August Gottfried Ludwig Fricke (1829-1894) Original On The Island Of Rugen 1890

EUR 159.387,78 Buy It Now or Best Offer 19h 31m, EUR 4.454,94 Shipping, Pay with PayPal and you're fully protected.

Seller: trisong_fine_art (224) 100%, Location: La Jolla, California, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 282275088282 Free local pick up available in San Diego County. FREE SHIPPING IN USA. SHIPPING TO BUYERS OUTSIDE OF USA BUYER PAYS ACTUAL SHIPPING CHARGES AND IS RESPONSIBLE FOR CUSTOMS DUTIES AND ALL CUSTOMS CLEARANCES. Available for inspection and free local pick up in San Diego County. We will also potentially help with inspection and delivery in Los Angeles County. The frame of the canvas has a very faint stamp from an art canvas supplier in 19th Century Berlin then located at Potsdammer Strasse 118. BERLIN OPERA STAR AND ACCOMPLISHED PAINTER - A RARE COMBINATION. This painting would be great returned to its home in Berlin, perhaps at the Berlin Opera House or a related nearby Museum. A beautiful Realist painting from the Gilded Age. August Gottfried Ludwig Fricke(1829-1894) – GERMAN STATE OPERA SINGER AND LANDSCAPE PAINTER Fricke studied art with the landscape and figure painter Wilhelm Benjamin Hermann Echke. Note the depth effect created by the artist with the water on the beach to the right extending back to the sky and boat on the left. This painting is available for inspection by appointment only. Please contact us if you have additional information about this painting or August Gottfried Ludwig Fricke. This Painting Canvas measures about 53 ½ inches wide by 33 inches high. With the frame, the outside dimensions of theframe are about 63 ½ inches wide by 43 inches high. It is about 4 inches deep. The painting is professionally framed and ready to ship. From German Wikipedia: "Fricke attended the Collegium Carolinum in Brunswick for several years and fought in 1848 as a volunteer in the campaign in Schleswig-Holstein. He received his vocal training from the baritone Hermann Meinhardt in Braunschweig. In 1851 he debuted as bassist in the roles "Sarastro" and "Marcel" at the Brunswick Court Theater and moved in the same year to the City Theater in Bremen. 1853/1854 he had a commitment in Königsberg and 1855/1856 at the Municipal Theater Szczecin. In Szczecin he met the composer Carl Loewe and became a major interpreter of his works. Carl Loewe dedicated Fricke his Liederkranz for a bass voice (Op 145). In 1856 Fricke was invited to the Berlin Court Opera, where he appeared as "Landgraf", "Sarastro" and "Marcel". He was then given a permanent job and remained a member of the Berlin Court Opera for 30 years. There he sang in addition to the already mentioned games, among others, the "Osmin", "Fallstaff" and "King Henry". In 1857 he was involved in the premiere of Wilhelm Taubert's opera Macbeth. He also gave guest appearances on German and foreign stages, especially in London, he was successful. In mid-June 1864 he visited Karl Marx in London. In May 1886, he retired, now appointed Royal Prussian Kammersänger retired. In addition to his singing career, Fricke also worked as a painter. In Braunschweig he was a pupil of Heinrich Brandes and in Berlin of Hermann Eschke. From 1870 he exhibited frequently in Berlin, including at the Great Berlin exhibitions in 1893 and 1894. He painted mostly landscapes, especially seascapes, including motifs from Sylt, Rügen and Mecklenburg. In 1878 he became a member of the Verein Berliner Künstler." Free local pick up is available in our secure professional offices. We will use any professional art crating shipping service buyer requestsincluding a service such as We will invoice buyer for actual shipping costs with insurance after we knowyour location and address. We will only ship this painting with adequateinsurance to cover the painting to your location. We will assist buyers in China, Japan, the Middle East, Asia,Europe, etc. with professional international art shipping with insurance. International shipping: Import duties,taxes, and any additional charges, are sometimes not included in the upfrontshipping costs evaluation and are always the buyers’ responsibility solely, andinternational shipping can take a long time for transport and customs clearance. We must and will fill out allcustoms forms accurately, honestly, and completely. When you buy from us, wewill mark customs forms correctly as “merchandise” with the exact purchaseprice you paid. Entanglements with your country's internal customs department and import duties issues (paperwork, fees, customs taxes, etc.) are entirely buyers' sole responsibility to deal with and buyer bears all risk of transport (including insurance claims process and maintenance of shipping materials for insurance inspection) and all risks associated with damage and insurance claims, dealing with customs clearance in the USA and abroad, and import duties issues. SHIPPING COSTS STATED ON THE AUCTIONARE ESTIMATES ONLY AND WE WILL INVOICE BUYER OUTSIDE USA FOR ACTUAL SHIPPING COST TO BUYER’SLOCATION WITH INSURANCE. INTERNATIONAL BUYERS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE DURING SHIPPING, LOSS, CUSTOMS DUTIES, ETC. AND ALL RESPONSIBILITY FOR ITEM IS BUYERS' AFTER WE PROVIDE BUYERS' INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING SERVICE WITH THE PAINTING. *** This important work is by theartistically gifted August Fricke of Berlin. Mr. Fricke was born in Brunschweig, Germany on 24 March 1829 and livedfor most of his life in Berlin, where he died on 27 June 1894. He travelled frequently, and visited NewYork, and also Rugen Island, North of Berlin, in present-day Germany. He married into the Steinway Piano family,and his friendships included William Steinway and other well-known artists andpatrons of the arts during his years of activity in the art scene of Berlinduring the 19th Century. He was active both as a landscape painter and an opera singer, primarily in theRoyal Berlin Opera during the later half of the 1800’s. The Painting “On The Island of Rugen” circa 1890, is by August Gottfried LudwigFricke, and was displayed at the Columbian Worlds’ Exposition in 1893 in theGerman Painting Section, West Wall, #220 in the Exhibition. Displayed with the Rugen Painting was anotherlandscape by August Gottfried Ludwig Fricke titled “On the Island of Sylt”#221. Fricke studied art and painting with the landscape and figure painter WilhelmBenjamin Hermann Eschke (see Wikipediaarticle, etc. on Mr. Eschke), and sang Bass with the Berlin Opera and PrussianState Opera Companies. While also singing in the Berlin and other Operas, he frequently exhibitedlandscapes at the Berlin Academy and at the Grosse Berliner Kunstausstellung (Great Berlin Art Exhibition). His paintings included views of Rugen, Mecklenburg, and Sylt. His preference appears to have been painting seaside island locations, and landscapes including the sea with large open sky areas, including extensive use of large canvases and open vast spaces. In October,1875, AugustFricke married Sophie Steinway, the widow of Charles Godfried Steinway, thefirst member of the well - known Steinway family of piano makers to emigratefrom Germany to live in America. One well-known work that he painted, almost the exact same size as thepresent Rugen Painting, is titled New York Harbor from Bedloe’s Island. Mr. Fricke obviously favored paintings ofseaside landscapes, and visits to islands for inspiration for his paintings. His brush is recognizable for its realism andbeautiful use of clouds, etc., with influence of his teachers such as Eschkeevident in the paintings. (New YorkHarbor from Bedloe’s Island, c.1890, Oil on Canvas 32 ½ x 53 inches). Additional information on August Frickeis available in the online historical diary of William Steinway, maintained bythe Smithsonian Institution: William Steinway Diary Entry, 5 October1875: Today SophiaSteinway is married to the Royal Prussian Opera Singer Mr. Fricke ofBerlin Germany. Wedding takes place at Braunschweig. Mrs. Johanne Steinwaytelegraphs to her husband "Feiern Heute SophiensHochzeit" I telegraph to Steinway Braunschweig, "Ehepaar Frickeherzlichste Gratulation Henry Charles ganze Familie" FROM: Sophia Millinet Steinway Fricke (Wife of August Fricke) Helene Sophia (sometimes Sophie) Millinet Steinway (b.September 9, 1834, in Lippstadt, Westphalia; d. December 12, 1919, in Berlin,Germany) was the wife of Charles G. Steinway, William's brother. Sophia andCharles married in New York City in 1855. They had four children: Henry WilliamTheodore, (b. New York City, 1856), Charles Herman Steinway, (b. New York City,1857), Frederick Theodore Steinway, (b. New York City, 1860), and a stillbornchild in 1861. The two younger sons went on to become presidents of Steinway& Sons.(3) Sophia's life was closely linked to William and his family.The nature of that relationship changed as their lives evolved: From 1855 to 1865, William knew Sophia as the wife ofCharles and the mother of their three sons, beginning with the marriage ofSophia and Charles in 1855 to the spring of 1865 and the untimely death ofCharles at age 36. During this period, Sophia developed a close relationshipwith William's first wife ReginaRoos Steinway; From 1865 to 1875 William related to Sophia as the widow ofCharles and the guardian of her three sons; this period included importantdecisions about how and where the sons (important to the future of Steinway& Sons) were to be educated. William (along with brother-in-law JacobZiegler) was the executor of Charles's estate, which was finally settled incourt around end 1870; From 1875 (when Sophia married Berlin opera singer AugustFricke on October 7 in Brunswick) to the mid-1890s, a period that began withWilliam's divorce and by 1880 William's marriage to Elliein Dresden, William's later diary entries reflected a more formal relationshipwith Sophia and her new husband. William showed great respect toward Fricke, asuccessful opera star, and enjoyed their time together in Europe and inAmerica. Into the 1890s, William continued to be involved with Sophia'sfinances (Diary, 1893-12-31). 1855-1865 According to the 1860 census, Sophia and Charles sharedliving quarters near the factory with William and the Steinway parents.(6) By1861 they shared a house on Second Avenue with William and his new wifeRegina.(5) Soon after William and Regina returned to New York City followingtheir marriage in 1861, Sophia went into labor; tragically the child was borndead. (Diary, 1861-06-05) Later that year they decorated the house for theChristmas holiday.(Diary, 1861-12-23, 12-24) Soon it became commonplace forRegina's and Sophia's names to be mentioned together in the diary. In lateJanuary of 1862, Regina went into labor with her first child, attended bySophia and a midwife, and the following afternoon, she delivered a dead infantboy.(Diary, 1862-01-23) For the next few nights, Sophia stayed up with her,offering what comfort she could.(Diary, 1862-01-27) In July of 1864, Sophia returned to Germany with Charles,who had suffered a series of illnesses, and their sons, joining brotherTheodore in Braunschweig. At the end of March 1865, Charles died of typhoidfever, leaving Sophia to bring up the children. Sophia and the childrenreturned May 5, 1865; the body of Charles was returned on March 29, 1866, andinterred at Green-WoodCemetery. 1865-1875 After Sophia’s return to the United States, she remained inNew York City for several years, going back to Germany with the children oncemore in the spring of 1867.(Diary, 1867-03-28) William and Regina visitedSophia in Europe the following year.(Diary, 1868-05-25) William was executor ofCharles’s estate. In a letter from Germany dated October 15, 1869, familyfriend and helper, C. Koch, wrote to William that he had seen Sophia and theboys, who were all well, but that both the boys and Sophie were in need offunds from the estate.(2) Sophia brought her boys back to the United States onJuly 1,1870, where they spent a good part of the summer in Long Branch, NewJersey, vacationing with the rest of the family. Also, during this time, the court case settling the estateof Charles was still in progress. It seems to have been settled around November1870, as William mentions paying the associated legal costs.(Diary, 1870-11-10)]Sophia and her sons returned to Germany August 31, 1870, so that the older boyscould continue their education with a private tutor in Braunschweig.(1) Theeducation of the sons was so important to Charles that his will included thefollowing: "I hereby nominate, constitute and appoint my wife and mybrother William Steinweg and my brother in law Jacob Zieglerto be guardians of my infant children and I desire and request that my childrenreceive a good and liberal education." (7) Sophia seemed to have the lastword about the education of the boys, as William noted in his diary that he hada letter from Sophia "in which she says that she will not permit Fred toreturn to America." (Diary, 1872-07-22) Six years later, William noted:"Sophia Fricke writes to Chas. St. that Fred. St has gone through hisArbiturienten Examen at Berlin successfully." (Diary, 1878-04-17) 1875-1890s Sophia married again, to August Fricke, the opera singer.(Diary,1875-10-05) She stayed in contact with the Steinway family, visiting them inthe United States with her new husband in 1876 (Diary, 1876-06-18), and inlater years hosting the Steinways on their European trips.(Diary, 1890-08-04)August Fricke died in London in 1894,(4) and Sophia's son Frederick, by thenworking at Steinway & Sons, headed off to Britain to be with his mother.(Diary,1894-06-28) Sophia returned again to Germany, where she died in 1919.(3) Theeldest son, Henry William Theodore (also referred to as HWT or Harbuckle)worked for Steinway & Sons for several years before entering a series oflawsuits against William and Steinway & Sons for what he considered to beobjectionable business practices; He was fired from the company and removedfrom all Steinway & Sons documents. The second son, Charles H. becamepresident of Steinway & Sons in 1896 after the death of William. Hisyounger brother Frederick (Fred, Fritz) became president in 1919 after thedeath of his brother Charles. [lgh/cah] Sources:Fostle, D. W., The Steinway Saga: An American Dynasty, New York: Scribner, 1995, p. 135.Koch, C. letter to William Steinway in New York, October 15, 1869, Steinway & Sons Collection, La Guardia and Wagner Archives, Fiorello H. LaGuardia Community College/CUNY, Long Island City, Queens, New York.Maniha, Ken, Steinway Family Genealogy."Obituary," The Musical Times, August 1, 1894, p. 554., Charles, Henry and William, letter to C.F. Theodore, March 30, 1861, Steinway & Sons Collection, LaGuardia and Wagner Archives, Fiorello H. LaGuardia Community College/CUNY, Long Island City, Queens, New YorkSteinway, Henry, U S Census 1860, County of New York, State of New York, 4th District, 6th Ward, Series M653, Roll 791, Page 229. Steinweg, Charles. Last Will and Testament, July 1, 1864, New York City **** We encourage potential and/or actual buyers to perform their own due diligence,examining the historical facts supporting the origin of any painting, andserious potential buyers will be supplied additional research materials andphotos, including of the reverse of the painting, an inscription on the reverseof the painting, canvas stamp, etc. that help establish the accurate provenance and historyof the painting. We greatly appreciate anyresearch pointers, photos, or other research materials that any individuals,particularly those interested in 19th Century German paintings, may forward us. Thank you for reading and looking at ourauction. Authenticity of any antique or painting isnot guaranteed. To the best of our knowledge the items are as we state they are,however our statements are non-expert opinions only. 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This article does not cite any references or sources. (July 2014) This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Needs to be re-alphabetized, as many painters are listed under middle names or titles (such as "von"). (June 2014) Contents A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Part of a series on the Culture of Germany History[show] People[show] Languages[show] Traditions[show] Mythology and folklore[show] Cuisine[show] Festivals Religion[show] Art[show] Literature[show] Music and performing arts[show] Media[show] Sport[show] Monuments[show] Symbols[show] Germany portal vte This is a list of German painters.A Karl Abt Tomma Abts Andreas Achenbach Oswald Achenbach Herbert Achternbusch Franz Ackermann Johann Adam Ackermann Max Ackermann Otto Ackermann Albrecht Adam Benno Adam Emil Adam Eugen Adam Franz Adam Heinrich Adam Luitpold Adam Jankel Adler Richard Adler Salomon Adler Karl Agricola August Ahlborn Alfred Ahner Erwin Aichele Wolfram Aichele Max Ainmiller Josef Albers Heinrich Jacob Aldenrath William Alexander Christian Wilhelm Allers Ernst Alt Jakob Alt Theodor Alt Kai Althoff Karl Altmann Katrin Alvarez Hans am Ende Christoph Amberger Heinrich Amersdorffer Tobias Andreae Peter Angermann Hermann Anschütz Horst Antes Johann Anton de Peters Johann Samuel Arnhold Ferdinand von Arnim Heinrich Gotthold Arnold Ulrike Arnold Georg Arnold-Graboné Carl Arp Hans Arp Otto Arpke Isidor Ascheim Dieter Aschenborn Hans Aschenborn Uli Aschenborn Fritz Ascher Louis Asher Frank Auerbach Friedrich August von Kaulbach Friedrich August Elsasser Friedrich August Bouterwek Friedrich August von KlinkowströmB Johannes Theodor Baargeld Karl Daniel Friedrich Bach Elvira Bach Emanuel Bachrach-Barée Johann Daniel Bager Johann Karl Bähr Theodor Baierl Jan Balet Karl Ballenberger Hans Baluschek Fritz Bamberger Ernst von Bandel Caroline Bardua Eduard Bargheer Hans von Bartels Emil Bartoschek Ludwig Barth Georg Baselitz Emil Bauch Herbert Bauer Michael Bauer Rudolf Bauer Gustav Bauernfeind Paul Baum Armin Baumgarten Thomas Baumgartner Willi Baumeister Karin Baumeister-Rehm Tilo Baumgartel August von Bayer Thommie Bayer Alf Bayrle Fritz Beblo Ulrich Becher August Becker Ferdinand Becker Jakob Becker Ludwig Hugo Becker Philipp Jakob Becker Max Beckmann Heinrich Beck Walter Becker Karl Becker Peter Becker Hermann Becker Benedikt Beckenkamp Ludwig Beckmann Heinz Beck Josef Konstantin Beer Adalbert Begas Carl Joseph Begas Oskar Begas Akbar Behkalam Günter Beier Johannes Beilharz Gisela Beker Hans Bellmer Eduard Bendemann Max Bentele William Berczy Charlotte Berend-Corinth Josefa Berens-Totenohl Rudolf Bergander Georg Bergmann Julius Bergmann Claus Bergen Otto Berg Max Bergmann Josef Bergenthal Michael Berger Johann Martin Bernatz Walter Bernstein Meister Bertram Sebastian Bieniek Adolf Bierbrauer Karl Eduard Biermann Peter Binoit Norbert Bisky Carl Blechen Georg Bleibtreu Fritz Bleyl Josef Block Hugo von Blomberg Oscar Bluemner Peter Blum Leopold Bode Arnold Bode Gottlieb Bodmer Pedro Boese Christian Friedrich Boetius Corbinian Böhm Hans Bohrdt Melchior Boisserée Paul Bojack Hanns Bolz Friedrich von Bömches Hinrik Bornemann Friedrich Boser Harald Julius von Bosse Otto Richard Bossert Eberhard Bosslet Anton Braith Martin Brandenburg Marianne Brandt Heinrich Brandes Alexander Braun Louis Braun Kaspar Braun VG Braun-Dusemond Rudolf Bredow Ferdinand Max Bredt K.P. Brehmer Carl Breitbach Heinrich Breling Albert Heinrich Brendel Louise Catherine Breslau Heinrich Brocksieper Christian Brod August Bromeis Franz Bronstert Hans Brosamer Wilhelm Brücke Alexander Bruckmann Ferdinand Brütt Christoph Brüx Carl Buchheister Ludwig Buchhorn Erich Buchholz Lothar-Günther Buchheim Heinz Budweg Robert Budzinski Karl Albert Buehr Franz Bunke Ludwig Burger Jonas Burgert Anton Burger Heinrich Bürkel Fritz Burkhardt Heinrich Burkhardt Peter Burnitz Friedrich Bury Wilhelm Busch Michael Buthe Bernhard Buttersack Erich Büttner André ButzerC Dalton Caffe Daniel Caffé Heinrich Campendonk Wilhelm Camphausen Massimo Campigli Peter Candid Carl Gustav Carus Ludwig Choris Philipp Christfeld Johann Christian von Mannlich Gunter Christmann Kiddy Citny Gustav Adolf Closs Ferdinand Collmann Edward Harrison Compton Edward Theodore Compton Carl Conjola Carl Emanuel Conrad Lovis Corinth Peter von Cornelius Erich Correns Molly Cramer Augustin CranachD Eduard Daege Heinrich Anton Dähling Karl Dannemann Maximilian Dasio Gabriela Dauerer Max Dauthendey Heinrich Maria Davringhausen John Decker Wilm Dedeke Ernst Deger Balthasar Denner Ludwig des Coudres Adolf des Coudres Christa Dichgans Christophe Didillon Karl Diebitsch Karl Wilhelm Diefenbach Jakob Fürchtegott Dielmann Albert Christoph Dies Wendel Dietterlin Anton Dietrich Feodor Dietz Ludwig Dill Johann Georg von Dillis Fritz Dinger Georg Friedrich Dinglinger Otto Dix Carl Emil Doepler Emil Doepler Max Doerner Jiri Georg Dokoupil Pranas Domšaitis Franz Burchard Dörbeck Johann Jakob Dorner the Elder Heinz Drache Anton Josef Dräger Heinrich Dreber Johann Friedrich Dryander Eugen Dücker Balthasar Anton Dunker Hermann Dyck Udo DzierskE Robert Eberle Konrad Eberhard Syrius Eberle Adam Eberle Johann Christian Eberlein John Giles Eccardt Michael Echter Friedrich Eckenfelder Heinrich Ambros Eckert Otto Eckmann John Eckstein Martin Eder Carl Eggers Franz Xaver Eggert Julie von Egloffstein Paul Ehrenberg Friedrich Eibner Franz Eichhorst Andreas Eigner Franz Eisenhut Knut Ekwall Marie Ellenrieder Adam Elsheimer Ludwig Elsholtz Wilhelm Emelé Edgar Ende Sylvester Engbrox Horus Engels Robert Engels Carl Engel von der Rabenau Josef Benedikt Engl Josef Otto Entres Otto Erdmann Fritz Erler Johann Franz Ermels Richard Ermisch Max Ernst Stefan Ettlinger Ernst Ewald Reinhold Ewald Julius Exter Adolf EybelF Christian Wilhelm von Faber du Faur Johann Joachim Faber Carl Ferdinand Fabritius Ludwig Fahrenkrog Jeremias Falck Joseph Fassbender Berthold Faust Joseph Fay Christian Gottlob Fechhelm Eduard Clemens Fechner Hans Feibusch Paul Feiler Friedrich Kurt Fiedler Max Feldbauer Conrad Felixmüller Ferdinand Fellner Melchior Feselen Rainer Fetting Anselm Feuerbach Martin von Feuerstein Willy Fick Johann Dominicus Fiorillo Oskar Fischer Klaus Fisch Heinz Fischer John Fischer Joseph Anton Fischer Theodor Fischer Walter Fischer Oskar Fischinger Arthur Fitger Ferdinand Wolfgang Flachenecker Albert Flamm Georg Flegel Adolf Fleischmann François Fleischbein Lutz Fleischer Max Fleischer Gerlach Flicke Fedor Flinzer Josef Fluggen Gisbert Flüggen Daniel Fohr Karl Philipp Fohr Philipp Foltz Günther Förg Ernst Joachim Förster Arnold Forstmann Kurt Frank Meister Francke Julius Frank Michael Sigismund Frank Eduard Frederich Hermann Freese Otto Freundlich Maria Elektrine von Freyberg Achim Freyer Heinrich Jakob Fried Johnny Friedlaender Fred Friedrich Caroline Friederike Friedrich Caspar David Friedrich Bernhard Fries Ernst Fries Karl Friedrich Fries Woldemar Friedrich Richard Friese Fritz Friedrichs Philipp Friedrich von Hetsch Johann Christoph Frisch Karl Ludwig Frommel Günter Fruhtrunk Werner Fuchs Ulrich Füetrer Heinrich Füger Hinrik Funhof Edmund Fürst Klaus Fußmann Conrad FyollG Eduard Gaertner Bernd Erich Gall Franz Gareis Friedrich Gärtner Heinrich Gärtner Heinrich Gätke Jakob Gauermann Ernst Gebauer Eduard von Gebhardt Josef Anton Gegenbauer Johannes Gehrts Rupprecht Geiger Otto Geigenberger Nikolaus Geiger Willi Geiger Kirsten Geisler Carl Geist Bonaventura Genelli Hanns Georgi Ludger Gerdes Eduard Gerhardt Till Gerhard Robert Gernhardt Hermann Geyer Ludwig Geyer Wilhelm Geyer Hans Freiherr von Geyer zu Lauf Torben Giehler Henning von Gierke Werner Gilles Julius E.F. Gipkens Erich Glas Horst Gläsker Ludwig von Gleichen-Rußwurm Otto Gleichmann Hermann Glöckner Gotthold Gloger Ludwig Godenschweg Paul Salvator Goldengreen Hermann Goldschmidt Dieter Goltzsche Paul Gosch Jakob Götzenberger Hermann Götz Karl Otto Götz Leo Götz Carl Götzloff Henry Gowa Gustav Graef Peter Graf Albert Gräfle August Grahl Walter Gramatté Fritz Grasshoff Gotthard Graubner Otto Greiner Otto Griebel Christian Griepenkerl HAP Grieshaber Arthur Grimm Ludwig Emil Grimm Paul Grimm Friedrich Carl Gröger Carl Grossberg George Grosz Theodor Grosse Michael Gruber Hans Grundig Emil Otto Grundmann Jakob Grünenwald Eduard von Grützner Richard Guhr Louis Gurlitt Karl Gussow Aldona GustasH Carl Haag August Haake Hugo von Habermann Wenzel Hablik Karl Hagedorn Karl Hagemeister Theodor Hagen Magda Hagstotz Wilhelm Haller Eugen Hamm Christian Gottlob Hammer Alois Hanslian Sophus Hansen Johann Gottlieb Hantzsch Heinrich Harder Harro Harring Hans Hartung Robert Hartmann Walter Hartwig Franz Hartmann Petre Hârtopeanu Wilhelm Hasemann Carl Hasenpflug Max Haushofer Florian Havemann Eberhard Havekost John Heartfield Kati Heck Hein Heckroth Michael Heckert Erich Heckel Gert Heinrich Wollheim Johann Heinrich Ramberg Wilhelm Heine Johann Heinrich Schönfeld Georg Heinrich Crola Johann Heinrich Roos Johann Heinrich Tischbein Georg Heinrich Busse Johannes Heisig Werner Heldt Wilhelm Hempfing Hermann Hendrich Wilhelm Hensel Thomas Herbst Friedrich Herlin Franz Georg Hermann Johann Hermann Carmiencke Frank Herzog Karl Hess Eva Hesse Rudolf Hesse Hans Heyer Philipp Hieronymus Brinckmann Ernst Hildebrand Eduard Hildebrandt Theodor Hildebrandt Carl Hinrichs Ludwig Hirschfeld Mack Rudolf Hirth du Frênes Dora Hitz Paul Hoecker Hannah Höch Angelika Hoerle Bernhard Hoetger Heinrich Hoffmann Wolf Hoffmann Margret Hofheinz-Döring Hans Hofmann Paul Hofmann Otto Hofmann Hans-Jörg Holubitschka Johann Evangelist Holzer Helene Holzman Barbara Honigmann Daniel Hopfer Theodor Horschelt Theodor Hosemann Woldemar Hottenroth Karl Hubbuch Konrad Huber Georg Huber Ulrich Hübner Julius Hübner Carl Hummel Otto Hupp Karl Hurm Auguste Hüssener Maria Innocentia HummelI Berthold Imhoff Jörg Immendorff Carl G. von IwonskiJ Johann Jacob Tischbein Paul Emil Jacobs Ferdinand Jagemann Michael Jäger Gustav Jäger Karl Jäger Helmut Jahn Heinrich Jakob Fried Christian Jank Peter Janssen Georg Jauss Halina Jaworski Alfred Jensen Franz Joachim Beich Rudolf Jordan Ernst Jordan Tina JuretzekK Leo Kahn Johannes Kahrs Friedrich Kaiser Aris Kalaizis Arthur Kampf Thomas Kapielski Albert Kappis Joseph Karl Stieler Suzan Emine Kaube Hans Kaufmann Hugo Kauffmann Arthur Kaufmann Friedrich Kaulbach Ferdinand Keller Moritz Kellerhoven Thomas Kemper Werner Kempf George Kenner Klark Kent Chaim Kiewe Wilhelm Kimmich Martin Kippenberger Frank Kirchbach Günther C. Kirchberger Konrad Klapheck Mati Klarwein Anna Klein Johann Adam Klein Richard Klein Paul Kleinschmidt Heinrich Kley Max Klinger Hans Kloss Robert Klümpen Georg Klusemann Karl Knabl Hermann Knackfuß Michael Knauth Heinrich Knirr Imi Knoebel Martin Kober Rudolf Koch Hans Koch Robert Koehler Matthias Koeppel Alois Kolb Heinrich Christoph Kolbe Helmut Kolle Otto Konrad Emma Körner Frank Kortan Rudolf Kortokraks Theodor Kotsch Lambert Krahe Friedrich Kraus William Krause Rudolf Kraus Wilhelm Krause Robert Kretschmer Conrad Faber von Kreuznach Andrei Krioukov Vlado Kristl Karl Kröner Sebastian Krüger Franz Krüger Friedrich Krüger Christiane Kubrick Gotthardt Kuehl Hans Kuhn Konrad Kujau Friedrich KunathL Curt Lahs Mark Lammert Christian Landenberger Friedrich Lange Joseph Lange Julius Lange Max Lange Michael Lange Michael Langer Hermann Lang Richard Lauchert Rainer Maria Latzke Paul Lautensack Franz Lefler Rudolf Lehmann Fridolin Leiber Ulrich Leman August Lemmer Ernst Leonhardt Reinhold Lepsius Sabine Lepsius Carl Friedrich Lessing Wolfgang Lettl Emanuel Leutze Max Liebermann Adolf Heinrich Lier Hans Lietzmann Hermann Linde Heinrich Eduard Linde-Walther Richard Lindner Paul Linke Karl Friedrich Lippmann Stephan Lochner August Löffler Max Lohde Otto Lohmüller Elfriede Lohse-Wächtler Bernard Lokai David Lorenz Karl Lorenz Károly Lotz Friedrich Ludwig Carl Ludwig Jessen Max Ludwig Christoph Ludwig Agricola Andreas Ludwig Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Markus Lüpertz Erika LustM Hans Maaß Thilo Maatsch Fritz Mackensen August Macke Heinz Mack Josef Madlener Alfred Mahlau Werner Maier Carl Malchin Christian Mali Lothar Malskat Henriette Manigk Ludwig Manzel Franz Marc Heinrich Maria von Hess Jacob Marrel Johann Martin von Rohden Joachim Martin Falbe Johannes Martini Karl Marx Michael Mathias Prechtl Johann Matthias Kager Fritz Maurischat Karl May Louis Mayer Carl Mayer Jonathan Meese Lothar Meggendorfer Ludwig Meidner Else Meidner Georg Meistermann Johann Melchior Roos Hans Memling Peter Menne Carlo Mense Joseph Anton Merz Hans Metzger Claus Meyer Friedrich Eduard Meyerheim Paul Friedrich Meyerheim Paul Michaelis Johann Michael Feuchtmayer Johann Michael Voltz Johann Michael Bretschneider Abraham Mignon Carl Julius Milde Paula Modersohn-Becker Manfred Mohr Christian Morgenstern Sabine Moritz Friedrich Mosbrugger Georg Muche Heinrich Mücke Armin Mueller-Stahl Otto Mueller Fritz Mühlenweg Georg Mühlberg Victor Müller Andreas Müller Otto Müller Gustav Müller Fritz Müller Ludwig Müller Paul Müller-Kaempff Herbert Müller August Müller Moritz Müller Heiko Müller Heinz Müller Maler Müller Moritz Müller Moritz Müller Gabriele Münter Gustav MützelN Paul Nagel Charles Christian Nahl Eugen Napoleon Neureuther August Natterer Julius Naue Horst Naumann Otto Nebel Carl Nebel Rolf Nesch Caspar Netscher Paul Neu Gert Neuhaus Uwe Neuhaus Wolfgang Neumann Gerhard Neumann Jo Niemeyer Emil Nolde Franz Nölken Bernt Notke Felix NussbaumO Franz Ignaz Oefele Max Oehler Ernst Erwin Oehme August Friedrich Oelenhainz Hans Olde Friedrich von Olivier Philipp Otto Runge Hermann Ottomar Herzog Michael Otto Friedrich OverbeckP Amalia Pachelbel Blinky Palermo Otto Pankok Jürgen Partenheimer Richard Paul Eduard Pechuel-Loesche Werner Peiner Carl Gottlieb Peschel Rudolf Peschel Johann Peter Krafft Philipp Peter Roos Hans Peters Wilhelm Petersen Wilhelm Peters Heinrich Petersen-Angeln Wolfgang Petrick Johann Baptist Pflug Martin Erich Philipp Jakob Philipp Hackert Georg Philipp Rugendas Georg Philipp Wörlen Gustav Philipp Zwinger Otto Piene Ludwig Pietsch Bruno Piglhein Hartmut Piniek Theodor Pixis Hermann Pleuer Bernhard Plockhorst Alois Plum Tobias Pock Leon Pohle Sigmar Polke Johann Daniel Preissler Hermann Prell Heimrad Prem Johann Georg Primavesi Hans Purrmann Leo PutzQ Franz Quaglio Simon Quaglio Otto Quante Silvia Quandt Curt Querner Tobias Querfurt August QuerfurtR A. R. Penck Johann Anton Ramboux Lilo Ramdohr Lilo Rasch-Naegele Karl Raupp Christopher Rave Anita Rée Dan Reeder Willy Reetz Theodor Rehbenitz Elke Rehder Hans Reichel Tom Reichelt Carl Theodor Reiffenstein Johann Friedrich Reiffenstein Heinrich Reinhold Robert Reinick Otto Reinhold Jacobi Carl Reinhardt Fritz Reiss Moritz Retzsch Gerhardt Wilhelm von Reutern Gustav Richter Paul Richter Hans Richter Ludwig Richter Frank Richter Erik Richter Johann Elias Ridinger August Riedel Franz Riepenhausen Johann Christoph Rincklake Thomas Ring Joachim Ringelnatz Wilhelm Ripe Otto Ritschl Paul Ritter Günter Rittner Lorenz Ritter Theodor Rocholl Carl Röchling Hermen Rode Bernhard Rode Stefan Roloff Theodor Roos Ludwig Rosenfelder Mike Rose Arthur Rose Anna Rosina de Gasc Kurt Roth Eugen Roth Ferdinand Rothbart Johannes Rottenhammer Christian Ruben Dieter RübsaamenS Jochen Sachse Rolf Sackenheim Hubert Salentin Johann Salomon Wahl Charlotte Salomon Wilhelm Sauter Edwin Scharff Hermann Schaper Thomas Scheibitz Paul Scheffer Wolfram Adalbert Scheffler Wilhelm Schirmer Adolf Schinnerer Osmar Schindler Robert Schiff Eduard Schleich the Elder Oskar Schlemmer Eberhard Schlotter Hans-Jürgen Schlieker Karl Schlösser Torsten Schlüter Max Schmidt Joost Schmidt Alfred Schmidt Julia Schmidt Wolfgang Schmidt Jürgen Schmitt Hermann Schmitz Gerda Schmidt-Panknin Marc Schmitz Georg Friedrich Schmidt Leonhard Schmidt Karl Schmidt-Rottluff Sascha Schneider Robert Schneider Paul Schneider Joseph Anton Schneiderfranken Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld Friedrich Schneider Georg Scholz Otto Scholderer Karl Schorn Ludwig Schongauer Richard Schoenfeld Heinrich Schönfeld Julius Schoppe Georg Schrimpf Lothar Schreyer Adolf Schreyer Ernst Schroeder Hans Schröder Werner Schramm Liselotte Schramm-Heckmann Emil Schumacher Peter Schubert Bernard Schultze Daniel Schultz Fritz Schwegler Heinrich Schwarz Carlos Schwabe Otto Schwerdgeburth Kurt Schwitters Reinhard Sebastian Zimmermann Johann Sebastian Bach Adolf Seel Else Sehrig-Vehling Louise Seidler Joseph Anton Settegast Oskar Seyffert Richard Simon Franz Skarbina Dirk Skreber Maria Slavona Max Slevogt Karl Ferdinand Sohn Daniel Soreau Isaak Soreau Michael Sowa August Specht Friedrich Specht Erwin Speckter Hans Speidel Johann Sperl Walter Spies Eugene Spiro Carl Spitzweg Hans Springinklee Anton Stankowski Carl Steffeck Hermann Stehr Jakob Steinhardt David D. Stern Max Stern Robert Sterl Franz Seraph Stirnbrand Dora Stock Curt Stoermer Fritz Stoltenberg Sebastian Stoskopff Willy Stöwer Paul Strecker Bernhard Strigel Hermann Struck Fritz Stuckenberg Absolon Stumme Emil Stumpp Helmut Sturm Karl Stürmer Rudolph Suhrlandt Florian Süssmayr Stefan SzczesnyT Ruben Talberg Ebba Tesdorpf Heinz Tetzner Carl Theodor von Piloty Anna Dorothea Therbusch Ludwig Thiersch Günther Thiersch Hans Thoma Paul Thumann Ernst Toepfer Christiaan Tonnis Martin Torp Gero Trauth Hann Trier Wilhelm TrübnerU Otto Ubbelohde Günther Uecker Philipp Uffenbach Fred Uhlman Hans Ulrich Franck Lesser Ury Adolf UzarskiV Johann Valentin Tischbein Johan van den Mynnesten Funny van Dannen Philipp Veit Johannes Veit Frederick Vezin Henry Vianden Carl Christian Vogel von Vogelstein Heinrich Vogeler Karl Völker Adolph Friedrich Vollmer Friedrich Voltz Fritz von Uhde Joachim von Sandrart Hilla von Rebay Wilhelm von Kügelgen Leo von Klenze Karl von Kügelgen Hans von Aachen Hans von Marées Karl von Enhuber Philipp von Foltz Peter von Hess Ludwig von Herterich Wilhelm von Kobell Ludwig von Löfftz Ludwig von Hofmann Carl von Marr Clemens von Zimmermann Franz von Stuck August von Kreling Ludwig von Hagn Adolf von Heydeck Franz von Lenbach Theobald von Oer Wilhelm von Köln Thomas von Nathusius Hans von Bartels Gabriel von Hackl Hugo von Blomberg Gerhard von Kügelgen Henning von Gierke Patrick von Kalckreuth Benjamin von Block Karl von Appen Wilhelm von Diez Hermann von Kaulbach Bernhard von Neher Heinrich von Rustige Heinrich von Zügel Alexej von Jawlensky Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart Wolf VostellW Manfred W. Jürgens Rolf Wagner Carl Wagner Hans Wagner Horst Walter Petrus Wandrey Corinne Wasmuht August Weber Theodor Weber Hubert Weber Paul Weber Felix Weber Vincent Weber Johannes Wechtlin Karl Weinmair Max Weinberg Friedrich Georg Weitsch Theodor Leopold Weller Gottlieb Welté Walter Werneburg Fritz Werner Eberhard Werner Wilhelm Wessel Brigitta Westphal Fritz Wiedemann Albert Wigand Christian Wilberg Ludwig Wilding Karl Wilhelm Wach Ernst Wilhelm Nay Friedrich Wilhelm Kuhnert Carl Wilhelm von Heideck Johann Wilhelm Cordes Christian Wilhelm Ernst Dietrich Paul Wilhelm Johann Wilhelm Baur Hermann Wilhelm Johann Wilhelm Beyer Hugo Wilhelm Arthur Nahl Johann Wilhelm Schirmer August von Wille Michael Willmann Albert Windisch Harald Winter Fritz Winter Hermann Wislicenus Adolf Wissel Johann Michael Wittmer Julie Wolfthorn Karl Wolf Balduin Wolff Joseph Wolf Michael Wolff Michael Wolgemut Walter Womacka Franz Wulfhagen Paul Wunderlich Noah Wunsch Franz Xaver WinterhalterXYZ Johann Zacharias Kneller Erich Zander Herbert Zangs Johann Eleazar Zeissig Bartholomäus Zeitblom Wolfgang Zelmer Januarius Zick Alexander Zick Adolf Ziegler Adolf Zimmermann Albert Zimmermann Max Zimmermann Emil Zimmermann HP Zimmer Richard Zimmermann Carl ZimmermannGerman art From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Late Gothic altar by Tilman RiemenschneiderCulture of Germany Architecture Art Cinema Cuisine Fashion Folklore Literature Media Music Philosophy Sciences Sports vte German art has a long and distinguished tradition in the visual arts, from the earliest known work of figurative art to its current output of contemporary art. Germany has only been united into a single state since the 19th century, and defining its borders has been a notoriously difficult and painful process. For earlier periods German art often effectively includes that produced in German-speaking regions including Austria, Alsace and much of Switzerland, as well as largely German-speaking cities or regions to the east of the modern German borders. Contents1 Prehistory to Late Antiquity2 Middle Ages3 Renaissance painting and prints4 Sculpture5 17th to 19th-century painting5.1 Baroque, Rococo and Neoclassicism5.2 Writing about art5.3 Romanticism and the Nazarenes5.4 Naturalism and beyond6 20th century6.1 Weimar period6.2 Art in the Third Reich7 Post WWII art8 Notes9 References10 Further readingPrehistory to Late Antiquity Venus of Hohle Fels, 35,000 to 40,000 BP, the oldest known figurative work of art (true height 6 cm (2.4 in)). The area of modern Germany is rich in finds of prehistoric art, including the Venus of Hohle Fels. This appears to be the oldest undisputed example of Upper Paleolithic art and figurative sculpture of the human form in general, from over 35,000 years BP, which was only discovered in 2008;[1] the better-known Venus of Willendorf (24–22,000 BP) comes from a little way over the Austrian border. The spectacular finds of Bronze Age golden hats are centred on Germany, as was the "central" form of Urnfield culture, and Hallstatt culture. In the Iron Age the "Celtic" La Tène culture centred on Western Germany and Eastern France, and Germany has produced many major finds of Celtic art like the elite burials at Reinheim and Hochdorf, and oppida towns like Glauberg, Manching and Heuneburg. After lengthy wars, the Roman Empire settled its frontiers in Germania with the Limes Germanicus to include much of the south and west of modern Germany. The German provinces produced art in provincial versions of Roman styles, but centres there, as over the Rhine in France, were large-scale producers of fine Ancient Roman pottery, exported all over the Empire. Rheinzabern was one of the largest, which has been well-excavated and has a dedicated museum.[2] Non-Romanized areas of the later Roman period fall under Migration Period art, notable for metalwork, especially jewellery (the largest pieces apparently mainly worn by men).Middle Ages The Bamberg Apocalypse, from the Ottonian Reichenau School, achieves monumentality in a small scale. 1000–1020. German medieval art really begins with the Frankish Empire of Charlemagne (d. 814), the first state to rule the great majority of the modern territory of Germany, as well as France and much of Italy. Carolingian art was restricted to a relatively small number of objects produced for a circle around the court and a number of Imperial abbeys they sponsored, but had a huge influence on later Medieval art across Europe. The most common type of object to survive is the illuminated manuscript; wall paintings were evidently common but, like the buildings that housed them, have nearly all vanished. The earlier centres of illumination were located in modern France, but later Metz in Lorraine and the Abbey of Saint Gall in modern Switzerland came to rival them. The Drogo Sacramentary and Folchard Psalter are among the manuscripts they produced.[3] No Carolingian monumental sculpture survives, although perhaps the most important patronage of Charlemagne was his commissioning of a life-size gold figure of Christ on a crucifix for his Palatine Chapel in Aachen; this is only known from literary references and was probably gold foil around a wooden base, probably modelled with a gesso layer, like the later and rather crumpled Golden Madonna of Essen. Early Christian art had not featured monumental sculptures of religious figures as opposed to rulers, as these were strongly associated by the Church Fathers with the cult idols of Ancient Roman religion. Byzantine art and modern Eastern Orthodox religious art have maintained the prohibition to the present day, but Western art was apparently decisively influenced by the example of Charlemagne to abandon it. Charlemagne's circle wished to revive the glories of classical style, which they mostly knew in its Late Antique form, and also to compete with Byzantine art, in which they appear to have been helped by refugee artists from the convulsions of the Byzantine iconoclasm. As Charlemagne himself does not appear to have been very interested in visual art, his political rivalry with the Byzantine Empire, supported by the Papacy, may have contributed to the strong pro-image position expressed in the Libri Carolini, which set out the position on images held with little variation by the Western Church for the rest of the Middle Ages, and beyond.[4] Under the next Ottonian dynasty, whose core territory approximated more closely to modern Germany, Austria, and German-speaking Switzerland, Ottonian art was mainly a product of the large monasteries, especially Reichenau which was the leading Western artistic centre in the second half of the 10th century. The Reichenau style uses simplified and patterned shapes to create strongly expressive images, far from the classical aspirations of Carolingian art, and looking forward to the Romanesque. The wooden Gero Cross of 965–970 in Cologne Cathedral is both the oldest and the finest early medieval near life-size crucifix figure; art historians had been reluctant to credit the records giving its date until they were confirmed by dendrochronology in 1976.[5] As in the rest of Europe, metalwork was still the most prestigious form of art, in works like the jewelled Cross of Lothair, made about 1000, probably in Cologne. Romanesque carving from Maria Laach Abbey Romanesque art was the first artistic movement to encompass the whole of Western Europe, though with regional varieties. Germany was a central part of the movement, though German Romanesque architecture made rather less use of sculpture than that of France. With increasing prosperity massive churches were built in cities all over Germany, no longer just those patronized by the Imperial circle.[6] The French invented the Gothic style, and Germany was slow to adopt it, but once it had done so Germans made it their own, and continued to use it long after the rest of Europe had abandoned it. According to Henri Focillon, Gothic allowed German art "to define for the first time certain aspects of its native genius-a vigorous and emphatic conception of life and form, in which theatrical ostentation mingled with vehement emotional frankness."[7] The Bamberg Horseman of the 1330s, in Bamberg Cathedral, is the oldest large post-antique standing stone equestrian statue; more medieval princely tomb monuments have survived from Germany than France or England. Romanesque and Early Gothic churches had wall paintings in local versions of international styles, of which few artists' names are known.[8] Three Foolish Virgins, Magdeburg Cathedral, c. 1250. The court of the Holy Roman Emperor, then based in Prague, played an important part in forming the International Gothic style in the late 14th century.[9] The style was spread around the wealthy cities of Northern Germany by artists such Conrad von Soest in Westphalia and Meister Bertram in Hamburg, and later Stefan Lochner in Cologne. Hamburg was one of the cities in the Hanseatic League, then at the height of its prosperity, and Bertram was succeeded in the city by artists such as Master Francke, the Master of the Malchin Altar, Hans Bornemann, Hinrik Funhof and Wilm Dedeke who survived into the Renaissance period. Hanseatic artists painted commissions for Baltic cities in Scandinavia and the modern Baltic states to the east. In the south, the Master of the Bamberg Altar is the first significant painter based in Nuremberg, while the Master of Heiligenkreuz and then Michael Pacher worked in Austria. Like that of Pacher, the workshop of Bernt Notke, a painter from the Hanseatic city of Lübeck, both painted altarpieces or carved them in the increasingly elaborate painted and gilded style used as frameworks or alternatives for painted panels. South German wood sculpture was important in developing new subjects that reflected the intensely emotional devotional life encouraged by movements in late medieval Catholicism such as German mysticism. These are often known in English as andachtsbilder (devotional images) and include the Pietà, Pensive Christ, Man of Sorrows, Arma Christi, Veil of Veronica, the severed head of John the Baptist, and the Virgin of Sorrows, many of which would spread across Europe and remain popular until the Baroque and, in popular religious imagery, beyond. Indeed "Late Gothic Baroque" is a term sometimes used to describe hyper-decorated and emotional 15th-century art, above all in Germany.[10] Martin Schongauer, who worked in Alsace in the last part of the 15th century, was the culmination of late Gothic German painting, with a sophisticated and harmonious style, but he increasingly spent his time producing engravings, for which national and international channels of distribution had developed, so that his prints were known in Italy and other countries. His predecessors were the Master of the Playing Cards and Master E. S., both also from the Upper Rhine region.[11] German conservatism is shown in the late use of gold backgrounds, still used by many artists well into the 15th century.[12]Renaissance painting and prints The Heller altar by Albrecht Dürer The concept of the Northern Renaissance or German Renaissance is somewhat confused by the continuation of the use of elaborate Gothic ornament until well into the 16th century, even in works that are undoubtedly Renaissance in their treatment of the human figure and other respects. Classical ornament had little historical resonance in much of Germany, but in other respects Germany was very quick to follow developments, especially in adopting printing with movable type, a German invention that remained almost a German monopoly for some decades, and was first brought to most of Europe, including France and Italy, by Germans. Printmaking by woodcut and engraving (perhaps another German invention) was already more developed in Germany and the Low Countries than anywhere else, and the Germans took the lead in developing book illustrations, typically of a relatively low artistic standard, but seen all over Europe, with the woodblocks often being lent to printers of editions in other cities or languages. The greatest artist of the German Renaissance, Albrecht Dürer, began his career as an apprentice to a leading workshop in Nuremberg, that of Michael Wolgemut, who had largely abandoned his painting to exploit the new medium. Dürer worked on the most extravagantly illustrated book of the period, the Nuremberg Chronicle, published by his godfather Anton Koberger, Europe's largest printer-publisher at the time. After completing his apprenticeship in 1490, Dürer travelled in Germany for four years, and Italy for a few months, before establishing his own workshop in Nuremberg. He rapidly became famous all over Europe for his energetic and balanced woodcuts and engravings, while also painting. Though retaining a distinctively German style, his work shows strong Italian influence, and is often taken to represent the start of the German Renaissance in visual art, which for the next forty years replaced the Netherlands and France as the area producing the greatest innovation in Northern European art. Dürer supported Martin Luther but continued to create Madonnas and other Catholic imagery, and paint portraits of leaders on both sides of the emerging split of the Protestant Reformation. The Crucifixion, central panel of the Isenheim Altarpiece by Matthias Grünewald. Dürer died in 1528, before it was clear that the split of the Reformation had become permanent, but his pupils of the following generation were unable to avoid taking sides. Most leading German artists became Protestants, but this deprived them of painting most religious works, previously the mainstay of artists' revenue. Martin Luther had objected to much Catholic imagery, but not to imagery itself, and Lucas Cranach the Elder, a close friend of Luther, had painted a number of "Lutheran altarpieces", mostly showing the Last Supper, some with portraits of the leading Protestant divines as the Twelve Apostles. This phase of Lutheran art was over before 1550, probably under the more fiercely aniconic influence of Calvinism, and religious works for public display virtually ceased to be produced in Protestant areas. Presumably largely because of this, the development of German art had virtually ceased by about 1550, but in the preceding decades German artists had been very fertile in developing alternative subjects to replace the gap in their order books. Cranach, apart from portraits, developed a format of thin vertical portraits of provocative nudes, given classical or Biblical titles.[13] Lying somewhat outside these developments is Matthias Grünewald, who left very few works, but whose masterpiece, his Isenheim Altarpiece (completed 1515), has been widely regarded as the greatest German Renaissance painting since it was restored to critical attention in the 19th century. It is an intensely emotional work that continues the German Gothic tradition of unrestrained gesture and expression, using Renaissance compositional principles, but all in that most Gothic of forms, the multi-winged triptych.[14] Albrecht Altdorfer (c.1480–1538), Danube landscape near Regensburg c. 1528, one of the earliest Western pure landscapes, from the Danube School in southern Germany. The Danube School is the name of a circle of artists of the first third of the 16th century in Bavaria and Austria, including Albrecht Altdorfer, Wolf Huber and Augustin Hirschvogel. With Altdorfer in the lead, the school produced the first examples of independent landscape art in the West (nearly 1,000 years after China), in both paintings and prints.[15] Their religious paintings had an expressionist style somewhat similar to Grünewald's. Dürer's pupils Hans Burgkmair and Hans Baldung Grien worked largely in prints, with Baldung developing the topical subject matter of witches in a number of enigmatic prints.[16] Hans Holbein the Elder and his brother Sigismund Holbein painted religious works in the late Gothic style. Hans the Elder was a pioneer and leader in the transformation of German art from the Gothic to the Renaissance style. His son, Hans Holbein the Younger was an important painter of portraits and a few religious works, working mainly in England and Switzerland. Holbein's well known series of small woodcuts on the Dance of Death relate to the works of the Little Masters, a group of printmakers who specialized in very small and highly detailed engravings for bourgeois collectors, including many erotic subjects.[17] The outstanding achievements of the first half of the 16th century were followed by several decades with a remarkable absence of noteworthy German art, other than accomplished portraits that never rival the achievement of Holbein or Dürer. The next significant German artists worked in the rather artificial style of Northern Mannerism, which they had to learn in Italy or Flanders. Hans von Aachen and the Netherlandish Bartholomeus Spranger were the leading painters at the Imperial courts in Vienna and Prague, and the productive Netherlandish Sadeler family of engravers spread out across Germany, among other counties.[18] This style was continued for another generation by Bartholomeus Strobel, an example of an essentially German artist born and working in Silesia, in today's Poland, until he emigrated to escape the Thirty Years War and become painter at the Polish court. Adam Elsheimer, the most influential German artist in the 17th century, spent his whole mature career in Italy, where he began by working for another emigré Hans Rottenhammer. Both produced highly finished cabinet paintings, mostly on copper, with classical themes and landscape backgrounds.Sculpture Wessobrunner stucco at Schussenried Abbey In Catholic parts of South Germany the Gothic tradition of wood carving continued to flourish until the end of the 18th century, adapting to changes in style through the centuries. Veit Stoss (d. 1533), Tilman Riemenschneider (d.1531) and Peter Vischer the Elder (d. 1529) were Dürer's contemporaries, and their long careers covered the transition between the Gothic and Renaissance periods, although their ornament often remained Gothic even after their compositions began to reflect Renaissance principles.[19] Two and a half centuries later, Johann Joseph Christian and Ignaz Günther were leading masters in the late Baroque period, both dying in the late 1770s, barely a decade before the French Revolution. A vital element in the effect of German Baroque interiors was the work of the Wessobrunner School, a later term for the stuccoists of the late 17th and 18th centuries. Another manifestation of German sculptural skill was in porcelain; the most famous modeller is Johann Joachim Kaendler of the Meissen factory in Dresden, but the best work of Franz Anton Bustelli for the Nymphenburg Porcelain Manufactory in Munich is often considered the greatest achievement of 18th century porcelain.[20]17th to 19th-century painting The Fall of Phaeton by Johann Liss. Gottlieb Schick, Frau von Cotta, 1802Baroque, Rococo and Neoclassicism Baroque painting was slow to arrive in Germany, with very little before about 1650, but once established seems to have suited German taste well. Baroque and Rococo periods saw German art producing mostly works derivative of developments elsewhere, though numbers of skilled artists in various genres were active. The period remains little-known outside Germany, and though it "never made any claim to be among the great schools of painting", its neglect by non-German art history remains striking.[21] Many distinguished foreign painters spent periods working in Germany for princes, among them Bernardo Bellotto in Dresden and elsewhere, and Gianbattista Tiepolo, who spent three years painting the Würzburg Residence with his son. Many German painters worked abroad, including Johann Liss who worked mainly in Venice, Joachim von Sandrart and Ludolf Bakhuisen, the leading marine artist of the final years of Dutch Golden Age painting. In the late 18th century the portraitist Heinrich Füger and his pupil Johann Peter Krafft, whose best known works are three large murals in the Hofburg, had both moved to Vienna as students and stayed there.[22] Neoclassicism appears rather earlier in Germany than in France, with Anton Raphael Mengs (1728–79), the Danish painter Asmus Jacob Carstens (1754–98), and the sculptor Gottfried Schadow (1764–1850). Mengs was one of the most highly regarded artists of his day, working in Rome, Madrid and elsewhere, and finding an early Neo-Classical style that now seems rather effete, although his portraits are more effective. Carstens' shorter career was turbulent and troubled, leaving a trail of unfinished works, but through pupils and friends such as Gottlieb Schick, Joseph Anton Koch and Bonaventura Genelli, more influential.[23] Koch was born in the mountains of the Austrian Tyrol and became the leading Continental painter of landscapes, concentrating on mountain views, despite spending much of his career in Rome. Daniel Chodowiecki was born in Danzig, and at least partly identified as Polish, although he only spoke German and French. His paintings and hundreds of prints, book illustrations and political cartoons are an invaluable visual record of the everyday life and the increasingly complex mentality of Enlightenment Germany, and its emerging Nationalism.[24] The Swiss-born Anton Graff was a prolific portraitist in Dresden, who painted literary figures as well as the court. The Tischbein dynasty were solid all-rounders who covered most of the 18th century between them, as did the Zick family, initially mainly painters of grand Baroque ceilings, who were still active in the 20th century in the person of the illustrator Alexander Zick.[25] Both the Asam brothers, and Johann Baptist Zimmermann and his brother, were able between them to provide a complete service for commissions for churches and palaces, designing the building and executing the stucco and wall-paintings. The combined effect of all the elements of these buildings in South Germany, Austria and Bohemia, especially their interiors, represent some of the most complete and extreme realizations of the Baroque aspiration to overwhelm the viewer with the "radiant fairy world of the nobleman's dwelling", or the "foretaste of the glories of Paradise" in the case of churches.[26] The earliest German academy was the Akademie der Künste founded in Berlin in 1696, and through the next two centuries a number of other cities established their own institutions, in parallel with developments in other European nations. In Germany the uncertain market for art in a country divided into a multitude of small states meant that significant German artists have been to the present day more likely to accept teaching posts in the academies and their successor institutions than their equivalents in England or France have been. In general German academies imposed a particular style less rigidly than was for long the case in Paris, London, Moscow or elsewhere.Writing about art Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog (1818) The Enlightenment period saw German writers becoming leading theorists and critics of art, led by Johann Joachim Winckelmann, who exalted Ancient Greek art and, despite never visiting Greece or actually seeing many Ancient Greek statues, set out an analysis distinguishing between the main periods of Ancient Greek art, and relating them to wider historical movements. Winckelmann's work marked the entry of art history into the high-philosophical discourse of German culture; he was read avidly by Goethe and Friedrich Schiller, both of whom began to write on the history of art, and his account of the Laocoon occasioned a response by Lessing. Goethe had tried to train as an artist, and his landscape sketches show "occasional flashes of emotion in the presence of nature which are quite isolated in the period".[27] The emergence of art as a major subject of philosophical speculation was solidified by the appearance of Immanuel Kant's Critique of Judgment in 1790, and was furthered by Hegel's Lectures on Aesthetics. In the following century, German universities were the first teach art history as an academic subject, beginning the leading position that Germany (and Austria) was to occupy in the study of art history until the dispersal of scholars abroad in the Nazi period. Johann Gottfried Herder championed what he identified in the Gothic and Dürer as specifically Germanic styles, beginning an argument over the proper models for a German artist against the so-called "Tyranny of Greece over Germany" that would last nearly two centuries.[28]Romanticism and the Nazarenes German Romanticism saw a revival of innovation and distinctiveness in German art. Outside Germany only Caspar David Friedrich is well-known, but there were a number of artists with very individual styles, notably Philipp Otto Runge, who like Friedrich had trained at the Copenhagen Academy and was forgotten after his death until a revival in the 20th century. Friedrich painted almost entirely landscapes, with a distinctive Northern feel, and always a feeling of quasi-religious stillness. Often his figures are seen from behind – they like the viewer are lost in contemplation of the landscape.[29] Runge's portraits, mostly of his own circle, are naturalistic except for his huge-faced children, but the other works in his brief career increasingly reflected a visionary pantheism.[30] Adrian Ludwig Richter is mainly remembered for his portraits, and Carl Wilhelm Kolbe was purely an etcher (as well as a philologist), whose later prints show figures almost swallowed up by gigantic vegetation.[31] Johann Friedrich Overbeck of the Nazarene movement, Italia und Germania. The Nazarene movement, the coinage of a mocking critic, denotes a group of early 19th-century German Romantic painters who aimed to revive honesty and spirituality in Christian art. The principal motivation of the Nazarenes was a reaction against Neoclassicism and the routine art education of the academy system. They hoped to return to art which embodied spiritual values, and sought inspiration in artists of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance, rejecting what they saw as the superficial virtuosity of later art. Their programme was not dissimilar to that of the English Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in the 1850s, although the core group took it as far as wearing special pseudo-medieval clothing. In 1810 Johann Friedrich Overbeck, Franz Pforr, Ludwig Vogel and the Swiss Johann Konrad Hottinger moved to Rome, where they occupied the abandoned monastery of San Isidoro. They were joined by Philipp Veit, Peter von Cornelius, Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow and a loose grouping of other German artists. They met up with the Austrian romantic landscape artist Joseph Anton Koch, (1768–1839) who became an unofficial tutor to the group. In 1827 they were joined by Joseph von Führich, and Eberhard Wächter was later associated with the group. Unlike the strong support given to the Pre-Raphaelites by the dominant art critic of the day, John Ruskin, Goethe was dismissive of the Nazarenes: "This the first case in the history of art when real talents have taken the fancy to form themselves backwards by retreating into their mother's womb, and thus found a new epoch in art."[32] Led by the Nazarene Schadow, son of the sculptor, the Düsseldorf school was a group of artists who painted mostly landscapes, and who studied at, or were influenced by the Düsseldorf Academy, founded in 1767. The academy's influence grew in the 1830s and 1840s, and it had many American students, several of whom became associated with the Hudson River School. The family of the painter Carl Begas, 1808, celebrating domesticity in Biedermeier styleNaturalism and beyond Biedermeier refers to a style in literature, music, the visual arts and interior design in the period between the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 and the revolutions of 1848. Biedermeier art appealed to the prosperous middle classes by detailed but polished realism, often celebrating domestic virtues, and came to dominate over French-leaning aristocratic tastes, as well as the yearnings of Romanticism. Carl Spitzweg was a leading German artist in the style.[33] In the second half of the 19th century a number of styles developed, paralleling trends in other European counties, though the lack of a dominant capital city probably contributed to even more diversity of styles than in other countries.[34] Franz Stuck (1873) Sünde (Sin) Adolph Menzel enjoyed enormous popularity both among the German public and officialdom; at his funeral Kaiser Wilhelm II walked behind his coffin. He dramaticised past and contemporary Prussian military successes both in paintings and brilliant wood engravings illustrating books, yet his domestic subjects are intimate and touching. He followed the development of early Impressionism to create a style that he used for depicting grand public occasions, among other subjects like his Studio Wall. Karl von Piloty was a leading academic painter of history subjects in the latter part of the century who taught in Munich; among his more famous pupils were Hans Makart, Franz von Lenbach, Franz Defregger, Gabriel von Max and Eduard von Grützner. The term "Munich school" is used both of German and of Greek painting, after Greeks like Georgios Jakobides studied under him. The Berlin Secession was a group founded in 1898 by painters including Max Liebermann, who broadly shared the artistic approach of Manet and the French Impressionists, and Lovis Corinth then still painting in a naturalistic style. The group survived until the 1930s, despite splits, and its regular exhibitions helped launch the next two generations of Berlin artists, without imposing a particular style.[35] Near the end of the century, the Benedictine Beuron Art School developed a style, mostly for religious murals, in rather muted colours, with a medievalist interest in pattern that drew from Les Nabis and in some ways looked forward to Art Nouveau or the Jugendstil ("Youth Style") as it is known in German.[36] Franz von Stuck and Max Klinger are the leading German Symbolist painters.20th century Rehe im Walde ("Roe deer in the forest") by Franz Marc Even more than in other countries, German art in the early 20th century developed through a number of loose groups and movements, many covering other artistic media as well, and often with a specific political element, as with the Arbeitsrat für Kunst and November Group, both formed in 1918. By the 1920s a "Cartel of advanced artistic groups in Germany" (Kartell fortschrittlicher Künstlergruppen in Deutschland) was found necessary. Die Brücke ("The Bridge") was one of two groups of German painters fundamental to expressionism, the other being Der Blaue Reiter group. Die Brücke was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905 by architecture students who wanted to be painters: Fritz Bleyl (1880–1966), Erich Heckel (1883–1970), Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880–1938) and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff (1884–1976), with Max Pechstein and others later joining.[37] The notoriously individualistic Emil Nolde (1867–1956) was briefly a member of Die Brücke, but was at odds with the younger members of the group. Die Brücke moved to Berlin in 1911, where it eventually dissolved in 1913. Perhaps their most important contribution had been the rediscovery of the woodcut as a valid medium for original artistic expression. Der Blaue Reiter ("The Blue Rider") formed in Munich, Germany in 1911. Wassily Kandinsky, Franz Marc, August Macke, Alexej von Jawlensky, Marianne von Werefkin and others founded the group in response to the rejection of Kandinsky's painting Last Judgment from an exhibition by Neue Künstlervereinigung—another artists' group of which Kandinsky had been a member. The name Der Blaue Reiter derived from Marc's enthusiasm for horses, and from Kandinsky's love of the colour blue. For Kandinsky, blue is the colour of spirituality—the darker the blue, the more it awakens human desire for the eternal (see his 1911 book On the Spiritual in Art). Kandinsky had also titled a painting Der Blaue Reiter (see illustration) in 1903.[38] The intense sculpture and printmaking of Käthe Kollwitz was strongly influenced by Expressionism, which also formed the starting point for the young artists who went on to join other tendencies within the movements of the early 20th century.[39] Otto Dix, Portrait of the Journalist Sylvia von Harden, 1926 Die Brücke and Der Blaue Reiter were both examples of tendency of early 20th-century German art to be "honest, direct, and spiritually engaged"[40] The difference in how the two groups attempted this were telling, however. The artists of Der Blaue Reiter were less oriented towards intense expression of emotion and more towards theory- a tendency which would lead Kandinsky to pure abstraction. Still, it was the spiritual and symbolic properties of abstract form that were important. There were therefore Utopian tones to Kandinsky's abstractions: "We have before us an age of conscious creation, and this new spirit in painting is going hand in hand with thoughts toward an epoch of greater spirituality."[41] Die Brücke also had Utopian tendencies, but took the medieval craft guild as a model of cooperative work that could better society- "Everyone who with directness and authenticity conveys that which drives him to creation belongs to us".[42] The Bauhaus also shared these Utopian leanings, seeking to combine fine and applied arts (Gesamtkunstwerk) with a view towards creating a better society.Weimar period A major feature of German art in the early 20th century until 1933 was a boom in the production of works of art of a grotesque style.[43][44] Artists using the Satirical-Grotesque genre included George Grosz, Otto Dix and Max Beckmann, at least in their works of the 1920s. Dada in Germany, the leading practitioners of which were Kurt Schwitters and Hannah Höch, was centered in Berlin, where it tended to be more politically oriented than Dada groups elsewhere.[45] They made important contributions to the development of collage as a medium for political commentary- Schwitters later developed his Merzbau, a forerunner of installation art.[45] Dix and Grosz were also associated with the Berlin Dada group. Max Ernst led a Dada group in Cologne, where he also practiced collage, but with a greater interest in Gothic fantasy than in overt political content- this hastened his transition into surrealism, of which he became the leading German practitioner.[46] The Swiss-born Paul Klee, Lyonel Feininger and others experimented with cubism. The New Objectivity, or Neue Sachlichkeit (new matter-of-factness), was an art movement which arose in Germany during the 1920s as an outgrowth of, and in opposition to, expressionism. It is thus post-expressionist and applied to works of visual art as well as literature, music, and architecture. It describes the stripped-down, simplified building style of the Bauhaus and the Weissenhof Settlement, the urban planning and public housing projects of Bruno Taut and Ernst May, and the industrialization of the household typified by the Frankfurt kitchen. Grosz and Dix were leading figures, forming the "Verist" side of the movement with Beckmann and Christian Schad, Rudolf Schlichter, Georg Scholz (in his early work), Elfriede Lohse-Wächtler, and Karl Hubbuch. The other tendency is sometimes called Magic Realism, and included Anton Räderscheidt, Georg Schrimpf, Alexander Kanoldt, and Carl Grossberg. Unlike some of the other groupings, the Neue Sachlichkeit was never a formal group, and its artists were associated with other groups; the term was invented by a sympathetic curator, and "Magic Realism" by an art critic.[47] Plakatstil, "poster style" in German, was an early style of poster design that began in the early 20th century, using bold, straight fonts with very simple designs, in contrast to Art Nouveau posters. Lucian Bernhard was a leading figure.Art in the Third Reich Made in Germany (German: Den macht uns keiner nach), by George Grosz, drawn in pen 1919, photo-lithograph 1920. Main article: Art of the Third Reich The Nazi regime banned modern art, which they condemned as degenerate art (from the German: entartete Kunst). According to Nazi ideology, modern art deviated from the prescribed norm of classical beauty. While the 1920s to 1940s are considered the heyday of modern art movements, there were conflicting nationalistic movements that resented abstract art, and Germany was no exception. Avant-garde German artists were now branded both enemies of the state and a threat to the German nation. Many went into exile, with relatively few returning after World War II. Dix was one who remained, being conscripted into the Volkssturm Home Guard militia; Pechstein kept his head down in rural Pomerania. Nolde also stayed, creating his "unpainted pictures" in secret after being forbidden to paint. Beckmann, Ernst, Grosz, Feininger and others went to America, Klee to Switzerland, where he died. Kirchner committed suicide. In July, 1937, the Nazis mounted a polemical exhibition entitled Entartete Kunst (Degenerate Art), in Munich; it subsequently travelled to eleven other cities in Germany and Austria. The show was intended as an official condemnation of modern art, and included over 650 paintings, sculptures, prints, and books from the collections of thirty two German museums. Expressionism, which had its origins in Germany, had the largest proportion of paintings represented. Simultaneously, and with much pageantry, the Nazis presented the Grosse deutsche Kunstausstellung (Great German art exhibition) at the palatial Haus der deutschen Kunst (House of German Art). This exhibition displayed the work of officially approved artists such as Arno Breker and Adolf Wissel. At the end of four months Entartete Kunst had attracted over two million visitors, nearly three and a half times the number that visited the nearby Grosse deutsche Kunstausstellung.[48]Post WWII art Joseph Beuys, wearing his ubiquitous fedora, delivers a lecture on his theory of social sculpture, 1978 Post-war art trends in Germany can broadly be divided into Neo-expressionism and Conceptualism. Especially notable neo-expressionists include or included Georg Baselitz, Anselm Kiefer, Jörg Immendorff, A. R. Penck, Markus Lüpertz, Peter Robert Keil and Rainer Fetting. Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin Kippenberger, Gerhard Richter, Sigmar Polke, and Neo Rauch. Leading German conceptual artists include or included Bernd and Hilla Becher, Hanne Darboven, Hans-Peter Feldmann, Hans Haacke, and Charlotte Posenenske.[49] The Performance artist, sculptor, and theorist Joseph Beuys was perhaps the most influential German artist of the late 20th century.[50] His main contribution to theory was the expansion of the Gesamtkunstwerk to include the whole of society, as expressed by his famous expression "Everyone is an artist". This expanded concept of art, known as social sculpture, defines everything that contributes creatively to society as artistic in nature. The form this took in his oeuvre varied from richly metaphoric, almost shamanistic performances based on his personal mythology (How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare, I Like America and America Likes Me) to more direct and utilitarian expressions, such as 7000 Oaks and his activities in the Green party. Famous for their happenings are HA Schult and Wolf Vostell. Wolf Vostell is also known for his early installations with television. His first installations with television the Cycle Black Room from 1958 was shown in Wuppertal at the Galerie Parnass in 1963 and his installation 6 TV Dé-coll/age was shown at the Smolin Gallery [51] in New York also in 1963.[52][53] HA Schult, Trash People, shown in Cologne The art group Gruppe SPUR included: Lothar Fischer (1933–2004), Heimrad Prem (1934–1978), Hans-Peter Zimmer (1936–1992) and Helmut Sturm (1932). The SPUR-artists met first at the Academy of Fine Arts, Munich and, before falling out with them, were associated with the Situationist International. Other groups include the Junge Wilde of the late 1970s to early 1980s. documenta (sic) is a major exhibition of contemporary art held in Kassel every five years (2007, 2012...), Art Cologne is an annual art fair, again mostly for contemporary art, and Transmediale is an annual festival for art and digital culture, held in Berlin. Other contemporary German artists include Jonathan Meese, Daniel Richter, Albert Oehlen, Markus Oehlen, Rosemarie Trockel, Andreas Gursky, Thomas Ruff, Blinky Palermo, Sebastian Bieniek, Hans-Jürgen Schlieker, Günther Uecker, Aris Kalaizis, Katharina Fritsch, Fritz Schwegler and Thomas Schütte. The case of Wolfgang Beltracchi became known as one of the biggest art forger lawsuits in history.Notes Venus figurine sheds light on origins of art by early humans Los Angeles Times, May 14, 2009, accessed December 11, 2009 Terra Sigillata Museum Rheinzabern (in German) See Hinks throughout, Chapters 1 of Beckwith and 3–4 of Dodwell Dodwell, 32 on the Libri Carolini Beckwith, Chapter 2 Beckwith, Chapter 3 Focillon, 106 Dodwell, Chapter 7 Levey, 24-7, 37 & passim, Snyder, Chapter II Snyder, 308 Snyder, Chapters IV (painters to 1425), VII (painters to 1500), XIV (printmakers), & XV (sculpture). Focillon, 178–181 Snyder, Part III, Ch. XIX on Cranach, Luther etc. Snyder, Ch. XVII Wood, 9 – this is the main subject of the whole book Snyder, Ch. XVII, Bartrum, 1995 Snyder, Ch. XX on the Holbeins, Bartrum (1995), 221–237 on Holbein's prints, 99–129 on the Little Masters Trevor-Roper, Levey Snyder, 298–311 Savage, 156 Griffiths & Carey, 24 (quotation), and Scheyer, 9 (from 1960, but the point remains valid) Novotny, 62–65 Novotny, 49–59 Griffiths & Carey, 50–68, Novotny, 60–62 Novotny, 60 Gombrich, 352–357; quotes from pp. 355 & 357 Novotny, 78 (quotation); and see index for Winckelmann etc. The rhetorical phrase was coined, or popularized, by: Butler, Eliza M., "The Tyranny of Greece over Germany: a study of the influence exercised by Greek art and poetry over the great German writers of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries" (Cambridge Univ. Press, London, 1935) Novotny, 95–101 Novotny, 106–112 Griffiths and Carey, 112–122 Griffiths & Carey, 24–25 and passim, quotation from p. 24 Doyle, Margaret, in Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760–1850, Volume 1, ed. Christopher John Murray, p. 89, Taylor & Francis, 2004 ISBN 1-57958-361-X, Google books Hamilton, 180 Hamilton, 181–184, and see index for later mentions Hamilton, 113 Hamilton, 197–204, and Honour & Fleming, 569–576 Honour & Fleming, 569–576, and Hamilton, 215–221 Hamilton, 189–191 Hunter, Jacobus, and Wheeler (2000) p. 113 qtd. Hunter et al p. 118 From the Manifesto of Die Brücke, qtd Hunter et al p. 113 Esti Sheinberg (2000) Irony, Satire, Parody and the Grotesque in the Music of Dmitrii SHostakovich, pp.248–9, ISBN 978-0-7546-0226-2 Pamela Kort (2004) Comic Grotesque, Prestel Publishing ISBN 978-3-7913-3195-9 Hunter, Jacobus, and Wheeler (2000) pp. 173–77 Hamilton, 473–478 Hamilton, 478–479 Hamilton, 486–487 Marzona, Daniel. (2005) Conceptual Art. Cologne: Taschen. Various pages Moma Focus, retrieved 16 December 2009 Rolf Wedewer. Wolf Vostell. Retrospektive, 1992, ISBN 3-925520-44-9 Wolf Vostell, Cycle Black Room, 1958, installation with television Wolf Vostell, 6 TV Dé-coll/age, 1963, installation with televisionReferences Wikimedia Commons has media related to Art in Germany. Part of a series on the Culture of Germany History[show] People[show] Languages[show] Traditions[show] Mythology and folklore[show] Cuisine[show] Festivals Religion[show] Art[show] Literature[show] Music and performing arts[show] Media[show] Sport[show] Monuments[show] Symbols[show] Germany portal vte Bartrum, Giulia (1995); German Renaissance Prints, 1490–1550; British Museum Press, 1995, ISBN 0-7141-2604-7 Bartrum, Giulia (2002), Albrecht Dürer and his legacy: the graphic work of a Renaissance artist, British Museum Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-7141-2633-3 Beckwith, John. Early Medieval Art: Carolingian, Ottonian, Romanesque, Thames & Hudson, 1964 (rev. 1969), ISBN 0-500-20019-X Clark, Sir Kenneth, Landscape into Art, 1949, page refs to Penguin edn of 1961 Dodwell, C.R.; The Pictorial arts of the West, 800–1200, 1993, Yale UP, ISBN 0-300-06493-4 Focillon, Henri, The Art of the West in the Middle Ages, Volume II, Gothic Art, Phaidon/Oxford University Press, 3rd edn, 1980, ISBN 0-7148-2100-4 Gombrich, E.H., The Story of Art, Phaidon, 13th edn. 1982. ISBN 0-7148-1841-0 Gossman, Lionel, Making of a Romantic Icon: The Religious Context of Friedrich Overbeck’s ‘Italia und Germania.' American Philosophical Society, 2007. ISBN 0-87169-975-3. [1] Griffiths, Antony and Carey, Francis; German Printmaking in the Age of Goethe, 1994, British Museum Press, ISBN 0-7141-1659-9 Hamilton, George Heard, Painting and Sculpture in Europe, 1880–1940 (Pelican History of Art), Yale University Press, revised 3rd edn. 1983 ISBN 0-14-056129-3 Harbison, Craig. The Art of the Northern Renaissance, 1995, Weidenfeld & Nicholson, ISBN 0-297-83512-2 Hugh Honour and John Fleming, A World History of Art,1st edn. 1982 & later editions, Macmillan, London, page refs to 1984 Macmillan 1st edn. paperback. ISBN 0-333-37185-2 Hunter, Sam; John Jacobus, Daniel Wheeler (2000) Modern Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture. New York: Prentice Hall and Harry N. Abrams Kitzinger, Ernst, Early Medieval Art at the British Museum, (1940) 2nd edn, 1955, British Museum Michael Levey, Painting at Court, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London, 1971 Novotny, Fritz, Painting and Sculpture in Europe, 1780–1880 (Pelican History of Art), Yale University Press, 2nd edn. 1971 ISBN 0-14-056120-X George Savage, Porcelain Through the Ages, Penguin, (2nd edn.) 1963 Schultz, Ellen (ed). Gothic and Renaissance Art in Nuremberg, 1986, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, ISBN 978-0-87099-466-1 Scheyer, Ernst, Baroque Painting in Germany and Austria: A Gap in American Studies, Art Journal, Vol. 20, No. 1 (Autumn, 1960), pp. 9–18, JSTOR online text Snyder, James; Northern Renaissance Art, 1985, Harry N. Abrams, ISBN 0-13-623596-4 Trevor-Roper, Hugh; Princes and Artists, Patronage and Ideology at Four Habsburg Courts 1517–1633, Thames & Hudson, London, 1976, ISBN 0-500-23232-6 Christopher S Wood, Albrecht Altdorfer and the Origins of Landscape, 1993, Reaktion Books, London, ISBN 0-948462-46-9Further reading German masters of the nineteenth century: paintings and drawings from the Federal Republic of Germany. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1981. ISBN 978-0-87099-263-6. Nancy Marmer, "Isms on the Rhine: Westkunst," Art in America, Vol. 69, November 1981, pp. 112–123. [hide] vte European art Sovereign states Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom States with limited recognition Abkhazia Kosovo Nagorno-Karabakh Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Transnistria Dependencies and other territories Åland Faroe Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Jersey Isle of Man Svalbard Condition: HUGE 63 x 43 INCHES PAINTING - please inspect photos carefully and painting is available for expert inspection - no returns after shipping., Original/Reproduction: Original, Size Type/Largest Dimension: Large (Greater than 30in.), Region of Origin: Europe, Signed?: Signed, Style: Realism, Listed By: Dealer or Reseller, Medium: Oil, Date of Creation: 1800-1899, Subject: Landscape

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