Newspaper F1 Driver Courage Golfer Tony Jacklin US Open Golf Brazil World Cup UK

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Seller: Top-Rated Seller notinashyway (17.278) 99.7%, Location: Look at my other Items, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 303231296975 Daily Mirror 1970 Formula One Driver Piers Courage Dies in Crash Tony Jacklin wins US OpenBrazil win Third World Cup This is a Reproduction Replica of the Newspaper The Daily Mirror from Monday 22nd June 1970 the day after three famous sporting stories Piers Courage Dies in Crash, Tony Jacklin won the US Open and Brazil won their third World Cup in Mexico It is numbered 20,674 The Cover Story is "Courage Heir Dies in Crash" with a photo of the driver The back page is The Winners Jacklin Triumps in the US Open and Brazil Take Home the World Cup With Pictures and Reports inside Relive the events with a newspaper and amazing photos printed at the same time A3 Size with 24 Pages Complete Newspaper In Excellent Condition Would make an Excellent Gift or Collectable Keepsake as a guide to the Great Sporting Moments of Recent History I have a lot of Old Newspapers and other Sporting Memorabilia on Ebay so Please CLICK HERE TO VISIT MY SHOP Bid with Confidence - Check My 100% Positive Feedback from over 13,000 Satisfied Customers I have over 10 years of Ebay Selling Experience - So Why Not Treat Yourself? 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The Countries I Send to Include Afghanistan * Albania * Algeria * American Samoa (US) * Andorra * Angola * Anguilla (GB) * Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Armenia * Aruba (NL) * Australia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium * Belize * Benin * Bermuda (GB) * Bhutan * Bolivia * Bonaire (NL) * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Botswana * Bouvet Island (NO) * Brazil * British Indian Ocean Territory (GB) * British Virgin Islands (GB) * Brunei * Bulgaria * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Cayman Islands (GB) * Central African Republic * Chad * Chile * China * Christmas Island (AU) * Cocos Islands (AU) * Colombia * Comoros * Congo * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Cook Islands (NZ) * Coral Sea Islands Territory (AU) * Costa Rica * Croatia * Cuba * Curaçao (NL) * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Djibouti * Dominica * Dominican Republic * East Timor * Ecuador * Egypt * El Salvador * Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea * Estonia * Ethiopia * Falkland Islands (GB) * Faroe Islands (DK) * Fiji Islands * Finland * France * French Guiana (FR) * French Polynesia (FR) * French Southern Lands (FR) * Gabon * Gambia * Georgia * Germany * Ghana * Gibraltar (GB) * Greece * Greenland (DK) * Grenada * Guadeloupe (FR) * Guam (US) * Guatemala * Guernsey (GB) * Guinea * Guinea-Bissau * Guyana * Haiti * Heard and McDonald Islands (AU) * Honduras * Hong Kong (CN) * Hungary * Iceland * India * Indonesia * Iran * Iraq * Ireland * Isle of Man (GB) * Israel * Italy * Ivory Coast * Jamaica * Jan Mayen (NO) * Japan * Jersey (GB) * Jordan * Kazakhstan * Kenya * Kiribati * Kosovo * Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos * Latvia * Lebanon * Lesotho * Liberia * Libya * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macau (CN) * Macedonia * Madagascar * Malawi * Malaysia * Maldives * Mali * Malta * Marshall Islands * Martinique (FR) * Mauritania * Mauritius * Mayotte (FR) * Mexico * Micronesia * Moldova * Monaco * Mongolia * Montenegro * Montserrat (GB) * Morocco * Mozambique * Myanmar * Namibia * Nauru * Navassa (US) * Nepal * Netherlands * New Caledonia (FR) * New Zealand * Nicaragua * Niger * Nigeria * Niue (NZ) * Norfolk Island (AU) * North Korea * Northern Cyprus * Northern Mariana Islands (US) * Norway * Oman * Pakistan * Palau * Palestinian Authority * Panama * Papua New Guinea * Paraguay * Peru * Philippines * Pitcairn Island (GB) * Poland * Portugal * Puerto Rico (US) * Qatar * Reunion (FR) * Romania * Russia * Rwanda * Saba (NL) * Saint Barthelemy (FR) * Saint Helena (GB) * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Martin (FR) * Saint Pierre and Miquelon (FR) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Samoa * San Marino * Sao Tome and Principe * Saudi Arabia * Senegal * Serbia * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Singapore * Sint Eustatius (NL) * Sint Maarten (NL) * Slovakia * Slovenia * Solomon Islands * Somalia * South Africa * South Georgia (GB) * South Korea * South Sudan * Spain * Sri Lanka * Sudan * Suriname * Svalbard (NO) * Swaziland * Sweden * Switzerland * Syria * Taiwan * Tajikistan * Tanzania * Thailand * Togo * Tokelau (NZ) * Tonga * Trinidad and Tobago * Tunisia * Turkey * Turkmenistan * Turks and Caicos Islands (GB) * Tuvalu * U.S. Minor Pacific Islands (US) * U.S. Virgin Islands (US) * Uganda * Ukraine * United Arab Emirates * United Kingdom * United States * Uruguay * Uzbekistan * Vanuatu * Vatican City * Venezuela * Vietnam * Wallis and Futuna (FR) * Yemen * Zambia * Zimbabwe Tony Jacklin CBE Personal information Full name Anthony Jacklin Born 7 July 1944 (age 75) Scunthorpe, Lincolnshire, England Height 5 ft 10 in (1.78 m) Weight 180 lb (82 kg) Nationality England Residence Bradenton, Florida, U.S. Spouse Vivien (m. 1966, d. 1988) Astrid (m. 1988) Children Bradley, Warren, Tina, Anna May, A.J., Sean Career Turned professional 1962 Retired 2004 Former tour(s) European Tour European Seniors Tour PGA Tour Champions Tour Professional wins 30 Number of wins by tour PGA Tour 4 European Tour 8 PGA Tour of Australasia 2 PGA Tour Champions 2 Other 14 Best results in major championships (wins: 2) Masters Tournament T12: 1970 PGA Championship T25: 1969 U.S. Open Won: 1970 The Open Championship Won: 1969 Achievements and awards World Golf Hall of Fame 2002 (member page) Commander of the Order of the British Empire 1990 Sir Henry Cotton Rookie of the Year 1963 Anthony Jacklin CBE (born 7 July 1944) is a retired English golfer. He was the most successful British player of his generation, winning two major championships, the 1969 Open Championship and the 1970 U.S. Open. He was also Ryder Cup captain from 1983 to 1989; Europe winning two and tying another of these four events. Early life and education Jacklin was born in the North Lincolnshire town of Scunthorpe in 1944, the son of a truck driver. He attended Henderson Avenue Primary School in the town. He turned professional in 1962, becoming an assistant to Bill Shankland at Potters Bar Golf Club. Playing career Jacklin at the 1970 U.S. Open In 1969, Jacklin became the first British player to win The Open Championship in 18 years, winning by two strokes at Royal Lytham & St Annes.[1] The following season he won his second major title, the U.S. Open by seven strokes on a windblown Hazeltine National Golf Club course.[2] It was the only U.S. Open victory by a European player in an 84-year span (1926–2009); Northern Ireland's Graeme McDowell ended that streak in 2010. Jacklin won eight events on the European Tour between its first season in 1972 and 1982. He also won tournaments in Europe prior to the European Tour era, and in the United States, South America, South Africa and Australasia. His 1968 PGA Tour win at the Jacksonville Open Invitational was the first by a European player on the U.S. Tour since the 1920s; Jacklin was the first British player since the 1940s and Henry Cotton to devote much of his effort to American Tour events. However, Jacklin may be best remembered for his involvement in the Ryder Cup. He was a playing member of the "Great Britain and Ireland" team in 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973, 1975 and 1977, and of the first European team in 1979. Except for a tie in 1969, all of those teams were defeated. Jacklin was involved in one of the most memorable moments in Ryder Cup history at Royal Birkdale Golf Club in 1969. After his eagle putt on the 17th evened his match with Jack Nicklaus, Nicklaus conceded Jacklin's two-foot putt on the 18th, halving the match, and ending the Ryder Cup with a tied score. "The Concession" ended with the two golfers walking off the course with arms around each other's shoulders.[3] Jacklin and Nicklaus later co-designed a golf course in Florida called "The Concession" to commemorate the moment.[4][5] Jacklin suffered a devastating near-miss in The Open Championship of 1972 at Muirfield. Tied for the lead with playing partner Lee Trevino playing the 71st hole, Jacklin had a straightforward 15-foot birdie putt on the par-5 hole, while Trevino was not yet on the green after four struggling strokes. But Trevino holed a difficult chip shot, and Jacklin took three putts, leaving him one shot behind. Trevino parred the final hole to win, but Jacklin bogeyed, finishing third behind Jack Nicklaus. Jacklin was just 28 years old at the time, but never seriously contended again in a major championship.[6] In 2013, Jacklin said of his experience in the 1972 Open: "I was never the same again after that. I didn't ever get my head around it – it definitely knocked the stuffing out of me somehow."[7] Jacklin served as the non-playing captain of Europe in four consecutive Ryder Cups from 1983 to 1989. He had a 2.5–1.5 won-loss record, captaining his men to their first victory in 28 years in 1985, and to their first ever victory in the United States in 1987. Jacklin was inducted into the World Golf Hall of Fame in 2002. He retired from tournament golf in 2004 at the age of sixty, having won a number of events at senior level. Jacklin has developed a golf course design business since his retirement from competition. He has designed numerous courses, including the 9-hole par 3 course of The St. Pierre Park Hotel in Guernsey. Personal life Jacklin's first wife, Vivien, was from Belfast, Northern Ireland. The couple married in 1966, eleven months after their initial meeting at a Belfast hotel.[8] They had three children together: Bradley, Warren and Tina. In 1971, Jacklin said that he received death threats from a caller who also threatened to bomb his wife's family home in Belfast. The caller said that Jacklin would be shot if he played in the Ulster Open, because his wife's family supported Ian Paisley.[9] Vivien Jacklin died suddenly of a brain haemorrhage in April 1988, aged 44.[8] In an interview in 2002, Jacklin said: "You can't understand the anguish of losing a spouse until it happens to you. I lost my will to live after my first wife died. I contemplated doing something very terrible to myself. Eventually I recovered."[10] Six weeks after his first wife's death, Jacklin met a 16-year-old waitress named Donna Methven at a golf tournament in England. Jacklin later said: "I was at my lowest ebb and Donna was a shoulder to cry on." They had a two-month affair which led to front-page headlines in British tabloid newspapers.[8] In December 1988, Jacklin married his second wife, Astrid Waagen, a Norwegian woman.[8] They have a son called Sean, who is a golfer on the European Challenge Tour.[11] Jacklin is also stepfather to Waagen's two children, daughter Anna May and son A.J., from her previous marriage to former Bee Gees guitarist Alan Kendall. Jacklin was second in the BBC Sports Personality of the Year in 1969 and 1970. He was a subject of the television programme This Is Your Life in February 1970 when he was surprised by Eamonn Andrews outside Buckingham Palace after receiving his OBE which he had received in the 1970 New Year Honours. He later received a CBE in the 1990 New Year Honours. Jacklin said in an interview in 1989 that he was barely on speaking terms with his mother. "To get along with people I have to like them. My mother and I don't get along. I don't share the belief that blood is thicker than water. She has tried to run my life long enough," Jacklin said.[8] Jacklin has been hearing impaired since the 1980s and wears a hearing aid device on both sides. He is a patron of the English Deaf Golf Association.[12] In 2013, Jacklin took part in the eleventh series of the BBC1 Saturday night entertainment competition, Strictly Come Dancing. He was the first celebrity to be eliminated from the show.[13] Professional wins (30) European Tour wins (8) No. Date Tournament Winning score To par Margin of victory Runner(s)-up 1 26 Aug 1972 Viyella PGA Championship 71-72-68-68=279 −9 3 strokes England Peter Oosterhuis 2 21 Apr 1973 Italian Open 71-72-70-71=284 −4 1 stroke Spain Valentín Barrios 3 6 Oct 1973 Dunlop Masters 69-65-70-68=272 −12 7 strokes New Zealand Bob Charles 4 21 Jul 1974 Scandinavian Enterprise Open 70-65-69-75=279 −5 11 strokes Spain José Maria Cañizares 5 7 Jun 1976 Kerrygold International Classic 69-79-72-70=290 +2 1 stroke England Glenn Ralph 6 19 Aug 1979 Braun German Open 68-68-70-71=277 −7 2 strokes Spain Antonio Garrido, United States Lanny Wadkins 7 21 Jun 1981 Billy Butlin Jersey Open 71-68-72-68=279 −9 1 stroke West Germany Bernhard Langer 8 31 May 1982 Sun Alliance PGA Championship 72-69-73-70=284 −4 Playoff West Germany Bernhard Langer The European Tour began in 1972 European Tour playoff record (1–1) No. Year Tournament Opponent Result 1 1980 Merseyside International Open England Ian Mosey Lost on first extra hole 2 1982 Sun Alliance PGA Championship West Germany Bernhard Langer Won with birdie on first extra hole PGA Tour wins (4) No. Date Tournament Winning score To par Margin of victory Runner(s)-up 1 31 Mar 1968 Jacksonville Open Invitational 68-65-69-71=273 −15 2 strokes United States Gardner Dickinson, United States Don January, United States Chi-Chi Rodríguez, United States Doug Sanders, United States DeWitt Weaver 2 12 Jul 1969 The Open Championship^ 68-70-70-72=280 −4 2 strokes New Zealand Bob Charles 3 21 Jun 1970 U.S. Open 71-70-70-70=281 −7 7 strokes United States Dave Hill 4 19 Mar 1972 Greater Jacksonville Open 70-71-74-68=283 −5 Playoff United States John Jacobs ^The European Tour was founded in 1972; the 1969 Open Championship was retroactively classified as a PGA Tour win in 2002. Major championships are shown in bold. PGA Tour playoff record (1–1) No. Year Tournament Opponent Result 1 1970 Andy Williams-San Diego Open Invitational United States Pete Brown Lost to par on first extra hole 2 1972 Greater Jacksonville Open United States John Jacobs Won with par on first extra hole Australasian Tour wins (2) 1967 New Zealand PGA Championship 1972 Dunlop International Other wins (14) 1964 Coombe Hill Assistants' Tournament 1965 Gor-Ray Cup 1966 Kimberley Tournament (South Africa) (tie with Harold Henning), Blaxnit (Ulster) Tournament 1967 Forest Products (New Zealand), Pringle of Scotland Tournament, Dunlop Masters 1970 W.D. & H.O. Wills Tournament, Lancome Trophy 1971 Benson & Hedges Festival 1973 Bogotá Open, Los Lagartos Open 1974 Los Lagartos Open 1979 Venezuela Open Senior PGA Tour wins (2) No. Date Tournament Winning score To par Margin of victory Runner(s)-up 1 14 Aug 1994 First of America Classic 68-68=136 −8 1 stroke United States Dave Stockton 2 3 Sep 1995 Franklin Quest Championship 72-67-67=206 −10 1 stroke United States John Paul Cain, South Africa Simon Hobday, United States Rives McBee, United States Dave Stockton, United States Bruce Summerhays, United States Tom Weiskopf Major championships Wins (2) Year Championship 54 holes Winning score Margin Runner-up 1969 The Open Championship 2 shot lead −4 (68-70-70-72=280) 2 strokes New Zealand Bob Charles 1970 U.S. Open 4 shot lead −7 (71-70-70-70=281) 7 strokes United States Dave Hill Results timeline Tournament 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Masters Tournament T16 T22 CUT U.S. Open T25 The Open Championship T30 T25 T30 5 T18 1 PGA Championship T25 Tournament 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 Masters Tournament T12 T36 T27 CUT CUT CUT U.S. Open 1 CUT T40 T52 CUT CUT The Open Championship 5 3 3 T14 T18 T42 T43 CUT T24 PGA Championship CUT T46 T55 Tournament 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 Masters Tournament U.S. Open The Open Championship T32 T23 CUT T39 CUT CUT CUT CUT PGA Championship Tournament 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Masters Tournament U.S. Open The Open Championship CUT CUT PGA Championship Tournament 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Masters Tournament U.S. Open The Open Championship CUT CUT CUT PGA Championship Win Top 10 Did not play CUT = missed the halfway cut "T" indicates a tie for a place. Summary Tournament Wins 2nd 3rd Top-5 Top-10 Top-25 Events Cuts made Masters Tournament 0 0 0 0 0 3 9 5 U.S. Open 1 0 0 0 1 2 7 4 The Open Championship 1 0 2 5 5 11 28 17 PGA Championship 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 3 Totals 2 0 2 5 6 17 48 29 Most consecutive cuts made – 7 (1963 Open Championship – 1968 Open Championship) Longest streak of top-10s – 2 (1970 US Open – 1970 Open Championship) Team appearances Ryder Cup (representing Great Britain & Ireland/Europe): 1967, 1969, 1971, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1979, 1983 (non-playing captain), 1985 (winners, non-playing captain), 1987 (winners, non-playing captain), 1989 (tied, retained Cup, non-playing captain) World Cup (representing England): 1966, 1970, 1971, 1972 Double Diamond International (representing England): 1972 (winners), 1973, 1974, 1976 (winners, captain), 1977 (captain) Marlboro Nations' Cup (representing England): 1972, 1973 Hennessy Cognac Cup (representing Great Britain and Ireland): 1976 (winners, captain), 1982 (winners, captain) UBS Cup (representing the Rest of the World): 2003 (tie, captain) See also List of golfers with most European Tour wins References "1969 Tony Jacklin". The Open. Archived from the original on 26 November 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2013. Spander, Art (13 August 2002). "Jacklin played it straight to conquer Hazeltine". The Daily Telegraph. "Tony Jacklin – Ryder Cup". Retrieved 2 June 2015. O'Connor, Ian (2008). Arnie & Jack: Palmer, Nicklaus, and Golf's Greatest Rivalry. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-618-75446-5. "The Concession Golf Club – History". Retrieved 2 June 2015. Finegan, James W. (2010). Scotland: Where Golf is Great. New York: Artisan Books. p. 246. ISBN 978-1-57965-428-3. Hodgetss, Rob. "The Open 2013: Jacklin's agony, Faldo's ecstasy at Muirfield". BBC Sport. Reilly, Rick (18 September 1989). "Captain Marvel: Golfer Tony Jacklin, whose life has been a roller coaster, is riding high again as leader of Europe's Ryder Cup team". Sports Illustrated. "Jacklin, Wife Plagued by Death Threats". Milwaukee Sentinel. Milwaukee, Wisconsin. UPI. 20 May 1971. pp. 2–3. Yocom, Guy (September 2002). "My Shot: Tony Jacklin – A jolly good fellow and four-time Ryder Cup captain on bad dreams, lightning and the truth about porridge". Golf Digest. "Jacklin following in father's footsteps". PGA European Tour. 8 June 2012. Victor, Colin (5 October 2012). "Jacklin named as deaf golf patron". "Strictly Come Dancing 2013: Tony Jacklin admits he was 'petrified'". The Daily Telegraph. London. 7 October 2013. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tony Jacklin. Official website Tony Jacklin at the European Tour official site Tony Jacklin at the PGA Tour official site Tony Jacklin Golf Course Design site Tony Jacklin's appearance on This Is Your Life Tony Jacklin in the Major Championships vte U.S. Open champions vte The Open Championship champions vte BMW PGA Championship champions 1955 Ken Bousfield 1956 Charlie Ward† 1957 Peter Alliss 1958 Harry Bradshaw 1959 Dai Rees 1960 Arnold Stickley 1961 Brian Bamford 1962 Peter Alliss 1963 Peter Butler 1964 Tony Grubb 1965 Peter Alliss† 1966 Guy Wolstenholme 1967 Brian Huggett 1968 Peter Townsend 1967 Malcolm Gregson 1968 David Talbot 1969 Bernard Gallacher 1972 Tony Jacklin 1973 Peter Oosterhuis 1974 Maurice Bembridge 1975 Arnold Palmer 1976 Neil Coles† 1977 Manuel Piñero 1978 Nick Faldo 1979 Vicente Fernández 1980 Nick Faldo 1981 Nick Faldo 1982 Tony Jacklin† 1983 Seve Ballesteros 1984 Howard Clark 1985 Paul Way† 1986 Rodger Davis† 1987 Bernhard Langer 1988 Ian Woosnam 1989 Nick Faldo 1990 Mike Harwood 1991 Seve Ballesteros† 1992 Tony Johnstone 1993 Bernhard Langer 1994 José María Olazábal 1995 Bernhard Langer 1996 Costantino Rocca 1997 Ian Woosnam 1998 Colin Montgomerie 1999 Colin Montgomerie 2000 Colin Montgomerie 2001 Andrew Oldcorn 2002 Anders Hansen 2003 Ignacio Garrido† 2004 Scott Drummond 2005 Ángel Cabrera 2006 David Howell 2007 Anders Hansen† 2008 Miguel Ángel Jiménez† 2009 Paul Casey 2010 Simon Khan 2011 Luke Donald† 2012 Luke Donald 2013 Matteo Manassero† 2014 Rory McIlroy 2015 An Byeong-hun 2016 Chris Wood 2017 Alexander Norén 2018 Francesco Molinari † indicates the event was won in a playoff Tony Jacklin in the Ryder Cup vte European Ryder Cup captains Great Britain 1927 Ted Ray 1929 George Duncan 1931 Charles Whitcombe 1933 John Henry Taylor 1935 Charles Whitcombe 1937 Charles Whitcombe 1947 Henry Cotton 1949 Charles Whitcombe 1951 Arthur Lacey 1953 Henry Cotton 1955 Dai Rees 1957 Dai Rees 1959 Dai Rees 1961 Dai Rees 1963 John Fallon 1965 Harry Weetman 1967 Dai Rees 1969 Eric Brown 1971 Eric Brown Great Britain & Ireland 1973 Bernard Hunt 1975 Bernard Hunt 1977 Brian Huggett Europe 1979 John Jacobs 1981 John Jacobs 1983 Tony Jacklin 1985 Tony Jacklin 1987 Tony Jacklin 1989 Tony Jacklin 1991 Bernard Gallacher 1993 Bernard Gallacher 1995 Bernard Gallacher 1997 Seve Ballesteros 1999 Mark James 2002 Sam Torrance 2004 Bernhard Langer 2006 Ian Woosnam 2008 Nick Faldo 2010 Colin Montgomerie 2012 José María Olazábal 2014 Paul McGinley 2016 Darren Clarke 2018 Thomas Bjørn vte Great Britain Ryder Cup team – 1967 Peter Alliss Hugh Boyle Neil Coles Malcolm Gregson Brian Huggett Bernard Hunt Tony Jacklin Christy O'Connor Dave Thomas George Will Dai Rees (non-playing captain) Lost: 8.5 – 23.5 vte Great Britain Ryder Cup team – 1969 Peter Alliss Brian Barnes Maurice Bembridge Peter Butler Alex Caygill Neil Coles Bernard Gallacher Brian Huggett Bernard Hunt Tony Jacklin Christy O'Connor Peter Townsend Eric Brown (non-playing captain) Tied: 16 – 16 vte Great Britain Ryder Cup team – 1971 Harry Bannerman Brian Barnes Maurice Bembridge Peter Butler Neil Coles Bernard Gallacher John Garner Brian Huggett Tony Jacklin Christy O'Connor Peter Oosterhuis Peter Townsend Eric Brown (non-playing captain) Lost: 13.5 – 18.5 vte Great Britain and Ireland Ryder Cup team – 1973 Brian Barnes Maurice Bembridge Peter Butler Clive Clark Neil Coles Bernard Gallacher John Garner Brian Huggett Tony Jacklin Christy O'Connor Peter Oosterhuis Eddie Polland Bernard Hunt (non-playing captain) Lost: 13 – 19 vte Great Britain and Ireland Ryder Cup team – 1975 Brian Barnes Maurice Bembridge Eamonn Darcy Bernard Gallacher Tommy Horton Brian Huggett Guy Hunt Tony Jacklin Christy O'Connor Jnr John O'Leary Peter Oosterhuis Norman Wood Bernard Hunt (non-playing captain) Lost: 11 – 21 vte Great Britain and Ireland Ryder Cup team – 1977 Brian Barnes Ken Brown Howard Clark Neil Coles Eamonn Darcy Peter Dawson Nick Faldo Bernard Gallacher Tommy Horton Tony Jacklin Mark James Peter Oosterhuis Brian Huggett (non-playing captain) Lost: 7.5 – 12.5 vte European Ryder Cup team – 1979 Seve Ballesteros Brian Barnes Ken Brown Nick Faldo Bernard Gallacher Antonio Garrido Tony Jacklin Mark James Michael King Sandy Lyle Peter Oosterhuis Des Smyth John Jacobs (non-playing captain) Europe Lost: 11 – 17 vte European Ryder Cup team – 1983 Seve Ballesteros Gordon J. Brand Ken Brown José Maria Cañizares Nick Faldo Bernard Gallacher Bernhard Langer Sandy Lyle Sam Torrance Brian Waites Paul Way Ian Woosnam Tony Jacklin (non-playing captain) Europe Lost: 13.5 – 14.5 vte European Ryder Cup team – 1985 Seve Ballesteros Ken Brown José Maria Cañizares Howard Clark Nick Faldo Bernhard Langer Sandy Lyle Manuel Piñero José Rivero Sam Torrance Paul Way Ian Woosnam Tony Jacklin (non-playing captain) Europe Won: 16.5 – 11.5 vte European Ryder Cup team – 1987 Seve Ballesteros Gordon Brand, Jnr Ken Brown Howard Clark Eamonn Darcy Nick Faldo Bernhard Langer Sandy Lyle José María Olazábal José Rivero Sam Torrance Ian Woosnam Tony Jacklin (non-playing captain) Europe Won: 15 – 13 vte European Ryder Cup team – 1989 Seve Ballesteros Gordon Brand, Jnr José Maria Cañizares Howard Clark Nick Faldo Mark James Bernhard Langer Christy O'Connor Jnr José María Olazábal Ronan Rafferty Sam Torrance Ian Woosnam Tony Jacklin (non-playing captain) Europe Tied: 14 – 14 vte Sir Henry Cotton Rookies of the Year 1960 Tommy Goodwin 1961 Alex Caygill 1962 No award 1963 Tony Jacklin 1964 No award 1965 No award 1966 Robin Liddle 1967 No award 1968 Bernard Gallacher 1969 Peter Oosterhuis 1970 Stuart Brown 1971 David Llewellyn 1972 Sam Torrance 1973 Pip Elson 1974 Carl Mason 1975 No award 1976 Mark James 1977 Nick Faldo 1978 Sandy Lyle 1979 Mike Miller 1980 Paul Hoad 1981 Jeremy Bennett 1982 Gordon Brand, Jnr 1983 Grant Turner 1984 Philip Parkin 1985 Paul Thomas 1986 José María Olazábal 1987 Peter Baker 1988 Colin Montgomerie 1989 Paul Broadhurst 1990 Russell Claydon 1991 Per-Ulrik Johansson 1992 Jim Payne 1993 Gary Orr 1994 Jonathan Lomas 1995 Jarmo Sandelin 1996 Thomas Bjørn 1997 Scott Henderson 1998 Olivier Edmond 1999 Sergio García 2000 Ian Poulter 2001 Paul Casey 2002 Nick Dougherty 2003 Peter Lawrie 2004 Scott Drummond 2005 Gonzalo Fernández-Castaño 2006 Marc Warren 2007 Martin Kaymer 2008 Pablo Larrazábal 2009 Chris Wood 2010 Matteo Manassero 2011 Tom Lewis 2012 Ricardo Santos 2013 Peter Uihlein 2014 Brooks Koepka 2015 An Byeong-hun 2016 Wang Jeung-hun 2017 Jon Rahm 2018 Shubhankar Sharma Golf A golfer in the finishing position after hitting a tee shot Highest governing body R&A USGA International Golf Federation First played 15th century, Kingdom of Scotland Characteristics Contact No Type Outdoor Equipment Golf clubs, golf balls, and others Glossary Glossary of golf Presence Olympic 1900, 1904, 2016,[1] 2020[2] Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games, cannot and does not utilize a standardized playing area, and coping with the varied terrains encountered on different courses is a key part of the game. The game at the usual level is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes, though recreational courses can be smaller, often having nine holes. Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, and a putting green containing the actual hole or cup 4 1⁄4 inches (11 cm) in diameter. There are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, rough (long grass), bunkers (or "sand traps"), and various hazards (water, rocks) but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement. Golf is played for the lowest number of strokes by an individual, known as stroke play, or the lowest score on the most individual holes in a complete round by an individual or team, known as match play. Stroke play is the most commonly seen format at all levels, but most especially at the elite level. The modern game of golf originated in 15th century Scotland. The 18-hole round was created at the Old Course at St Andrews in 1764. Golf's first major, and the world's oldest tournament in existence, is The Open Championship, also known as the British Open, which was first played in 1860 in Ayrshire, Scotland. This is one of the four major championships in men's professional golf, the other three being played in the United States: The Masters, the U.S. Open, and the PGA Championship. Origin and history Main article: History of golf The MacDonald boys playing golf, attributed to William Mosman. 18th century, National Galleries of Scotland. While the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the game's ancient origins are unclear and much debated. Some historians[3] trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica, in which participants used a bent stick to hit a stuffed leather ball. One theory asserts that paganica spread throughout Europe as the Romans conquered most of the continent, during the first century BC, and eventually evolved into the modern game.[4] Others cite chuiwan (捶丸; "chui" means striking and "wan" means small ball)[5] as the progenitor, a Chinese game played between the eighth and fourteenth centuries.[6] A Ming Dynasty scroll by the artist Youqiu dating back to 1368 entitled "The Autumn Banquet" shows a member of the Chinese Imperial court swinging what appears to be a golf club at a small ball with the aim of sinking it into a hole.[5] The game is thought to have been introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages.[7] Another early game that resembled modern golf was known as cambuca in England and chambot in France.[7] The Persian game chaugán is another possible ancient origin. In addition, kolven (a game involving a ball and curved bats) was played annually in Loenen, Netherlands, beginning in 1297, to commemorate the capture of the assassin of Floris V, a year earlier. Four gentlemen golfers on the tee of a golf course, 1930s Female golfer in a competition in Spain in 1915. The modern game originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James II's banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery.[8] James IV lifted the ban in 1502 when he became a golfer himself, with golf clubs first recorded in 1503–1504: "For golf clubbes and balles to the King that he playit with".[9] To many golfers, the Old Course at St Andrews, a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage.[10] In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes.[11] Golf is documented as being played on Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, which is certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records.[12][13] The oldest surviving rules of golf were compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers, later renamed The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, which was played at Leith, Scotland.[14] The world's oldest golf tournament in existence, and golf's first major, is The Open Championship, which was first played on 17 October 1860 at Prestwick Golf Club, in Ayrshire, Scotland, with Scottish golfers winning the earliest majors.[15] Two Scotsmen from Dunfermline, John Reid and Robert Lockhart, first demonstrated golf in the U.S. by setting up a hole in an orchard in 1888, with Reid setting up America's first golf club the same year, Saint Andrew's Golf Club in Yonkers, New York.[16] Golf course Aerial view of the Golfplatz Wittenbeck in Mecklenburg, Germany Main article: Golf course A golf course consists of either 9 or 18 holes, each with a teeing ground that is set off by two markers showing the bounds of the legal tee area, fairway, rough and other hazards, and the putting green surrounded by the fringe with the pin (normally a flagstick) and cup. The levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty, or to allow for putting in the case of the green. While many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing area to the green, some holes may bend either to the left or to the right. This is commonly called a "dogleg", in reference to a dog's knee. The hole is called a "dogleg left" if the hole angles leftwards and "dogleg right" if it bends right. Sometimes, a hole's direction may bend twice; this is called a "double dogleg". A regular golf course consists of 18 holes, but nine-hole courses are common and can be played twice through for a full round of 18 holes.[17][18] Early Scottish golf courses were primarily laid out on links land, soil-covered sand dunes directly inland from beaches.[19] This gave rise to the term "golf links", particularly applied to seaside courses and those built on naturally sandy soil inland. The first 18-hole golf course in the United States was on a sheep farm in Downers Grove, Illinois, in 1892. The course is still there today.[20] Play of the game 1=teeing ground, 2=water hazard, 3=rough, 4=out of bounds, 5=sand bunker, 6=water hazard, 7=fairway, 8=putting green, 9=flagstick, 10=hole Every round of golf is based on playing a number of holes in a given order. A "round" typically consists of 18 holes that are played in the order determined by the course layout. Each hole is played once in the round on a standard course of 18 holes. The game can be played by any number of people, although a typical group playing will have 1-4 people playing the round. The typical amount of time required for pace of play for a 9-hole round is two hours and four hours for an 18-hole round. Playing a hole on a golf course is initiated by putting a ball into play by striking it with a club on the teeing ground (also called the tee box, or simply the tee). For this first shot on each hole, it is allowed but not required for the golfer to place the ball on a tee prior to striking it. A tee is a small peg that can be used to elevate the ball slightly above the ground up to a few centimetres high. Tees are commonly made of wood but may be constructed of any material, including plastic. Traditionally, golfers used mounds of sand to elevate the ball, and containers of sand were provided for the purpose. A few courses still require sand to be used instead of peg tees, to reduce litter and reduce damage to the teeing ground. Tees help reduce the interference of the ground or grass on the movement of the club making the ball easier to hit, and also places the ball in the very centre of the striking face of the club (the "sweet spot") for better distance. When the initial shot on a hole is intended to move the ball a long distance, typically more than 225 yards (210 m), the shot is commonly called a "drive" and is generally made with a long-shafted, large-headed wood club called a "driver". Shorter holes may be initiated with other clubs, such as higher-numbered woods or irons. Once the ball comes to rest, the golfer strikes it again as many times as necessary using shots that are variously known as a "lay-up", an "approach", a "pitch", or a "chip", until the ball reaches the green, where he or she then "putts" the ball into the hole (commonly called "sinking the putt" or "holing out"). The goal of getting the ball into the hole ("holing" the ball) in as few strokes as possible may be impeded by obstacles such as areas of longer grass called "rough" (usually found alongside fairways), which both slows any ball that contacts it and makes it harder to advance a ball that has stopped on it; "doglegs", which are changes in the direction of the fairway that often require shorter shots to play around them; bunkers (or sand traps); and water hazards such as ponds or streams.[17] In stroke play competitions played according to strict rules, each player plays his or her ball until it is holed no matter how many strokes that may take. In match play it is acceptable to simply pick up one's ball and "surrender the hole" after enough strokes have been made by a player that it is mathematically impossible for the player to win the hole. It is also acceptable in informal stroke play to surrender the hole after hitting three strokes more than the "par" rating of the hole (a "triple bogey" - see below); while technically a violation of Rule 3-2, this practice speeds play as a courtesy to others, and avoids "runaway scores", excessive frustration and injuries caused by overexertion. The total distance from the first tee box to the 18th green can be quite long; total yardages "through the green" can be in excess of 7,000 yards (6.4 km), and when adding in the travel distance between the green of one hole and the tee of the next, even skilled players may easily travel five miles (8 km) or more during a round. At some courses, electric golf carts are used to travel between shots, which can speed-up play and allows participation by individuals unable to walk a whole round. On other courses players generally walk the course, either carrying their bag using a shoulder strap or using a "golf trolley" for their bag. These trolleys may or may not be battery assisted. At many amateur tournaments including U.S. high school and college play, players are required to walk and to carry their own bags, but at the professional and top amateur level, as well as at high-level private clubs, players may be accompanied by caddies, who carry and manage the players' equipment and who are allowed by the rules to give advice on the play of the course.[21] A caddie's advice can only be given to the player or players for whom the caddie is working, and not to other competing players. Rules and regulations Main article: Rules of golf Arnold Palmer in 1953 The rules of golf are internationally standardised and are jointly governed by The R&A, spun off in 2004 from The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews (founded 1754), and the United States Golf Association (USGA).[22][23] The underlying principle of the rules is fairness. As stated on the back cover of the official rule book: Play the ball as it lies, play the course as you find it, and if you cannot do either, do what is fair. There are strict regulations regarding the amateur status of golfers.[24] Essentially, anybody who has ever received payment or compensation for giving instruction, or played golf for money, is not considered an amateur and may not participate in competitions limited solely to amateurs. However, amateur golfers may receive expenses that comply with strict guidelines and they may accept non-cash prizes within the limits established by the Rules of Amateur Status. In addition to the officially printed rules, golfers also abide by a set of guidelines called golf etiquette. Etiquette guidelines cover matters such as safety, fairness, pace of play, and a player's obligation to contribute to the care of the course. Though there are no penalties for breach of etiquette rules, players generally follow the rules of golf etiquette in an effort to improve everyone's playing experience. Penalties Main article: Penalty (golf) Penalties are incurred in certain situations. They are counted towards a player's score as if there were extra swing(s) at the ball. Strokes are added for rule infractions or for hitting one's ball into an unplayable situation. A lost ball or a ball hit out of bounds result in a penalty of one stroke and distance (Rule 27–1). A one-stroke penalty is assessed if a player's equipment causes the ball to move or the removal of a loose impediment causes the ball to move (Rule 18–2). A one-stroke penalty is assessed if a player's ball results into a red or yellow staked hazard (Rule 26). If a golfer makes a stroke at the wrong ball (Rule 19–2) or hits a fellow golfer's ball with a putt (Rule 19–5), the player incurs a two-stroke penalty. Most rule infractions lead to stroke penalties but also can lead to disqualification. Disqualification could be from cheating, signing for a lower score, or from rule infractions that lead to improper play.[25] Equipment Main article: Golf equipment A wood positioned ready to be swung and to strike a golf ball Golf clubs are used to hit the golf ball. Each club is composed of a shaft with a lance (or "grip") on the top end and a club head on the bottom. Long clubs, which have a lower amount of degree loft, are those meant to propel the ball a comparatively longer distance, and short clubs a higher degree of loft and a comparatively shorter distance. The actual physical length of each club is longer or shorter, depending on the distance the club is intended to propel the ball. Golf clubs have traditionally been arranged into three basic types. Woods are large-headed, long-shafted clubs meant to propel the ball a long distance from relatively "open" lies, such as the tee box and fairway. Of particular importance is the driver or "1-wood", which is the lowest lofted wood club, and in modern times has become highly specialized for making extremely long-distance tee shots, up to 300 yards (270 m), or more, in a professional golfer's hands. Traditionally these clubs had heads made of a hardwood, hence the name, but virtually all modern woods are now made of metal such as titanium, or of composite materials. Irons are shorter-shafted clubs with a metal head primarily consisting of a flat, angled striking face. Traditionally the clubhead was forged from iron; modern iron clubheads are investment-cast from a steel alloy. Irons of varying loft are used for a variety of shots from virtually anywhere on the course, but most often for shorter-distance shots approaching the green, or to get the ball out of tricky lies such as sand traps. The third class is the putter, which evolved from the irons to create a low-lofted, balanced club designed to roll the ball along the green and into the hole. Putters are virtually always used on the green or in the surrounding rough/fringe. A fourth class, called hybrids, evolved as a cross between woods and irons, and are typically seen replacing the low-lofted irons with a club that provides similar distance, but a higher launch angle and a more forgiving nature. A maximum of 14 clubs is allowed in a player's bag at one time during a stipulated round. The choice of clubs is at the golfer's discretion, although every club must be constructed in accordance with parameters outlined in the rules. (Clubs that meet these parameters are usually called "conforming".) Violation of these rules can result in disqualification. The exact shot hit at any given time on a golf course, and which club is used to accomplish the shot, are always completely at the discretion of the golfer; in other words, there is no restriction whatsoever on which club a golfer may or may not use at any time for any shot. Golf balls are spherical, usually white (although other colours are allowed), and minutely pock-marked by dimples that decrease aerodynamic drag by increasing air turbulence around the ball in motion, which delays "boundary layer" separation and reduces the drag-inducing "wake" behind the ball, thereby allowing the ball to fly farther.[26] The combination of a soft "boundary layer" and a hard "core" enables both distance and spin. A tee is allowed only for the first stroke on each hole, unless the player must hit a provisional tee shot or replay his or her first shot from the tee. Many golfers wear golf shoes with metal or plastic spikes designed to increase traction, thus allowing for longer and more accurate shots. A golf bag is used to transport golf clubs and the player's other or personal equipment. Golf bags have several pockets designed for carrying equipment and supplies such as tees, balls, and gloves. Golf bags can be carried, pulled on a trolley or harnessed to a motorized golf cart during play. Golf bags have both a hand strap and shoulder strap for carrying, and sometimes have retractable legs that allow the bag to stand upright when at rest. Stroke mechanics A golfer takes an approach shot on the fairway. Main article: Golf stroke mechanics The golf swing is outwardly similar to many other motions involving swinging a tool or playing implement, such as an axe or a baseball bat. However, unlike many of these motions, the result of the swing is highly dependent on several sub-motions being properly aligned and timed. These ensure that the club travels up to the ball in line with the desired path; that the clubface is in line with the swing path; and that the ball hits the centre or "sweet spot" of the clubface. The ability to do this consistently, across a complete set of clubs with a wide range of shaft lengths and clubface areas, is a key skill for any golfer, and takes a significant effort to achieve. Golfers start with the non-dominant side of the body facing the target (for a right-hander, the target is to their left). At address, the player's body and the centerline of the club face are positioned parallel to the desired line of travel, with the feet either perpendicular to that line or slightly splayed outward. The feet are commonly shoulder-width apart for middle irons and putters, narrower for short irons and wider for long irons and woods. The ball is typically positioned more to the "front" of the player's stance (closer to the leading foot) for lower-lofted clubs, with the usual ball position for a drive being just behind the arch of the leading foot. The ball is placed further "back" in the player's stance (toward the trailing foot) as the loft of the club to be used increases. Most iron shots and putts are made with the ball roughly centered in the stance, while a few mid- and short-iron shots are made with the ball slightly behind the centre of the stance to ensure consistent contact between the ball and clubface, so the ball is on its way before the club continues down into the turf. The golfer chooses a golf club, grip, and stroke appropriate to the distance: The "drive" or "full swing" is used on the teeing ground and fairway, typically with a wood or long iron, to produce the maximum distance capable with the club. In the extreme, the windup can end with the shaft of the club parallel to the ground above the player's shoulders. The "approach" or "3/4 swing" is used in medium- and long-distance situations where an exact distance and good accuracy is preferable to maximum possible distance, such as to place the ball on the green or "lay up" in front of a hazard. The windup or "backswing" of such a shot typically ends up with the shaft of the club pointing straight upwards or slightly towards the player. The "chip" or "half-swing" is used for relatively short-distance shots near the green, with high-lofted irons and wedges. The goal of the chip is to land the ball safely on the green, allowing it to roll out towards the hole. It can also be used from other places to accurately position the ball into a more advantageous lie. The backswing typically ends with the head of the club between hip and head height. The "putt" is used in short-distance shots on or near the green, typically made with the eponymous "putter", although similar strokes can be made with medium to high-numbered irons to carry a short distance in the air and then roll (a "bump and run"). The backswing and follow-through of the putt are both abbreviated compared to other strokes, with the head of the club rarely rising above the knee. The goal of the putt is usually to put the ball in the hole, although a long-distance putt may be called a "lag" and is made with the primary intention of simply closing distance to the hole or otherwise placing the ball advantageously. Having chosen a club and stroke to produce the desired distance, the player addresses the ball by taking their stance to the side of it and (except when the ball lies in a hazard) grounding the club behind the ball. The golfer then takes their backswing, rotating the club, their arms and their upper body away from the ball, and then begins their swing, bringing the clubhead back down and around to hit the ball. A proper golf swing is a complex combination of motions, and slight variations in posture or positioning can make a great deal of difference in how well the ball is hit and how straight it travels. The general goal of a player making a full swing is to propel the clubhead as fast as possible while maintaining a single "plane" of motion of the club and clubhead, to send the clubhead into the ball along the desired path of travel and with the clubhead also pointing that direction. Accuracy and consistency are typically stressed over pure distance. A player with a straight drive that travels only 220 yards (200 m) will nevertheless be able to accurately place the ball into a favourable lie on the fairway, and can make up for the lesser distance of any given club by simply using "more club" (a lower loft) on their tee shot or on subsequent fairway and approach shots. However, a golfer with a drive that may go 280 yards (260 m) but often doesn't fly straight will be less able to position their ball advantageously; the ball may "hook", "pull", "draw", "fade", "push" or "slice" off the intended line and land out of bounds or in the rough or hazards, and thus the player will require many more strokes to hole out. Musculature A golf stroke uses the muscles of the core (especially erector spinae muscles and latissimus dorsi muscle when turning), hamstring, shoulder, and wrist. Stronger muscles in the wrist can prevent them from being twisted during swings, whilst stronger shoulders increase the turning force. Weak wrists can also transmit the force to elbows and even neck and lead to injury. (When a muscle contracts, it pulls equally from both ends and, to have movement at only one end of the muscle, other muscles must come into play to stabilize the bone to which the other end of the muscle is attached.) Golf is a unilateral exercise that can break body balances, requiring exercises to keep the balance in muscles.[27][28] Types of putting Putting is considered to be the most important component of the game of golf. As the game of golf has evolved, there have been many different putting techniques and grips that have been devised to give golfers the best chance to make putts. When the game originated, golfers would putt with their dominate hand on the bottom of the grip and their weak hand on top of the grip. This grip and putting style is known as "conventional". There are many variations of conventional including overlap, where the golfer overlaps the off hand index finger onto off the dominant pinky; interlock, where the offhand index finger interlocks with the dominant pinky and ring finger; double or triple overlap and so on.[29] Recently, "cross handed" putting has become a popular trend amongst professional golfers and amateurs. Cross handed putting is the idea that the dominant hand is on top of the grip where the weak hand is on the bottom. This grip restricts the motion in your dominant hand and eliminates the possibility of wrist breakdowns through the putting stroke.[30] Other notable putting styles include "the claw", a style that has the grip directly in between the thumb and index finger of the dominant hand while the palm faces the target.[31] The weak hand placed normally on the putter. Anchored putting, a style that requires a longer putter shaft that can be anchored into the players stomach or below the chin; the idea is to stabilize one end of the putter thus creating a more consistent pendulum stroke. This style will be banned in 2016 on the professional circuits.[32] Scoring and handicapping Par Main article: Par (score) A par-3 hole in Phoenician Golf Club, Scottsdale, Arizona A marker stone indicating that this hole is a par-5 hole A hole is classified by its par, meaning the number of strokes a skilled golfer should require to complete play of the hole.[17] The minimum par of any hole is 3 because par always includes a stroke for the tee shot and two putts. Pars of 4 and 5 strokes are ubiquitous on golf courses; more rarely, a few courses feature par-6 and even par-7 holes. Strokes other than the tee shot and putts are expected to be made from the fairway; for example, a skilled golfer expects to reach the green on a par-4 hole in two strokes—one from the tee (the "drive") and another, second, stroke to the green (the "approach")—and then roll the ball into the hole in two putts for par. Putting the ball on the green with two strokes remaining for putts is called making "green in regulation" or GIR.[33] Missing a GIR does not necessarily mean a golfer will not make par, but it does make doing so more difficult as it reduces the number of putts available; conversely, making a GIR does not guarantee a par, as the player might require three or more putts to "hole out". Professional golfers typically make between 60% and 70% of greens in regulation.[34] The primary factor for classifying the par of a relatively straight, hazard-free hole is the distance from the tee to the green, and they can vary between tournament play and casual play. A typical casual play par-3 hole is less than 250 yards (230 m) in length, with a par-4 hole ranging between 251–450 yards (230–411 m), and a par-5 hole being longer than 450 yards (410 m). The rare par-6s can stretch well over 650 yards (590 m). These distances are based on the typical scratch golfer's drive distance of between 240 and 280 yards (220 and 260 m); a green further than the average player's drive will require additional shots from the fairway. However, other considerations must be taken into account; the key question is "how many strokes would a scratch golfer take to make the green by playing along the fairway?". The grade of the land from the tee to the hole might increase or decrease the carry and rolling distance of shots as measured linearly along the ground. Sharp turns or hazards may require golfers to "lay up" on the fairway in order to change direction or hit over the hazard with their next shot. These design considerations will affect how even a scratch golfer would play the hole, irrespective of total distance from tee to green, and must be included in a determination of par.[35] However, a par score never includes "expected" penalty strokes, as a scratch player is never "expected" to hit a ball into a water hazard or other unplayable situation. So the placement of hazards only affect par when considering how a scratch golfer would avoid them. Eighteen-hole courses typically total to an overall par score of 72 for a complete round; this is based on an average par of 4 for every hole, and so is often arrived at by designing a course with an equal number of par-5 and par-3 holes, the rest being par-4. Many combinations exist that total to par-72, and other course pars exist from 68 up to 76, and are not less worthy than courses of par-72. Additionally, in some countries including the United States, courses are classified according to their play difficulty, which may be used to calculate a golfer's playing handicap for a given course.[36] The two primary difficulty ratings in the U.S. are the Course Rating, which is effectively the expected score for a zero-handicap "scratch golfer" playing the course (and may differ from the course par), and the Slope Rating, which is a measure of how much worse a "bogey golfer" (with an 18 handicap) would be expected to play than a "scratch golfer". These two numbers are available for any USGA-sanctioned course, and are used in a weighted system to calculate handicaps (see below). The overall par score in a tournament is the summation of all the par scores in each round. A typical four-round professional tournament played on a par-72 course has a tournament par of 288. Scoring The goal is to play as few strokes per round as possible. A golfer's number of strokes in a hole, course, or tournament is compared to its respective par score, and is then reported either as the number that the golfer was "under-" or "over-par", or if it was "equal to par". A hole in one (or an "ace") occurs when a golfer sinks their ball into the cup with their first stroke from the tee. Common scores for a hole also have specific terms.[17] Numeric term Name Definition −4 Condor four strokes under par −3 Albatross (Double Eagle) three strokes under par −2 Eagle two strokes under par −1 Birdie one stroke under par E Par equal to par +1 Bogey one stroke over par +2 Double bogey two strokes over par +3 Triple bogey three strokes over par In a typical professional tournament or among "scratch" amateur players, "birdie-bogey" play is common; a player will "lose" a stroke by bogeying a hole, then "gain" one by scoring a birdie. Eagles are uncommon but not rare; however, only 18 players have scored an albatross in a men's major championship. Basic forms of golf There are two basic forms of golf play, match play and stroke play. Stroke play is more popular. Match play Two players (or two teams) play each hole as a separate contest against each other in what is called match play. The party with the lower score wins that hole, or if the scores of both players or teams are equal the hole is "halved" (or tied). The game is won by the party that wins more holes than the other. In the case that one team or player has taken a lead that cannot be overcome in the number of holes remaining to be played, the match is deemed to be won by the party in the lead, and the remainder of the holes are not played. For example, if one party already has a lead of six holes, and only five holes remain to be played on the course, the match is over and the winning party is deemed to have won "6 & 5". At any given point, if the lead is equal to the number of holes remaining, the party leading the match is said to be "dormie", and the match is continued until the party increases the lead by one hole or ties any of the remaining holes, thereby winning the match, or until the match ends in a tie with the lead player's opponent winning all remaining holes. When the game is tied after the predetermined number of holes have been played, it may be continued until one side takes a one-hole lead.[17] Stroke play The score achieved for each and every hole of the round or tournament is added to produce the total score, and the player with the lowest score wins in stroke play. Stroke play is the game most commonly played by professional golfers. If there is a tie after the regulation number of holes in a professional tournament, a playoff takes place between all tied players. Playoffs either are sudden death or employ a pre-determined number of holes, anywhere from three to a full 18. In sudden death, a player who scores lower on a hole than all of his opponents wins the match. If at least two players remain tied after such a playoff using a pre-determined number of holes, then play continues in sudden death format, where the first player to win a hole wins the tournament. Other forms of play The other forms of play in the game of golf are bogey competition, skins, 9-points, stableford, team play, and unofficial team variations. Bogey competition A bogey competition is a scoring format sometimes seen in informal tournaments. Its scoring is similar to match play, except each player compares their hole score to the hole's par rating instead of the score of another player. The player "wins" the hole if they score a birdie or better, they "lose" the hole if they score a bogey or worse, and they "halve" the hole by scoring par. By recording only this simple win-loss-halve score on the sheet, a player can shrug off a very poorly-played hole with a simple "-" mark and move on. As used in competitions, the player or pair with the best win-loss "differential" wins the competition. Skins The Skins Game is a variation on the match play where each hole has an amount of money (called "skin") attached to it. The lump sum may be prize money at the professional level (the most famous event to use these rules was the "LG Skins Game", played at Indian Wells Golf Resort in California until 2008), or an amount wagered for each hole among amateur players. The player with the lowest score on the hole wins the skin for that hole; if two or more players tie for the lowest score, the skin carries over to the next hole. The game continues until a player wins a hole outright, which may (and evidently often does) result in a player receiving money for a previous hole that they had not tied for. If players tie the 18th hole, either all players or only the tying players repeat the 18th hole until an outright winner is decided for that hole—and all undecided skins. 9-Points A nine-point game is another variant of match play typically played among threesomes, where each hole is worth a total of nine points. The player with the lowest score on a hole receives five points, the next-lowest score 3 and the next-lowest score 1. Ties are generally resolved by summing the points contested and dividing them among the tying players; a two-way tie for first is worth four points to both players, a two-way tie for second is worth two points to both players, and a three-way tie is worth three points to each player. The player with the highest score after 18 holes (in which there are 162 points to be awarded) wins the game. This format can be used to wager on the game systematically; players each contribute the same amount of money to the pot, and a dollar value is assigned to each point scored (or each point after 18) based on the amount of money in the pot, with any overage going to the overall winner.[37][38] Stableford The Stableford system is a simplification of stroke play that awards players points based on their score relative to the hole's par; the score for a hole is calculated by taking the par score, adding 2, then subtracting the player's hole score, making the result zero if negative. Alternately stated, a double bogey or worse is zero points, a bogey is worth one point, par is two, a birdie three, an eagle four, and so on. The advantages of this system over stroke play are a more natural "higher is better" scoring, the ability to compare Stableford scores between plays on courses with different total par scores (scoring an "even" in stroke play will always give a Stableford score of 36), discouraging the tendency to abandon the entire game after playing a particularly bad hole (a novice playing by strict rules may score as high as an 8 or 10 on a single difficult hole; their Stableford score for the hole would be zero, which puts them only two points behind par no matter how badly they played), and the ability to simply pick up one's ball once it is impossible to score any points for the hole, which speeds play. The USGA and R&A sanction a "Modified Stableford" system for scratch players, which makes par worth zero, a birdie worth 2, eagle 5 and double-eagle 8, while a bogey is a penalty of −1 and a double-bogey or worse −3. As with the original system, the highest score wins the game, and terrible scores on one or two holes won't wreck an entire game, but this system rewards "bogey-birdie" play more than the original, encouraging golfers to try to make the riskier birdie putt or eagle chipshot instead of simply parring each hole.[17] Team play Junín Golf Club, in Junín, Argentina Foursome: defined in Rule 29, this is played between two teams of two players each, in which each team has only one ball and players alternate playing it. For example, if players "A" and "B" form a team, "A" tees off on the first hole, "B" will play the second shot, "A" the third, and so on until the hole is finished. On the second hole, "B" will tee off (regardless who played the last putt on the first hole), then "A" plays the second shot, and so on. Foursomes can be played as match play or stroke play.[39] Fourball: defined in Rules 30 and 31, this is also played between two teams of two players each, but every player plays their own ball and for each team, the lower score on each hole counts. Fourballs can be played as match play or stroke play.[40] Unofficial team variations Scramble: also known as ambrose or best-shot; each player in a team tees off on each hole, and the players decide which shot was best. Every player then plays their second shot from within a clublength of where the best shot has come to rest (and no closer to the hole), and the procedure is repeated until the hole is finished. This system is very common at informal tournaments such as for charity, as it speeds play (due to the reduced number of shots taken from bad lies), allows teams of varying sizes, and allows players of widely varying skill levels to participate without profoundly affecting team score. Champagne scramble: a combination of a scramble and best-ball, only the first shot of each hole is a scramble; all players tee off, decide on the best tee shot, then each player plays their own ball starting at that point until they hole out, without deciding any further "best shots". The best score amongst the team's players is counted.[41] Better ball or best-ball: like fourball, each player plays the hole as normal, but the lowest score of all the players on the team counts as the team's score for the hole.[42] Greensome (also known as Scotch Foursomes): also called modified alternate shot, this is played in pairs; both players tee off, and then pick the best shot as in a scramble. The player who did not shoot the best first shot plays the second shot. The play then alternates as in a foursome.[43] A variant of greensome is sometimes played where the opposing team chooses which of their opponent's tee shots the opponents should use. The player who did not shoot the chosen first shot plays the second shot. Play then continues as a greensome. Wolf (also known as Ship, Captain & Crew, Captain, Pig): a version of match play; with a foursome an order of play for each player is established for the duration of the round. The first player hits a ball from the tee, then waits for each successive player to hit (2nd, 3rd and 4th). After each player hits the 1st player has the option of choosing a partner for the hole (the 1st player is the Wolf for that hole) usually by calling Wolf before the next player hits. Once a partner is picked, each two-some (the Wolf and his or her partner vs the remaining two players) scores their total strokes and the winning two-some is awarded 1-point each for winning a hole and zero points for tying. The next hole, the rotation moves forward (e.g. the 2nd player is now hitting 1st and the Wolf and the previous Wolf hits last). A Wolf can decide to go alone to win extra points, but they must beat all other players in stroke play on that hole. If alone, the Wolf is awarded 2-points for going alone after everyone has hit or 4 points for declaring Lone Wolf before anyone else hits. If the Lone Wolf loses, to even one player, the 3 other players get 1-point each. The winner is the player with the most points at the end of the round. Strategically, care must be taken not to let a low-handicap player run away with all the points by being constantly paired with the Wolf.[44],[45] Shotgun starts are mainly used for amateur tournament play. In this variant, each of the groups playing starts their game on a different hole, allowing for all players to start and end their round at roughly the same time. All 18 holes are still played, but a player or foursome may, for instance, start on hole 5, play through to the 18th hole, then continue with hole 1 and end on hole 4. This speeds the completion of the entire event as players are not kept waiting for progressive tee times at the first hole. This form of play, as a minor variation to stroke or match play, is neither defined nor disallowed by strict rules and so is used according to local rules for an event. Handicap systems Main article: Handicap (golf) A handicap is a numerical measure of an amateur golfer's ability to play golf over the course of 18 holes. A player's handicap generally represents the number of strokes above par that the player will make over the course of an above-average round of golf. The better the player the lower their handicap is. Someone with a handicap of 0 or less is often called a scratch golfer, and would typically score or beat the course par on a round of play (depending on course difficulty). Calculating a handicap is often complicated, the general reason being that golf courses are not uniformly challenging from course to course or between skill levels. A player scoring even par on Course A might average four over par on course B, while a player averaging 20 over par on course A might average only 16 over on course B. So, to the "scratch golfer", Course B is more difficult, but to the "bogey golfer", Course A is more difficult. The reasons for this are inherent in the types of challenges presented by the same course to both golfers. Distance is often a problem for amateur "bogey" golfers with slower swing speeds, who get less distance with each club, and so typically require more shots to get to the green, raising their score compared to a scratch golfer with a stronger swing. However, courses are often designed with hazard placement to mitigate this advantage, forcing the scratch player to "lay up" to avoid bunkers or water, while the bogey golfer is more or less unaffected as the hazard lies out of their range. Finally, terrain features and fairway maintenance can affect golfers of all skill levels; narrowing the fairway by adding obstacles or widening the rough on each side will typically increase the percentage of shots made from disadvantageous lies, increasing the challenge for all players. By USGA rules, handicap calculation first requires calculating a "Handicap Differential" for each round of play the player has completed by strict rules. That in itself is a function of the player's "gross adjusted score" (adjustments can be made to mitigate various deviations either from strict rules or from a player's normal capabilities, for handicap purposes only) and two course-specific difficulty ratings: the Course Rating, a calculated expected score for a hypothetical "scratch golfer": and the Slope Rating, a number based on how much worse a hypothetical 20-handicap "bogey golfer" would score compared to the "scratch golfer". The average Slope Rating of all USGA-rated courses as of 2012 is 113, which also factors into the Differential computation. The most recent Differentials are logged, up to 20 of them, and then the best of these (the number used depends on the number available) are selected, averaged, multiplied by .96 (an "excellence factor" that reduces the handicap of higher-scoring players, encouraging them to play better and thus lower their handicap), and truncated to the tenths place to produce the "Handicap Index". Additional calculations can be used to place higher significance on a player's recent tournament scores. A player's Handicap Index is then multiplied by the Slope Rating of the course to be played, divided by the average Slope Rating of 113, then rounded to the nearest integer to produce the player's Course Handicap. Once calculated, the Course Handicap is applied in stroke play by simply reducing the player's gross score by the handicap, to produce a net score. So, a gross score of 96 with a handicap of 22 would produce a net score of 74. In match play, the lower handicap is subtracted from the higher handicap, and the resulting handicap strokes are awarded to the higher handicapper by distributing them among the holes according to each hole's difficulty; holes are ranked on the scorecard from 1 to 18 (or however many holes are available), and one stroke is applied to each hole from the most difficult to the least difficult. So, if one player has a 9 handicap and another has a 25 handicap, the 25-handicap player receives one handicap stroke on each of the most difficult 16 holes (25-9). If the 25-handicapper were playing against a "scratch golfer" (zero handicap), all 25 strokes would be distributed, first by applying one stroke to each hole, then applying the remaining strokes, one each, to the most difficult 7 holes; so, the handicap player would subtract 2 strokes from each of the most difficult 7 holes, and 1 each from the remaining 11. Handicap systems have potential for abuse by players who may intentionally play badly to increase their handicap ("throwing their 'cap") before playing to their potential at an important event with a valuable prize. For this reason, professional golf associations do not use them, but they can be calculated and used along with other criteria to determine the relative strengths of various professional players. Touring professionals, being the best of the best, often have negative handicaps; they can be expected, on average, to score lower than the Course Rating on any course. Popularity Part of a golf course in western India An aerial view of a golf course in Italy In 2005 Golf Digest calculated that the countries with most golf courses per capita, in order, were: Scotland, New Zealand, Australia, Ireland, Canada, Wales, United States, Sweden, and England (countries with fewer than 500,000 people were excluded). The number of courses in other territories has increased, an example of this being the expansion of golf in China. The first golf course in China opened in 1984, but by the end of 2009 there were roughly 600 in the country. For much of the 21st century, development of new golf courses in China has been officially banned (with the exception of the island province of Hainan), but the number of courses had nonetheless tripled from 2004 to 2009; the "ban" has been evaded with the government's tacit approval simply by not mentioning golf in any development plans.[46] In the United States, the number of people who play golf twenty-five times or more per year decreased from 6.9 million in 2000 to 4.6 million in 2005,[47] according to the National Golf Foundation. The NGF reported that the number who played golf at all decreased from 30 to 26 million over the same period.[47] In February 1971, astronaut Alan Shepard became the first person to golf anywhere other than Earth. He smuggled a golf club and two golf balls on board Apollo 14 with the intent to golf on the Moon. He attempted two drives. He shanked the first attempt, but it is estimated his second went more than 200 yards (180 m).[48] Golf courses worldwide Number of golf courses by country in 2015. Below are the top 18 countries that have the most golf courses.[49] Country Number of courses % USA 15,372 45% Japan 2,383 7% Canada 2,363 7% England 2,084 6% Australia 1,628 5% Germany 747 2% France 648 2% Scotland 552 2% South Africa 512 2% Sweden 491 1% China 473 1% Ireland 472 1% South Korea 447 1% Spain 437 1% New Zealand 418 1% Argentina 319 1% Italy 285 1% India 270 1% Rest of the world 4,110 12% Total 34,011 Professional golf Main article: Professional golfer The majority of professional golfers work as club or teaching professionals ("pros"), and only compete in local competitions. A small elite of professional golfers are "tournament pros" who compete full-time on international "tours". Many club and teaching professionals working in the golf industry start as caddies or with a general interest in the game, finding employment at golf courses and eventually moving on to certifications in their chosen profession. These programs include independent institutions and universities, and those that eventually lead to a Class A golf professional certification. Touring professionals typically start as amateur players, who attain their "pro" status after success in major tournaments that win them either prize money and/or notice from corporate sponsors. Jack Nicklaus, for example, gained widespread notice by finishing second in the 1960 U.S. Open to champion Arnold Palmer, with a 72-hole score of 282 (the best score to date in that tournament by an amateur). He played one more amateur year in 1961, winning that year's U.S. Amateur Championship, before turning pro in 1962. Instruction Indoor putting green for practice and instruction Main article: Golf instruction Golf instruction involves the teaching and learning of the game of golf. Proficiency in teaching golf instruction requires not only technical and physical ability but also knowledge of the rules and etiquette of the game. In some countries, golf instruction is best performed by teachers certified by the Professional Golfers Association. Some top instructors who work with professional golfers have become quite well known in their own right. Professional golf instructors can use physical conditioning, mental visualization, classroom sessions, club fitting, driving range instruction, on-course play under real conditions, and review of videotaped swings in slow motion to teach golf to prepare the golfer for the course. Golf tours Main article: Professional golf tours There are at least twenty professional golf tours, each run by a PGA or an independent tour organization, which is responsible for arranging events, finding sponsors, and regulating the tour. Typically a tour has "members" who are entitled to compete in most of its events, and also invites non-members to compete in some of them. Gaining membership of an elite tour is highly competitive, and most professional golfers never achieve it. Gary Player is widely regarded as one of the greatest players in the history of golf. Perhaps the most widely known tour is the PGA Tour, which tends to attract the strongest fields, outside the four Majors and the four World Golf Championships events. This is due mostly to the fact that most PGA Tour events have a first prize of at least 800,000 USD. The European Tour, which attracts a substantial number of top golfers from outside North America, ranks second to the PGA Tour in worldwide prestige. Some top professionals from outside North America play enough tournaments to maintain membership on both the PGA Tour and European Tour. Since 2010, both tours' money titles have been claimed by the same individual three times, with Luke Donald doing so in 2011 and Rory McIlroy in 2012 and 2014. In 2013, Henrik Stenson won the FedEx Cup points race on the PGA Tour and the European Tour money title, but did not top the PGA Tour money list (that honour going to Tiger Woods). The other leading men's tours include the Japan Golf Tour, the Asian Tour (Asia outside Japan), the PGA Tour of Australasia, and the Sunshine Tour (for southern Africa, primarily South Africa). The Japan, Australasian, Sunshine, PGA, and European Tours are the charter members of the trade body of the world's main tours, the International Federation of PGA Tours, founded in 1996. The Asian Tour became a full member in 1999. The Canadian Tour became an associate member of the Federation in 2000, and the Tour de las Américas (Latin America) became an associate member of the Federation in 2007. The Federation underwent a major expansion in 2009 that saw eleven new tours become full members – the Canadian Tour, Tour de las Américas, China Golf Association, the Korea Professional Golfers' Association, Professional Golf Tour of India, and the operators of all six major women's tours worldwide. The OneAsia Tour, founded in 2009, is not a member of the Federation, but was founded as a joint venture of the Australasia, China, Japan, and Korean tours. In 2011, the Tour de las Américas was effectively taken over by the PGA Tour, and in 2012 was folded into the new PGA Tour Latinoamérica. Also in 2012, the Canadian Tour was renamed PGA Tour Canada after it agreed to be taken over by the PGA Tour. All men's tours that are Federation members, except the India tour, offer points in the Official World Golf Ranking (OWGR) to players who place sufficiently high in their events. The OneAsia Tour also offers ranking points. Golf is unique in having lucrative competition for older players. There are several senior tours for men aged fifty and over, arguably the best known of which is the U.S.-based PGA Tour Champions. There are six principal tours for women, each based in a different country or continent. The most prestigious of these is the United States-based LPGA Tour. All of the principal tours offer points in the Women's World Golf Rankings for high finishers in their events. All of the leading professional tours for under-50 players have an official developmental tour, in which the leading players at the end of the season will earn a tour card on the main tour for the following season. Examples include the Tour, which feeds to the PGA Tour, and the Challenge Tour, which is the developmental tour of the European Tour. The and Challenge Tours also offer OWGR points. Men's major championships Lee Westwood pictured making a bunker shot at the 2008 Open Main article: Men's major golf championships The major championships are the four most prestigious men's tournaments of the year. In chronological order they are: The Masters, the U.S. Open, The Open Championship (referred to in North America as the British Open) and the PGA Championship.[50] The fields for these events include the top several dozen golfers from all over the world. The Masters has been played at Augusta National Golf Club in Augusta, Georgia, since its inception in 1934. It is the only major championship that is played at the same course each year.[51] The U.S. Open and PGA Championship are played at courses around the United States, while the Open Championship is played at courses around the United Kingdom.[52] Prior to the advent of the PGA Championship and The Masters, the four Majors were the U.S. Open, the U.S. Amateur, the Open Championship, and the British Amateur. Women's major championships Lorena Ochoa, a retired number one female golfer, pictured here in 2007 Main article: Women's major golf championships Women's golf does not have a globally agreed set of majors. The list of majors recognised by the dominant women's tour, the LPGA Tour in the U.S., has changed several times over the years, with the most recent changes occurring in 2001 and 2013. Like the PGA Tour, the (U.S.) LPGA[53] tour long had four majors, but now has five: the ANA Inspiration (previously known by several other names, most recently the Kraft Nabisco Championship), the Women's PGA Championship (previously known as the LPGA Championship),[54] the U.S. Women's Open, the Women's British Open (which replaced the du Maurier Classic as a major in 2001) and The Evian Championship (added as the fifth major in 2013). Only the last two are also recognised as majors by the Ladies European Tour. However, the significance of this is limited, as the LPGA is far more dominant in women's golf than the PGA Tour is in mainstream men's golf. For example, the BBC has been known to use the U.S. definition of "women's majors" without qualifying it. Also, the Ladies' Golf Union, the governing body for women's golf in Great Britain and Ireland, stated on its official website that the Women's British Open was "the only Women's Major to be played outside the U.S."[55] (this was before the elevation of The Evian Championship to major status). For many years, the Ladies European Tour tacitly acknowledged the dominance of the LPGA Tour by not scheduling any of its own events to conflict with the three LPGA majors played in the U.S., but that changed beginning in 2008, when the LET scheduled an event opposite the LPGA Championship. The second-richest women's tour, the LPGA of Japan Tour, does not recognise any of the U.S. LPGA or European majors as it has its own set of majors (historically three, since 2008 four). However, these events attract little notice outside Japan. Senior major championships Main article: Senior major golf championships Senior (aged fifty and over) men's golf does not have a globally agreed set of majors. The list of senior majors on the U.S.-based PGA Tour Champions has changed over the years, but always by expansion. PGA Tour Champions now recognises five majors: the Senior PGA Championship, The Tradition, the Senior Players Championship, the United States Senior Open, and The Senior (British) Open Championship. Of the five events, the Senior PGA is by far the oldest, having been founded in 1937. The other events all date from the 1980s, when senior golf became a commercial success as the first golf stars of the television era, such as Arnold Palmer and Gary Player, reached the relevant age. The Senior Open Championship was not recognised as a major by PGA Tour Champions until 2003. The European Senior Tour recognises only the Senior PGA and the two Senior Opens as majors. However, PGA Tour Champions is arguably more dominant in global senior golf than the U.S. LPGA is in global women's golf. Olympic Games Main article: Golf at the 2016 Summer Olympics After a 112-year absence from the Olympic Games, golf returned for the 2016 Rio Games.[56] 41 different countries were represented by 120 athletes.[57] Controversy Women It wasn't until 1552 that the first woman golfer played the game. Mary Queen of Scots commissioned St. Andrew's Links.[58] However, it wasn't until the 20th century that women were taken seriously and eventually broke the "Gentlemen Only, Ladies Forbidden" rule. Many men saw women as unfit to play the sport due to their lack of strength and ability. In the United States, 1891 was a pivotal year for ladies golf because the Shinnecock Hills nine-hole course was built in Southampton, New York, for women and was the first club to offer membership to women golfers. Four years later, in 1895, The U.S. Golf Association held the first Women's Amateur Championship tournament.[58][59] Just like professional golfer Bobby Jones, Joyce Wethered was considered to be a star in the 1920s.[60] Jones praised Wethered in 1930 after they had played an exhibition against each other. He doubted that there had ever been a better golfer, man or woman.[61] However, Bobby Jones' comment wasn't enough for others to change their views on women golfers. The Royal Liverpool's club refused entry of Sir Henry Cotton's wife into the clubhouse in the late 1940s. The secretary of the club released a statement saying, "No woman ever has entered the clubhouse and, praise God, no woman ever will."[60] However, American golfer and all-around athlete, Babe Zaharias didn't have to enter the clubhouse. She was able to prove herself on the course, going on to become the first American to win the British Women's Amateur title in 1947. The following year she became the first woman to attempt to qualify for the U.S. Open, but her application was rejected by the USGA. They stated that the event was intended to be open to men only.[62] The Ladies Professional Golf Association was formed in 1950 as a way to popularize the sport and provide competitive opportunities for golfers.[60] The competitions were not the same for the men and women. It wasn't until 1972 that U.S. Congress passed the Title IX of the Education Amendments. "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subject to discrimination under any education program or activities receiving Federal financial assistance."[63] American Renee Powell moved to the UK in the 1970s to further her career, and became the first woman to play in a British men's tournament in 1977.[64] Today, women golfers are still fighting and working hard to have the same opportunities as men golfers. There is still a big pay gap in the USGA. The USGA has a long history of writing bigger checks to winners of the men's U.S. Open than the U.S. Women's Open.[65] International events Golf at the Asian Games Golf at the Pan American Games Golf at the Summer Olympics Golf at the Summer Universiade Ryder Cup Presidents Cup Solheim Cup International Crown Seve Trophy EurAsia Cup Walker Cup Curtis Cup See also Golf portal Glossary of golf Outline of golf Lists of golfers List of golf courses in the United Kingdom Professional Golfers' Association of America Variations of golf References "Olympic sports of the past". Olympic Movement. Retrieved 29 March 2009. Associated Press file (9 October 2009). "Golf, rugby make Olympic roster for 2016, 2020". Retrieved 23 September 2010. Brasch, Rudolph (1970). How did sports begin?: A look at the origins of man at play. McKay. "paganica (game) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Retrieved 23 September 2010. Jacques, Martin. (2014). When china rules the world : the end of the western world and the birth of a new global order. Penguin Books. pp. 503–504. ISBN 9781101151457. OCLC 883334381. "Golf (Chui wan) – China culture". 25 September 2009. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2010. McGrath, Charles; McCormick, David; Garrity, John (2006). The ultimate golf book. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-618-71025-6. Retrieved 4 May 2009. History Of Golf Golf Andrew Leibs (2004). Sports and Games of the Renaissance. p. 69. Greenwood Publishing Group Cochrane, Alistair (ed) Science and Golf IV: proceedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf. Page 849. Routledge Forrest L. Richardson (2002). Routing the Golf Course: The Art & Science That Forms the Golf Journey. p. 46. John Wiley & Sons Links plays into the record books BBC. Retrieved 24 September 2011 "Recognition for the world's oldest links, at last". PGA Tour. 24 March 2009. Archived from the original on 2 April 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009. "Historical Rules of Golf". Retrieved 8 September 2010. The Open Championship – More Scottish than British PGA Tour. Retrieved 23 September 2011 Archived 2 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine "Ryder Cup: Painting celebrates Dunfermline links to American golf". BBC. Retrieved 29 December 2014 Golf. Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2007. "Hill den Park – 9 Hole Golf Course". hilden Archived from the original on 22 December 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2007. "Online Etymology Dictionary definition of the word Links". Retrieved 23 September 2010. "Why Does Golf Have 18 Holes?". Retrieved 6 May 2010. Caddie. Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 24 December 2007. "The Rules of Golf". United States Golf Association. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 7 November 2007. "Rules of Golf" (PDF). The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2007. Retrieved 7 November 2007. "Amateur Status". United States Golf Association. Archived from the original on 1 October 2007. Retrieved 7 November 2007. 2008–2011 Rules of Golf (free download) Archived 29 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine Nicholls, David (February 1998). "History of the Golf Club". Retrieved 5 November 2007. John Sitaras (14 November 2013). "Jack Welch's 6 Ways Exercise". Golf Digest (Korean edition). Archived from the original on 10 December 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2013. John Sitaras (21 November 2013). "George Soros' Exercise". Golf Digest (Korean edition). Retrieved 7 December 2013. "Dave Pelz: Your best way to putt". Retrieved 23 October 2015. "Cross Handed Putting Grip, How It Can Improve Your Stroke". Retrieved 20 October 2015. "4. Controlling the Yips - PGA Digital Golf Academy". Archived from the original on 2 June 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2015. USGA. "Anchored putting" (PDF). United States Golf Association. Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Par". Retrieved 8 November 2007. "Stat – Greens in Regulation Percentage". PGATour. Retrieved 20 February 2017. Kelley, Brent. "Golf FAQ – What are the Yardage Guidelines for Par-3s, Par-4s and Par-5s?". Retrieved 8 November 2007. Kelley, Brent. "Golf FAQ: What is Slope Rating?". Retrieved 8 November 2007. "Nine Points Golf Game". 19 December 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2014. "Golf Competition | 9-Point Game". Retrieved 10 February 2014. Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Foursomes". Retrieved 25 December 2007. Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Fourball". Retrieved 25 December 2007. Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Scramble". Retrieved 25 December 2007. Kelley, Brent. "Better Ball". Retrieved 17 April 2012. Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Greensome". Retrieved 25 December 2007. "Rules to the game of Wolf". Retrieved 29 July 2013. Rodriguez, Chi Chi (2002). Chi Chi's Golf Games You Gotta Play. Human Kenetics. ISBN 9780736046312. Retrieved 29 July 2013. Washburn, Dan (6 November 2009). "Olympics makes China major player". ESPN. Retrieved 7 November 2009. Paul Vitello (21 February 2008). "More Americans Are Giving up Golf". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 7 July 2008. "Feb. 6, 1971: Alan Shepard plays golf on the moon". "How many Golf Holes are there in the World? Answer 576,534 - Scottish Golf History". Retrieved 22 November 2016. "Future Men`s Major Championships - dates and venues - SuperSport - Golf". Retrieved 20 February 2017. "Golf Majors: The Masters Golf Tournament". Archived from the original on 17 September 2006. Retrieved 17 December 2007. "The Open - Open Venues". Retrieved 20 February 2017. There are several bodies known as the "LPGA", each based in a different country or continent. The U.S. LPGA is the only one without a geographic identifier in its name, as it was the first to be founded. Typically, if the term "LPGA" is used without an identifier, it refers to the U.S. body. "PGA of America, LPGA, KPMG join forces for KPMG Women's PGA Championship" (Press release). PGA of America. 29 May 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014. "Women's British Open breaks new ground at St Andrews". Ladies' Golf Union. Archived from the original on 15 August 2007. Retrieved 12 August 2007. "Golf returns to Olympics in 2016, but many questions remain". Retrieved 16 September 2016. "Golf". Rio 2016. Archived from the original on 21 September 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2016. Leviticus, Jill. "When Were Women Allowed to Play Golf?". LiveStrong.con. Retrieved 21 December 2017. "Timeline – Important Events in the History of Women's Golf". Retrieved 21 December 2017. "Gentlemen Only, Ladies Forbidden - a history". Women's Golf Journal. 11 April 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2017. Litsky, Frank (25 November 1997). "Joyce Wethered, 96, Top Golfer of the 20's". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 21 December 2017. Phlegar, Ben (7 April 1948). "Men Only—Answer To Mrs. Zaharias Golf Entry". The Telegraph-Herald. Dubuque, Iowa. Associated Press. p. 11. Retrieved 21 December 2017 – via "Overview Of Title IX Of The Education Amendments Of 1972, 20 U.S.C. A§ 1681 Et. Seq". Department of Justice. Retrieved 21 December 2017. Hennessy, John (7 September 1977). "Golf". The Times. London. p. 8. Retrieved 18 September 2018. Saffer, Max (8 April 2016). "Big gap in earnings between men and women professional golfers". espnW. Retrieved 21 December 2017. External links Golf at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Resources from Wikiversity Data from Wikidata The R&A, St Andrews USGA: United States Golf Association Golf Australia, national governing body of Australia International Golf Federation (IGF) vte Golf Overview History Glossary Outline Rules penalties playoffs etiquette Stroke play scoring handicap Match play four-ball alternate shot Golf course links teeing ground hazards Equipment golf clubs golf ball tee Technical Golf stroke mechanics Instruction Drive Golfers Professional golfer tours Male golfers Female golfers Men's major winners Women's major winners Senior major winners Olympic medalists Most wins Asian Tour Australasia Tour Challenge Tour European Tour European Senior Tour Japan Golf Tour Ladies European Tour LPGA Tour PGA Tour PGA Tour Champions Sunshine Tour Korn Ferry Tour Majors (Grand Slam, Triple Crown) Men Masters Tournament Augusta National Golf Club PGA Championship U.S. Open The Open Championship venues Claret Jug Women ANA Inspiration U.S. Women's Open Women's PGA Championship The Evian Championship Women's British Open Senior The Tradition Senior PGA Championship U.S. Senior Open Senior Players Championship Senior Open Championship Senior Women's Senior LPGA Championship U.S. Senior Women's Open International events Team Curtis Cup Eisenhower Trophy Espirito Santo Trophy International Crown Presidents Cup Ryder Cup Solheim Cup Walker Cup World Cup Multi-sport event Asian Games Inter-Allied Games Island Games Pacific Games Pan American Games Summer Olympics Summer Universiade Youth Olympic Games Rankings Men No 1s top 10 Women Amateur Countries Australia China India Ireland Philippines Russia Scotland Thailand United States Venues Driving range Lists of golf courses Canada Hawaii India North Dakota Philippines Portugal United Kingdom links courses designed by Jack Nicklaus Years 1353–1850 1851–1945 1945–1999 2000–2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Governing bodies International Golf Federation The R&A United States Golf Association Golf Canada Professional Golfers' Association (Great Britain and Ireland) Professional Golfers' Association of America LPGA PGA Tour PGA European Tour American Society of Golf Course Architects World Golf Teachers Federation Miscellaneous Awards Architects Caddie Greenskeeper World Golf Hall of Fame British Golf Museum USGA Museum Jack Nicklaus Museum Caddie Hall of Fame Evans Scholars Foundation Variations Beach golf Disc golf Footgolf GolfCross Hickory golf Indoor golf Long drive Miniature golf Park golf Pitch and putt Shotgun start Skins game Snow golf Speed golf Urban golf Media Golf Channel personalities GolfTV Golf Digest Golf Magazine Golf World Golfweek Links Travel + Leisure Golf Video games Category Portal vte Golf at multi-sport events Asian Games Asian Youth Games Bolivarian Games Canada Summer Games Central American and Caribbean Games Games of the Small States of Europe Inter-Allied Games Island Games Olympics Pacific Games Pan American Games Pan Arab Games South American Games South Asian Games Southeast Asian Games Universiade Youth Olympic Games vte Summer Olympic sports Core program Aquatics Artistic Diving Swimming Water polo Archery Athletics Badminton Basketball 3x3 Boxing Canoeing Canoe slalom Canoe sprint Cycling BMX racing Freestyle BMX Mountain bike Road cycling Track cycling Equestrian Dressage Eventing Show jumping Fencing Field hockey Football Golf Gymnastics Artistic gymnastics Rhythmic gymnastics Trampolining Handball Judo Modern pentathlon Rowing Rugby sevens Sailing Shooting Table tennis Taekwondo Tennis Triathlon Volleyball Beach volleyball Weightlifting Wrestling Freestyle wrestling Greco-Roman wrestling 2020 addition Baseball / Softball Karate Skateboarding Sport climbing Surfing Paralympic sports and Winter Olympic sports Condition: In Excellent Condition, Surname Initial: J, Modified Item: No, Country/Region of Manufacture: United Kingdom, Season: 1970-1979, Type: Newspaper, Club(s) Selector: Clubs A-B, Clubs: Brazil

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