal mesh insert, and another sheet of bulletproof glass. The inner sheet will consist of two sheets (slightly separated) of laminated glass. A 0.5-inch (1.3 cm) airspace will exist between the inner and outer glass walls to help insulate the facility. Two (possibly three) geothermal heat pumps will be built on the north side of the monument to provide heating and cooling of the facility. The new facility will also provide an office for National Park Service and United States Park Police staff. The structure is designed so that it may be removed without damaging the monument.[107] The United States Commission of Fine Arts approved the aesthetic design of the screening facility in June 2013.[108] A recessed trench wall known as a ha-ha has been built to minimize the visual impact of a security barrier surrounding the monument. After the September 11 attacks and another unrelated terror threat at the monument, authorities had put up a circle of temporary Jersey barriers to prevent large motor vehicles from approaching. The unsightly barrier was replaced by a less-obtrusive low 30-inch (76 cm) granite stone wall that doubles as a seating bench and also incorporates lighting. The installation received the 2005 Park/Landscape Award of Merit from the American Society of Landscape Architects.[109][110][111] TransitThe Washington Monument is served by the Smithsonian metro station.[112] See alsoflagWashington, D.C. portaliconArchitecture portalList of public art in Washington, D.C., Ward 2List of tallest freestanding structures in the worldList of tallest towers in the worldYule MarbleTuckahoe Marble George Washington (February 22, 1732[b][c] – December 14, 1799) was an American statesman and soldier who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797. As one of the leading Patriots, he was among the new nation's Founding Fathers and served as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He presided over the 1787 Constitutional Convention. He also came to be known as the "Father of His Country." Washington was born into Colonial Virginia gentry to a family of wealthy planters, vested with tobacco plantations and slaves which he later inherited. His early education was simple, which included mathematics and surveying, which he soon put into practice. He joined the colonial militia at the start of the French and Indian War and became a senior Virginia officer. He grew in his opposition to Britain’s rule by its Parliament, which allowed no representation from the American colonies yet began to levy direct taxes on them. The Second Continental Congress made him commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in 1775, and he drove the British out of Boston in 1776; he was subsequently defeated, however, and lost New York City. He crossed the Delaware River in mid-winter and defeated the British in two battles, retook New Jersey, and restored momentum to the Patriot cause. Washington's strategy, field command, development of the army, and alliance with the French all combined to defeat British forces in every theater, climaxing with the allied victory at the Siege of Yorktown. Historians attribute his success to his mastery of military command on the job, and his respect for civilian control of the military through coordination with congressional and state officials. Once victory was in hand in 1783, Washington resisted further power and resigned as commander-in-chief, affirming his devotion to American Republicanism. He was unanimously chosen to lead the Constitutional Convention in 1787 which devised the new Federal government. He was also admired for his strong nationalist leadership qualities and was unanimously elected as President by the Electoral College in the first two national elections, in which he worked to unify rival factions in the fledgling nation. But by 1794, Congress was divided between rival parties founded by two of his cabinet secretaries: Thomas Jefferson’s Democratic-Republican Party and Alexander Hamilton’s Federalist Party. Washington remained non-partisan and never joined the Federalists—though he largely supported their policies. He adopted Hamilton's programs to satisfy federal and state debts, to establish a permanent seat of government, to implement an effective tax system, and to create a national bank. Washington avoided another war with Great Britain by securing the Jay Treaty of 1795, guaranteeing a decade of peace and profitable trade despite intense opposition from the Democratic-Republicans. He oversaw the creation of a strong, well-financed national government that maintained neutrality during the French Revolution, suppressed the Whiskey Rebellion, and won wide acceptance of the new Federal government among Americans. His incumbency established many precedents still in use today, such as the Cabinet system, the inaugural address, and the title "Mr. President". His retirement from office in 1797 after two terms established a traditional two-term limit to the presidency which was eventually made formal policy. Washington's Farewell Address was an influential primer on civic virtue, warning against partisanship, sectionalism, and involvement in foreign wars. Upon his death, he was famously eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen". Scholarly and public polling consistently rank him among the top three presidents in American history, and he has been depicted and honored in numerous monuments, public works, currency, and other dedications to the present day. Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.[4] Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father.[5] Washington is the principal city of the Washington metropolitan area, which has a population of 6,131,977.[6] Washington is described as the political Capital of the World, owing to its status as the seat of the United States federal government and numerous international institutions, such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.[7] Washington is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million annual tourists.[8][9] The signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U.S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria. Named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land originally ceded by Virginia; in 1871, it created a single municipal government for the remaining portion of the District. Washington had an estimated population of 693,972 as of July 2017. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is the principal city, has a population of over 6 million, the sixth-largest metropolitan statistical area in the country. All three branches of the U.S. federal government are centered in the District: U.S. Congress (legislative), President (executive), and the U.S. Supreme Court (judicial). Washington is home to many national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, and professional associations, including the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, and the American Red Cross. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D.C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Condition: Used, Condition: Very good. See description., Country/Region of Manufacture: United States

PicClick Insights PicClick Exclusive
  •  Popularity - 1.488 views, 3.3 views per day, 457 days on eBay. Super high amount of views. 0 sold, 1 available.
  •  Price -
  •  Seller - 8.198+ items sold. 0% negative feedback. Great seller with very good positive feedback and over 50 ratings.
Similar Items