MYTILENE Lesbos Island GREEK 2ndCenBC Zeus Dionysus Ancient Greek Coin i46971

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Seller: highrating_lowprice (20.887) 100%, Location: Rego Park, New York, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 231471359064 Item: i46971 Authentic Ancient Coin of: Greek City of Mytilene chief city of the Island of Lesbos Bronze 18mm (2.80 grams) Struck circa 2nd-1st century B.C. Reference: Sear 4275 Bearded head of Zeus Ammon right, horned. Terminal figure of bearded Dionysos facing, on prow of galley; M - Y / T - I in field; vine-branches with grapes to left and to right. Lesbos was the largest of the islands off the coast of western Asia Minor, Lesbos lay at the entrance to the gulf of Adramytteion. It was a great cultural center, and its mild climate and fertile soil supported no less than five cities, the most important of which was Mytilene. The chief city of Lesbos, Mytilene was situated in the south-east of the island, opposite the mainland. There can be little doubt that Mytilene was the mint of the important electrum coinage of Lesbos in the 5th and 4th centuries. You are bidding on the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity. Zeus Ammon. Ammon was a surname of Zeus or Jupiter. The Greeks of the lower Nile Delta and Cyrenaica combined features of supreme god Zeus with features of the Egyptian god Ammon-Ra. Alexander the Great styled himself the son of Zeus-Ammon; his successors, the kings of Syria and those of Cyrenaica have, on coins, their heads adorned with the horns of a ram, or of Ammon, the symbol of their dominion over Libya. This deity appears on a great number of coins and engraved marbles. The Egyptians, for whom he was a popular divinity, regarded him as the author of fecundity and generation. The same belief was later introduced to the Romans who worshipped Ammon as the preserver of nature. Dionysus or Dionysos (Greek Διόνυσος) is the ancient Greek god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine , of ritual madness and ecstasy , was also the driving force behind Greek theater . The god who inspires joyful worship and ecstasy , festivals and celebration is a major figure of Greek mythology and the religion of ancient Greece . He is included as one of the twelve Olympians in some lists. Dionysus is typical of the god of the epiphany , "the god that comes". He was also known as Bacchus, the name adopted by the Romans and the frenzy he induces, bakkheia. Hailed as an Asiatic foreigner, he was thought to have had strong ties to the East and to Ethiopia in the South. He was also known as the Liberator (Eleutherios), freeing one from one's normal self, by madness, ecstasy or wine. The divine mission of Dionysus was to mingle the music of the aulos and to bring an end to care and worry. Scholars have discussed Dionysus' relationship to the "cult of the souls" and his ability to preside over communication between the living and the dead. In Greek mythology, Dionysus is made out to be a son of Zeus and the mortal Semele . He is described as being womanly or "man-womanish". The retinue of Dionysus was called the thiasus and was composed chiefly of maenads and satyrs . Dionysus is a god of mystery religious rites . In the Thracian mysteries, he wears the bassaris or fox -skin, symbolizing new life. His own rites, the Dionysian Mysteries practiced by maenads and others, were the most secret of all. Many scholars believe that Dionysus is a syncretism of a local Greek nature deity and a more powerful god from Thrace or Phrygia such as Sabazios or Zalmoxis . Contradictions in Dionysus' origin suggest to some that we are dealing not with the historical memory of a cult that is foreign, but with a god in whom foreignness is inherent. Karl Kerenyi traces him to Minoan Crete , where his Minoan name is unknown but his characteristic presence is recognizable. Clearly, Dionysus had been with the Greeks and their predecessors a long time, and yet always retained the feel of something alien. Mytilene (Greek: Μυτιλήνη) is the capital city of Lesbos , a Greek island in the Aegean Sea , and capital of Lesbos Prefecture and the Northern Aegean region. It is built on the southeast edge of the island. Mytilene, whose name is pre-Greek, is also the seat of a metropolitan bishop of the Orthodox church . As an ancient city, lying off the east coast, Mytilene was initially confined to an island that later was joined to Lesbos , creating a north and south harbour.[ neededcitation] Mytilene contested successfully with Methymna in the north of the island for the leadership of the island in the seventh century BC and became the centre of the island’s prosperous hinterland.[ neededcitation] Her most famous citizens were the poets Sappho and Alcaeus and the statesman Pittacus (one of the Seven Sages of ancient Greece). The city was famed for its great output of electrum coins struck from the late 6th through mid 4th centuries BC.[2] Mytilene revolted against Athens in 428 BC but was overcome by an Athenian expeditionary force. The Athenian public assembly voted to massacre all the men of the city and to sell the women and children into slavery but changed its mind the next day. A fast trireme sailed the 186 nautical miles in less than a day and brought the decision to cancel the massacre. Aristotle lived on Mytilene for two years, 337-335 BC, with his friend and successor, Theophrastus after becoming the tutor to Alexander , son of King Philip II of Macedon.[3][4] The Romans, among whom was a young Julius Caesar , successfully besieged Mytilene in 80 B.C. Although Mytilene supported the losing side in most of the great wars of the first century BC her statesmen succeeded in convincing Rome of her support of the new ruler of the Mediterranean and the city flourished in Roman times. In AD 56 Paul the Apostle stopped there on the return trip of his third missionary journey( 20:14Acts). Sappho (pronounced /ˈsæfoʊ/ in English; Attic Greek Σαπφώ /sapːʰɔː/ , Aeolic Greek Ψάπφω [psapːʰɔː] ) was an Ancient Greek poet, born on the island of Lesbos . Later Greeks included her in the list of nine lyric poets . Her birth was sometime between 630 and 612 BC, and it is said that she died around 570 BC, but little is known for certain about her life. The bulk of her poetry, which was well-known and greatly admired throughout antiquity, has been lost, but her immense reputation has endured through surviving fragments. // Life The only contemporary source which refers to Sappho's life is her own body of poetry, and scholars are skeptical of biographical readings of it. Later biographical traditions, from which all more detailed accounts derive, have also been cast into doubt.[1] Chronology Strabo says that Sappho was the contemporary of Alcaeus of Mytilene (born ca. 620 BC) and Pittacus (ca. 645 - 570 BC) and according to Athenaeus she was the contemporary of Alyattes of Lydia (ca. 610 - 560 BC). The Suda , a 10th century Byzantine encyclopædia, dates her to the 42nd Olympiad (612/608 BC), meaning either that she was born then or that this was her floruit . The versions of Eusebius state that she was famous by the first or second year of the 45th or 46th Olympiad (between 600 and 594 BC). Taken together, these references make it likely that she was born ca. 620 BC, or a little earlier. Judging from the Parian Marble she was exiled from Lesbos to Sicily sometime between 604 and 594 BC. If fragment 98 of her poetry is accepted as biographical evidence and as a reference to her daughter (see below), it may indicate that she had already had a daughter by the time she was exiled. If fragment 58 is accepted as autobiographical it indicates that she lived into old age. If her connection to Rhodopis (see below) is accepted as historical it indicates that she lived into the mid-6th century BC.[2][3] Family An Oxyrhynchus papyrus from around AD 200[4] and the Suda agree that Sappho had a mother called Cleïs and a daughter by the same name. A papyrus line reads "She [Sappho] had a daughter Cleis named after her mother." (Duban 1983, 121) Two preserved fragments of Sappho's poetry refer to a Cleïs. In fragment 98, Sappho addresses Cleïs, saying that she has no way of obtaining a decorated headband for her. Fragment 132 reads in full: "I have a beautiful child [pais] who looks like golden flowers, my darling Cleis, for whom I would not (take) all Lydia or lovely..."[5] These fragments have often been interpreted as referring to Sappho's daughter or as confirming that Sappho had a daughter with this name. But even if a biographic reading of the verses is accepted, this is not certain. Cleïs is referred to in fragment 132 with the Greek word pais, which can as easily indicate a slave or any young person as an offspring. It is possible that these verses or others like them were misunderstood by ancient writers, leading to the biographical tradition which has come down to us.[6] Fragment 102 has its speaker address a "sweet mother", sometimes taken as an indication that Sappho began to write poetry while her mother was still alive.[7] The name of Sappho's father is widely given as Scamandronymus,[8] he is not referred to in any of the surviving fragments. In his Heroides , Ovid has Sappho lament that, "Six birthdays of mine had passed when the bones of my parent, gathered from the pyre, drank before their time my tears." Ovid may have based this on a poem by Sappho no longer extant.[9] Sappho was reported to have three brothers; Erigyius (or Eurygius), Larichus and Charaxus. The Oxyrhynchus papyrus says that Charaxus was the eldest but that Sappho was more fond of the young Larichus.[10] According to Athenaeus, Sappho often praised Larichus for pouring wine in the town hall of Mytilene, an office held by boys of the best families.[11] This indication that Sappho was born into an aristocratic family is consistent with the sometimes rarefied environments which her verses record. A story given by Herodotus and later by Strabo, Athenaeus, Ovid and the Suda, tells of a relation between Charaxus and the Egyptian courtesan Rhodopis . Herodotus, the oldest source of the story, reports that Charaxus ransomed Rhodopis for a large sum and that after he returned to Mitylene, Sappho scolded him in verse.[12] Strabo, writing some 400 years later, adds that Charaxus was trading with Lesbian wine and that Sappho called Rhodopis Doricha. Athenaeus, another 200 years later, calls the courtesan Doricha and maintains that Herodotus had her confused with Rhodopis, another woman altogether.[9] He also cites an epigram by Posidippus (3rd c. BC) which refers to Doricha and Sappho. Based on this story, scholars have speculated that references to a Doricha may have been found in Sappho's poems. None of the extant fragments have this name in full but fragments 7 and 15 are often restored to include it.[13] Joel Lidov has criticized this restoration, arguing that the Doricha story is not helpful in restoring any fragment by Sappho and that its origins lie in the work of Cratinus or another of Herodotus' comic contemporaries.[14] The Suda is alone in claiming that Sappho was married to a "very wealthy man called Cercylas, who traded from Andros"[15] and that he was Cleïs' father. This tradition may have been invented by the comic poets as a witticism, as the name of the purported husband means "prick from the Isle of Man."[16] Sappho on an Attic red-figure vase by the Brygos Painter , ca. 470 BC. Exile Sappho's lifetime was a period of political turbulence on Lesbos and saw the rise of Pittacus . According to the Parian Marble , Sappho was exiled to Sicily sometime between 604 and 594 and Cicero records that a statue of her stood in the town-hall of Syracuse. Unlike the works of her fellow poet, Alcaeus, Sappho's surviving poetry has very few allusions to political conditions. The principal exception is fragment 98 which mentions exile and indicates that Sappho was lacking some of her customary luxuries. Her political sympathies may have lain with the party of Alcaeus.[17] Though there is no explicit record of this it is usually assumed that Sappho returned from exile at some point and that she spent most of her life in Lesbos. Phaon legend A tradition going back at least to Menander (fr. 258 K) suggested that Sappho killed herself by jumping off the Leucadian cliffs for love of Phaon , a ferryman. This is regarded as unhistorical by modern scholars, perhaps invented by the comic poets or originating from a misreading of a first-person reference in a non-biographical poem.[18] The legend may have resulted in part from a desire to assert Sappho as heterosexual .[19] Sexuality and community Sappho reading to her companions on an Attic vase of c. 435 BC. Sappho's poetry centers on passion and love for various personages and both genders. The word lesbian derives from the name of the island of her birth, Lesbos, while her name is also the origin of the word sapphic ; both words were only applied to female homosexuality beginning in the 19th century.[20][21] The narrators of many of her poems speak of infatuations and love (sometimes requited, sometimes not) for various females, but descriptions of physical acts between women are few and subject to debate.[22][23] Whether these poems are meant to be autobiographical is not known, although elements of other parts of Sappho's life do make appearances in her work, and it would be compatible with her style to have these intimate encounters expressed poetically, as well. Her homoerotica should be placed in the seventh century (BC) context. The poems of Alcaeus and later Pindar record similar romantic bonds between the members of a given circle.[24] Sappho's contemporary Alcaeus described her thus: "Violet-haired, pure, honey-smiling Sappho" (ἰόπλοκ᾽ ἄγνα μελλιχόμειδε Σάπφοι, fr. 384). The 3rd century philosopher Maximus of Tyre wrote that Sappho was "small and dark" and that her relationships to her female friends were similar to those of Socrates : What else could one call the love of the Lesbian woman than the Socratic art of love? For they seem to me to have practised love after their own fashion, she the love of women, he of men. For they said they loved many, and were captivated by all things beautiful. What Alcibiades and Charmides and Phaedrus were to him, Gyrinna and Atthis and Anactoria were to her ...[25] During the Victorian era , it became the fashion to describe Sappho as the headmistress of a girls' finishing school. As Page DuBois (among many other experts) points out, this attempt at making Sappho understandable and palatable to the genteel classes of Great Britain was based more on conservative sensibilities than evidence. There are no references to teaching, students, academies, or tutors in any of Sappho's scant collection of surviving works. Burnett follows others, like C.M. Bowra, in suggesting that Sappho's circle was somewhat akin to the Spartan agelai or the religious sacred band, the thiasos, but Burnett nuances her argument by noting that Sappho's circle was distinct from these contemporary examples because "membership in the circle seems to have been voluntary, irregular and to some degree international."[26] The notion that Sappho was in charge of some sort of academy persists nonetheless. Works Alexandrian edition of Sappho's poetry For more details on this topic, see Aeolic verse . The Library of Alexandria collected Sappho's poetry into nine books, mostly based on their meter : Book I, poems composed in the Sapphic stanza , 330 stanzas in all (fragments 1–42); Book II, poems composed in glyconic lines with dactylic expansion (frr. 43–52); Book III, poems in Greater Asclepiad distichs (frr. 53–57); Book IV, poems in distichs of a somewhat similar meter (frr. 58–91); Book V, probably consisting of poems in various three-line stanzas (frr. 92–101); Book VI (contents unknown); Book VII (only two surviving lines in the same meter, fr. 102); Book VIII (see fr. 103); Book IX, epithalamia in other meters, including dactylic hexameter (frr. 104–117). Not every surviving fragment can be assigned to a book (frr. 118–213 are unassigned), and other meters are represented in the fragments. Surviving poetry The surviving proportion of the nine-volume corpus of poetry read in antiquity is small but still constitutes a poetic corpus of major importance. There is a single complete poem, Fragment 1, the Hymn to Aphrodite ,[27] quoted in its entirety as a model of the "polished and exuberant" style of composition by Dionysius of Halicarnassus , with admiration of its consummate artistry:[28] “ Here the euphonious effect and the grace of the language arise from the coherence and smoothness of the junctures. The words nestle close to one another and are woven together according to certain affinities and natural attractions of the letters. ” Other major fragments include three virtually-complete poems (in the standard numeration, fragments 16, 31, and the recently supplemented 58). Recent discoveries The most recent addition to the corpus is a virtually-complete poem on old age (fr. 58). The line-ends were first published in 1922 from an Oxyrhynchus papyrus, no. 1787 (fragment 1: see the third pair of images on this page ), but little could be made of them, since the indications of poem-end (placed at the beginnings of the lines) were lost, and scholars could only guess where one poem ended and another began. Most of the rest of the poem has recently (2004) been published from a 3rd century BC papyrus in the Cologne University collection. The latest reconstruction, by M. L. West , appeared in the Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 151 (2005), 1-9, and in the Times Literary Supplement on 21 June 2005 (English translation and discussion ). The poem refers to the plight of Tithonus , with whom the goddess Eos fell in love and requested he become immortal , but forgot to ensure that he stay forever young . The Greek text has been reproduced with helpful notes for students of the language.[29] Qualities of Sappho's poetry David Campbell has briefly summarized some of the most arresting qualities of Sappho's poetry: Clarity of language and simplicity of thought are everywhere evident in our fragments; wit and rhetoric, so common in English love-poetry and not quite absent from Catullus' love poems, are nowhere to be found. Her images are sharp—the sparrows that draw Aphrodite's chariot, the full moon in a starry sky, the solitary red apple at the tree-top—and she sometimes lingers over them to elaborate them for their own sake. She quotes the direct words of conversations real or imaginary and so gains immediacy. When the subject is the turbulence of her emotions, she displays a cool control in their expression. Above all, her words are chosen for their sheer melody: the skill with which she placed her vowels and consonants, admired by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, is evidenced by almost any stanza; the music to which she sang them has gone, but the spoken sounds may still enchant.[30] Legacy Reputation in antiquity In antiquity, Sappho was commonly regarded as the greatest, or one of the greatest, of lyric poets.[31] The Milan Papyrus , recovered from a dismantled mummy casing and published in 2001, has revealed the high esteem in which the poet Posidippus of Pella, an important composer of epigrams (3rd century BC), held Sappho's "divine songs."[32] An epigram in the Anthologia Palatina (9.506) ascribed to Plato states: Some say the Muses are nine: how careless! Look, there's Sappho too, from Lesbos, the tenth. Claudius Aelianus wrote in Miscellany (Ποικίλη ἱστορία) that Plato called Sappho wise. A story is recounted in the Florilegium (3.29.58) of Stobaeus : Solon of Athens heard his nephew sing a song of Sappho's over the wine and, since he liked the song so much, he asked the boy to teach it to him. When someone asked him why, he said, "So that I may learn it, then die." A few centuries later, Horace wrote in his Odes that Sappho's lyrics are worthy of sacred admiration. One of Sappho's poems was famously translated by the 1st century BC Roman poet Catullus in his "Ille mi par esse deo videtur" ("He seems to me to be equal to a god") (Catullus 51). Loss and preservation of Sappho's works Although Sappho's work endured well into Roman times, with changing interests, styles, and aesthetics her work was copied less and less, especially after the academies stopped requiring her study. Part of the reason for her disappearance from the standard canon was the predominance of Attic and Homeric Greek as the languages required to be studied. Sappho's Aeolic Greek dialect , a difficult one, and by Roman times, arcane and ancient as well, posed considerable obstacles to her continued popularity. Still, the greatest poets and thinkers of ancient Rome continued to emulate her or compare other writers to her, and it is through these comparisons and descriptions that we have received much of her extant poetry. Once the major academies of the Byzantine Empire dropped her works from their standard curricula, very few copies of her works were made by scribes, and the 12th century Byzantine scholar Tzetzes speaks of her works as lost.[33] Modern legends, with origins that are difficult to trace, have made Sappho's literary legacy the victim of purposeful obliteration by scandalized church leaders, often by means of book-burning . There is no known historical evidence for these accounts. Indeed, Gregory of Nazianzus , who along with Pope Gregory VII features as the villain in many of these stories, was a reader and admirer of Sappho's poetry. For example, modern scholars have noted the echoes of Sappho fr. 2 in his poem On Human Nature, which copies from Sappho the quasi-sacred grove (alsos), the wind-shaken branches, and the striking word for "deep sleep" (kōma).[34] It appears likely that Sappho's poetry was largely lost through action of the same indiscriminate forces of cultural change that have left us such paltry remains of all nine canonical Greek lyric poets , of whom only Pindar (whose works alone survive in a manuscript tradition) and Bacchylides (our knowledge of whom we owe to a single dramatic papyrus find) have fared much better. Sources of the surviving fragments Although the manuscript tradition broke off, some of Sappho's poetry has been discovered in Egyptian papyri fragments from an earlier period, such as those found in the ancient rubbish heaps of Oxyrhynchus , where a major find brought many new but tattered verses to light, providing a major new source.[35] One substantial fragment is preserved on a potsherd . The rest of what we know of Sappho comes through citations in other ancient writers, often made to illustrate grammar , vocabulary , or meter. Modern translations Sappho and Alcaeus, Lawrence Alma-Tadema , 1881 From the time of the European Renaissance , the interest in Sappho's writing has grown, seeing waves of fairly widespread popularity as new generations rediscover her work. Since few people are able to understand ancient languages, each age has translated Sappho in its own idiomatic way. Poetry, such as Sappho's, written in quantitative verse , is difficult to reproduce in English which uses stress-based meters and rhyme compared to Ancient Greek's solely length-based meters. As a result, many early translators used rhyme and worked Sappho's ideas into English poetic forms. In the 1960s, Mary Barnard reintroduced Sappho to the reading public with a new approach to translation that eschewed the use of rhyming stanzas and traditional forms. Subsequent translators have tended to work in a similar manner. In 2002, classicist and poet Anne Carson produced If Not, Winter, an exhaustive translation of Sappho's fragments. Her line-by-line translations, complete with brackets where the ancient papyrus sources break off, are meant to capture both the original's lyricism and its present fragmentary nature. Translations of Sappho have also been produced by Willis Barnstone , Jim Powell , and Stanley Lombardo . Frequently Asked Questions How long until my order is shipped? 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