Antique Sovereign Coin Holder Wallet Old Gold Lustre Case money box saving bank

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Seller: Top-Rated Seller notinashyway (17.285) 99.7%, Location: Look at my other Items, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 303258278020 Sovereign Holder Case Antique Coin Wallett Edwardian Brass Sovereign Coin Holder When openend It has an a holder for a gold soveregn which has a spring underneath Sovereigns can be inserted and held safelty and securely The Holder has an image of King Edward VII Very collectable and dates to the early part of the 1900's. It measures 32 mm diameter and 50 mm long including the top ring.It is It is in Good Working Condition and the springs work fine In Very Good Condition given it is over 100 years old Would make an Excellent Lucky Charm or Collectible Keepsake Souvenir I have a lot more World Cup Items on Ebay >>> CLICK HERE TO VISIT MY SHOP Buy with Confidence please read my feedback from over 14,000 satisfied customer Read how quickly they receive their items - I post all my items within 24 hours of receiving payment International customers are welcome. I have shipped items to over 120 countries International orders may require longer handling time if held up at customs If there is a problem I always give a full refund Returns are acceptedIf your unhappy with your item please return it for a full refund I am a UK Seller with over 10 Years of eBay Selling Experience Why not treat yourself? I always combine multiple items and send an invoice with discounted postage I leave instant feedback upon receiving yours All payment methods accepted from all countries in all currencies Are you looking for a Interesting conversation piece? A birthday present for the person who has everything?A comical gift to cheer someone up? or a special unique gift just to say thank you? 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Riverside, San Bernardino, Cincinnati and AccraThe sovereign is a gold coin of the United Kingdom, with a nominal value of one pound sterling but in practice used as a bullion coin. Named after the English gold sovereign, last minted in 1604, the name was revived with the Great Recoinage of 1816.[1] Minting these new sovereigns began in 1817. The gold content was fixed by the coin act of 1816 at 1320/5607 (0.235420) troy ounces (7.322381 g), nearly equivalent to 113 grains. This weight has remained practically constant to the present day (some minute changes have resulted from its legal redefinition in the metric system of weights).[2] Sovereigns were minted in the United Kingdom from 1817 to 1917, in 1925, and from 1957. Australia, India, Canada, and South Africa all occasionally minted the coins. In 2013 the Royal Mint announced that it would restart the manufacture of sovereigns in India to cater to the Indian market.[3] These sovereigns will be minted by Indian gold producer MMTC-PAMP to Royal Mint specification.[3] MMTC-PAMP is a joint venture between MMTC Ltd and PAMP of Switzerland. In addition to the sovereign, the Royal Mint also struck ten-shilling half sovereigns, two-pound double sovereigns, and five-pound quintuple sovereign coins. Only the sovereign and the half sovereign were commonly struck for circulation. In 2009, The Royal Mint released a new coin in the sovereign series: the quarter-sovereign, similar in some ways to the original gold English crown of the rose. Sovereigns minted since 1817 have been produced according to the coin act of 1816: Weight: 7.988052 g (calculated from original definition; the coin act of 1971 adjusted the standard to exactly 7.98805 g.[2]) Thickness: 1.52 mm[4] Diameter: 22.05 mm[4] Fineness: 22 carat = 916⅔ / 1000 (± 2/1000[2]) Gold Content: 7.322381 g = 0.235420 (exactly: 1320/5607) troy ounces or 113.0016 grains (original definition; actual gold content may differ due to allowed tolerances and abrasion, see Reminting worn coins below.) Sovereigns were produced as follows: London: 1817–1917, 1925, 1957 onwards Melbourne: 1872–1931 Sydney: 1855–1926 Perth: 1899–1931 Bombay: 1918 only Ottawa: 1908–1919 Pretoria: 1923–1932 Melbourne During the 1850s, Victoria alone contributed more than one-third of the world’s gold output. Although a Mint opened in Sydney in 1855, it had difficulty keeping pace with the output of the goldfields and in 1871 a new branch of the Royal Mint opened in Melbourne. Melbourne sovereigns carry a small ‘M’ to identify them. Sydney Millions of pounds of gold bullion were shipped from Australia to London each year to be minted into coin. However, it soon became apparent that it would be easier to refine the gold and turn it into coins at source, rather than transport it to Britain and have it turned into coins there. Sydney, Melbourne, and Adelaide each submitted to be the venue of a branch of the Royal Mint and after some deliberation the British government awarded it to Sydney, which began issuing coins in 1855. This mint issued coins with its own design from 1855 until 1870 then, in 1871 the Royal Mint insisted that all gold sovereigns regardless of Mint should carry the British design. The coins minted by Sydney carry a small ‘S’ mintmark to identify them for quality control purposes. Perth The gold mines at Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie in Western Australia, once discovered, quickly became recognised as two of Australia’s richest. The problems of transporting the raw gold over 2,100 miles to the nearest Mint in Melbourne were obvious and so a new branch of the Royal Mint was authorised and opened in 1899. Sovereigns minted at Perth carry a small ‘P’ mintmark. Bombay (India) Another branch of the British Mint was established in Bombay in India in 1918, where the demand for sovereigns was particularly high. The Bombay mint only produced coins for one year and all are dated 1918. Nonetheless, the Indian mint struck more sovereigns (approximately 1.3 million) in its single year of operation than the Ottawa branch managed in more a decade. Sovereigns from the Bombay mint were distinguished by the letter ‘I’ for India. Ottawa (Canada) The Klondike Gold Rush of 1897-1898 saw more than 25,000 people seek their fortune in the frozen North of Canada. For some time all of Canada’s coinage was struck in England but these new gold strikes made this impractical. In 1908 a Canadian branch of the British Royal Mint was opened in Ottawa. As well as producing silver and base metal coins for everyday use, the new Canadian mint also turned the recently discovered gold into sovereigns striking intermittently between 1908 and 1919. Sovereigns of this mint carry a small ‘C’ mintmark. Pretoria (South Africa) The next, and final, branch mint was established in Pretoria (South Africa) in 1923. Like the Australian and Canadian mints, this was set up to turn locally mined gold into coins. Significant quantities of gold were discovered in Johannesburg in 1886, setting off another mass migration as speculators, prospectors, fortune-seekers, and adventurers from all over the world descended upon the region. By the end of the 1890s the area was responsible for a significant percentage of global gold production. Sovereigns, identical to the British coins except for the inclusion of an ‘SA’ mintmark, were struck at Pretoria between 1923 and 1932. British coinage Current circulation One penny Two pence Five pence Ten pence Twenty pence Fifty pence One pound Two pounds Commemorative and bullion Twenty-five pence Five pounds Maundy money Quarter sovereign Half sovereign Sovereign Britannia Withdrawn (decimal) Half penny Withdrawn (pre-decimal, selected coins) Quarter-farthing Third-farthing Half-farthing Farthing Halfpenny Penny Threepence Groat Sixpence One shilling Two shillings (florin) Half crown Double florin (four shillings) Crown Half guinea Guinea See also Pound sterling Coins of the pound sterling List of British banknotes and coins Scottish coinage Coins of Ireland List of people on coins of the United Kingdom Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together, earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe", and spreading haemophilia to several royal families. After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. Her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Reign 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901 Coronation 28 June 1838 Predecessor William IV Successor Edward VII Prime Ministers See list Empress of India Reign 1 May 1876 – 22 January 1901 Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877 Successor Edward VII Born 24 May 1819 Kensington Palace, London, England Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81) Osborne House, Isle of Wight Burial 4 February 1901 Frogmore Mausoleum, Windsor Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (m. 1840; died 1861) Issue Detail Victoria, German Empress Edward VII Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Princess Helena Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany Princess Beatrice Full name Alexandrina Victoria House Hanover Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Religion Protestant Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl (1804–1856) and Feodora (1807–1872)—by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte, and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, George, the Prince Regent.[3] At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent (later George IV); Frederick, the Duke of York; William, the Duke of Clarence (later William IV); and Victoria's father, Edward, the Duke of Kent.[4] The Prince Regent had no surviving children, and the Duke of York had no children; further, both were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further legitimate children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants. The first of these was Princess Charlotte, who was born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old. A week later her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was then third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line.[5] The Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, and Victoria became heir presumptive. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[6] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[7] Heir presumptive Portrait of Victoria with her spaniel Dash by George Hayter, 1833 Victoria later described her childhood as "rather melancholy".[8] Her mother was extremely protective, and Victoria was raised largely isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, who was rumoured to be the Duchess's lover.[9] The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable (including most of her father's family), and was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them.[10] The Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children.[11] Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, and spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash.[12] Her lessons included French, German, Italian, and Latin,[13] but she spoke only English at home.[14] Victoria's sketch of herself Self-portrait, 1835 In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way.[15] Similar journeys to other parts of England and Wales were taken in 1832, 1833, 1834 and 1835. To the King's annoyance, Victoria was enthusiastically welcomed in each of the stops.[16] William compared the journeys to royal progresses and was concerned that they portrayed Victoria as his rival rather than his heir presumptive.[17] Victoria disliked the trips; the constant round of public appearances made her tired and ill, and there was little time for her to rest.[18] She objected on the grounds of the King's disapproval, but her mother dismissed his complaints as motivated by jealousy and forced Victoria to continue the tours.[19] At Ramsgate in October 1835, Victoria contracted a severe fever, which Conroy initially dismissed as a childish pretence.[20] While Victoria was ill, Conroy and the Duchess unsuccessfully badgered her to make Conroy her private secretary.[21] As a teenager, Victoria resisted persistent attempts by her mother and Conroy to appoint him to her staff.[22] Once queen, she banned him from her presence, but he remained in her mother's household.[23] By 1836, the Duchess's brother, Leopold, who had been King of the Belgians since 1831, hoped to marry his niece to his nephew, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.[24] Leopold, Victoria's mother, and Albert's father (Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha) were siblings. Leopold arranged for Victoria's mother to invite her Coburg relatives to visit her in May 1836, with the purpose of introducing Victoria to Albert.[25] William IV, however, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander of the Netherlands, second son of the Prince of Orange.[26] Victoria was aware of the various matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes.[27] According to her diary, she enjoyed Albert's company from the beginning. After the visit she wrote, "[Albert] is extremely handsome; his hair is about the same colour as mine; his eyes are large and blue, and he has a beautiful nose and a very sweet mouth with fine teeth; but the charm of his countenance is his expression, which is most delightful."[28] Alexander, on the other hand, she described as "very plain".[29] Victoria wrote to her uncle Leopold, whom Victoria considered her "best and kindest adviser",[30] to thank him "for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me, in the person of dear Albert ... He possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happy. He is so sensible, so kind, and so good, and so amiable too. He has besides the most pleasing and delightful exterior and appearance you can possibly see."[31] However at 17, Victoria, though interested in Albert, was not yet ready to marry. The parties did not undertake a formal engagement, but assumed that the match would take place in due time.[32] Early reign See also: Coronation of Queen Victoria Drawing of two men on their knees in front of Victoria Victoria receives the news of her accession from Lord Conyngham (left) and the Archbishop of Canterbury. Engraving after painting by Henry Tanworth Wells, 1887 Victoria turned 18 on 24 May 1837, and a regency was avoided. Less than a month later, on 20 June 1837, William IV died at the age of 71, and Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom.[33] In her diary she wrote, "I was awoke at 6 o'clock by Mamma, who told me the Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Conyngham were here and wished to see me. I got out of bed and went into my sitting-room (only in my dressing gown) and alone, and saw them. Lord Conyngham then acquainted me that my poor Uncle, the King, was no more, and had expired at 12 minutes past 2 this morning, and consequently that I am Queen."[34] Official documents prepared on the first day of her reign described her as Alexandrina Victoria, but the first name was withdrawn at her own wish and not used again.[35] Since 1714, Britain had shared a monarch with Hanover in Germany, but under Salic law women were excluded from the Hanoverian succession. While Victoria inherited all the British Dominions, her father's younger brother, her unpopular uncle the Duke of Cumberland, became King of Hanover. He was her heir presumptive while she was childless.[36] Coronation portrait by George Hayter At the time of Victoria's accession, the government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne. The Prime Minister at once became a powerful influence on the politically inexperienced Queen, who relied on him for advice.[37] Charles Greville supposed that the widowed and childless Melbourne was "passionately fond of her as he might be of his daughter if he had one", and Victoria probably saw him as a father figure.[38] Her coronation took place on 28 June 1838 at Westminster Abbey. Over 400,000 visitors came to London for the celebrations.[39] She became the first sovereign to take up residence at Buckingham Palace[40] and inherited the revenues of the duchies of Lancaster and Cornwall as well as being granted a civil list allowance of £385,000 per year. Financially prudent, she paid off her father's debts.[41] At the start of her reign Victoria was popular,[42] but her reputation suffered in an 1839 court intrigue when one of her mother's ladies-in-waiting, Lady Flora Hastings, developed an abdominal growth that was widely rumoured to be an out-of-wedlock pregnancy by Sir John Conroy.[43] Victoria believed the rumours.[44] She hated Conroy, and despised "that odious Lady Flora",[45] because she had conspired with Conroy and the Duchess of Kent in the Kensington System.[46] At first, Lady Flora refused to submit to an intimate medical examination, until in mid-February she eventually agreed, and was found to be a virgin.[47] Conroy, the Hastings family, and the opposition Tories organised a press campaign implicating the Queen in the spreading of false rumours about Lady Flora.[48] When Lady Flora died in July, the post-mortem revealed a large tumour on her liver that had distended her abdomen.[49] At public appearances, Victoria was hissed and jeered as "Mrs. Melbourne".[50] In 1839, Melbourne resigned after Radicals and Tories (both of whom Victoria detested) voted against a bill to suspend the constitution of Jamaica. The bill removed political power from plantation owners who were resisting measures associated with the abolition of slavery.[51] The Queen commissioned a Tory, Sir Robert Peel, to form a new ministry. At the time, it was customary for the prime minister to appoint members of the Royal Household, who were usually his political allies and their spouses. Many of the Queen's ladies of the bedchamber were wives of Whigs, and Peel expected to replace them with wives of Tories. In what became known as the bedchamber crisis, Victoria, advised by Melbourne, objected to their removal. Peel refused to govern under the restrictions imposed by the Queen, and consequently resigned his commission, allowing Melbourne to return to office.[52] Marriage See also: Wedding of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Wedding dress of Queen Victoria Painting of a lavish wedding attended by richly dressed people in a magnificent room Marriage of Victoria and Albert, painted by George Hayter Though Victoria was now queen, as an unmarried young woman she was required by social convention to live with her mother, despite their differences over the Kensington System and her mother's continued reliance on Conroy.[53] Her mother was consigned to a remote apartment in Buckingham Palace, and Victoria often refused to see her.[54] When Victoria complained to Melbourne that her mother's close proximity promised "torment for many years", Melbourne sympathised but said it could be avoided by marriage, which Victoria called a "schocking [sic] alternative".[55] Victoria showed interest in Albert's education for the future role he would have to play as her husband, but she resisted attempts to rush her into wedlock.[56] Victoria continued to praise Albert following his second visit in October 1839. Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen proposed to him on 15 October 1839, just five days after he had arrived at Windsor.[57] They were married on 10 February 1840, in the Chapel Royal of St James's Palace, London. Victoria was love-struck. She spent the evening after their wedding lying down with a headache, but wrote ecstatically in her diary: I NEVER, NEVER spent such an evening!!! MY DEAREST DEAREST DEAR Albert ... his excessive love & affection gave me feelings of heavenly love & happiness I never could have hoped to have felt before! He clasped me in his arms, & we kissed each other again & again! His beauty, his sweetness & gentleness – really how can I ever be thankful enough to have such a Husband! ... to be called by names of tenderness, I have never yet heard used to me before – was bliss beyond belief! Oh! This was the happiest day of my life![58] Albert became an important political adviser as well as the Queen's companion, replacing Lord Melbourne as the dominant influential figure in the first half of her life.[59] Victoria's mother was evicted from the palace, to Ingestre House in Belgrave Square. After the death of Victoria's aunt, Princess Augusta, in 1840, Victoria's mother was given both Clarence and Frogmore Houses.[60] Through Albert's mediation, relations between mother and daughter slowly improved.[61] Contemporary lithograph of Edward Oxford's attempt to assassinate Victoria, 1840 During Victoria's first pregnancy in 1840, in the first few months of the marriage, 18-year-old Edward Oxford attempted to assassinate her while she was riding in a carriage with Prince Albert on her way to visit her mother. Oxford fired twice, but either both bullets missed or, as he later claimed, the guns had no shot.[62] He was tried for high treason, found not guilty on the grounds of insanity, committed to an insane asylum indefinitely, and later sent to live in Australia.[63] In the immediate aftermath of the attack, Victoria's popularity soared, mitigating residual discontent over the Hastings affair and the bedchamber crisis.[64] Her daughter, also named Victoria, was born on 21 November 1840. The Queen hated being pregnant,[65] viewed breast-feeding with disgust,[66] and thought newborn babies were ugly.[67] Nevertheless, over the following seventeen years, she and Albert had a further eight children: Albert Edward (b. 1841), Alice (b. 1843), Alfred (b. 1844), Helena (b. 1846), Louise (b. 1848), Arthur (b. 1850), Leopold (b. 1853) and Beatrice (b. 1857). Victoria's household was largely run by her childhood governess, Baroness Louise Lehzen from Hanover. Lehzen had been a formative influence on Victoria[68] and had supported her against the Kensington System.[69] Albert, however, thought that Lehzen was incompetent and that her mismanagement threatened his daughter's health. After a furious row between Victoria and Albert over the issue, Lehzen was pensioned off in 1842, and Victoria's close relationship with her ended.[70] 1842–1860 Portrait by Franz Xaver Winterhalter, 1843 On 29 May 1842, Victoria was riding in a carriage along The Mall, London, when John Francis aimed a pistol at her, but the gun did not fire. The assailant escaped; however the following day, Victoria drove the same route, though faster and with a greater escort, in a deliberate attempt to provoke Francis to take a second aim and catch him in the act. As expected, Francis shot at her, but he was seized by plainclothes policemen, and convicted of high treason. On 3 July, two days after Francis's death sentence was commuted to transportation for life, John William Bean also tried to fire a pistol at the Queen, but it was loaded only with paper and tobacco and had too little charge.[71] Edward Oxford felt that the attempts were encouraged by his acquittal in 1840. Bean was sentenced to 18 months in jail.[72] In a similar attack in 1849, unemployed Irishman William Hamilton fired a powder-filled pistol at Victoria's carriage as it passed along Constitution Hill, London.[73] In 1850, the Queen did sustain injury when she was assaulted by a possibly insane ex-army officer, Robert Pate. As Victoria was riding in a carriage, Pate struck her with his cane, crushing her bonnet and bruising her forehead. Both Hamilton and Pate were sentenced to seven years' transportation.[74] Melbourne's support in the House of Commons weakened through the early years of Victoria's reign, and in the 1841 general election the Whigs were defeated. Peel became prime minister, and the ladies of the bedchamber most associated with the Whigs were replaced.[75] Victoria cuddling a child next to her Earliest known photograph of Victoria, here with her eldest daughter, c. 1845[76] In 1845, Ireland was hit by a potato blight.[77] In the next four years, over a million Irish people died and another million emigrated in what became known as the Great Famine.[78] In Ireland, Victoria was labelled "The Famine Queen".[79][80] In January 1847 she personally donated £2,000 (equivalent to between £178,000 and £6.5 million in 2016[81]) to the British Relief Association, more than any other individual famine relief donor,[82] and also supported the Maynooth Grant to a Roman Catholic seminary in Ireland, despite Protestant opposition.[83] The story that she donated only £5 in aid to the Irish, and on the same day gave the same amount to Battersea Dogs Home, was a myth generated towards the end of the 19th century.[84] By 1846, Peel's ministry faced a crisis involving the repeal of the Corn Laws. Many Tories—by then known also as Conservatives—were opposed to the repeal, but Peel, some Tories (the "Peelites"), most Whigs and Victoria supported it. Peel resigned in 1846, after the repeal narrowly passed, and was replaced by Lord John Russell.[85] Victoria's British Prime Ministers Year Prime Minister (party) 1835 Viscount Melbourne (Whig) 1841 Sir Robert Peel (Conservative) 1846 Lord John Russell (W) 1852 (Feb) Earl of Derby (C) 1852 (Dec) Earl of Aberdeen (Peelite) 1855 Viscount Palmerston (Liberal) 1858 Earl of Derby (C) 1859 Viscount Palmerston (L) 1865 Earl Russell (L) 1866 Earl of Derby (C) 1868 (Feb) Benjamin Disraeli (C) 1868 (Dec) William Gladstone (L) 1874 Benjamin Disraeli (C) 1880 William Gladstone (L) 1885 Marquess of Salisbury (C) 1886 (Feb) William Gladstone (L) 1886 (Jul) Marquess of Salisbury (C) 1892 William Gladstone (L) 1894 Earl of Rosebery (L) 1895 Marquess of Salisbury (C) See List of Prime Ministers of Queen Victoria for details of her British and Imperial premiers Internationally, Victoria took a keen interest in the improvement of relations between France and Britain.[86] She made and hosted several visits between the British royal family and the House of Orleans, who were related by marriage through the Coburgs. In 1843 and 1845, she and Albert stayed with King Louis Philippe I at château d'Eu in Normandy; she was the first British or English monarch to visit a French monarch since the meeting of Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France on the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520.[87] When Louis Philippe made a reciprocal trip in 1844, he became the first French king to visit a British sovereign.[88] Louis Philippe was deposed in the revolutions of 1848, and fled to exile in England.[89] At the height of a revolutionary scare in the United Kingdom in April 1848, Victoria and her family left London for the greater safety of Osborne House,[90] a private estate on the Isle of Wight that they had purchased in 1845 and redeveloped.[91] Demonstrations by Chartists and Irish nationalists failed to attract widespread support, and the scare died down without any major disturbances.[92] Victoria's first visit to Ireland in 1849 was a public relations success, but it had no lasting impact or effect on the growth of Irish nationalism.[93] Russell's ministry, though Whig, was not favoured by the Queen.[94] She found particularly offensive the Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston, who often acted without consulting the Cabinet, the Prime Minister, or the Queen.[95] Victoria complained to Russell that Palmerston sent official dispatches to foreign leaders without her knowledge, but Palmerston was retained in office and continued to act on his own initiative, despite her repeated remonstrances. It was only in 1851 that Palmerston was removed after he announced the British government's approval of President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte's coup in France without consulting the Prime Minister.[96] The following year, President Bonaparte was declared Emperor Napoleon III, by which time Russell's administration had been replaced by a short-lived minority government led by Lord Derby. Photograph of a seated Victoria, dressed in black, holding an infant with her children and Prince Albert standing around her Albert, Victoria and their nine children, 1857. Left to right: Alice, Arthur, Prince Albert, Albert Edward, Leopold, Louise, Queen Victoria with Beatrice, Alfred, Victoria and Helena In 1853, Victoria gave birth to her eighth child, Leopold, with the aid of the new anaesthetic, chloroform. Victoria was so impressed by the relief it gave from the pain of childbirth that she used it again in 1857 at the birth of her ninth and final child, Beatrice, despite opposition from members of the clergy, who considered it against biblical teaching, and members of the medical profession, who thought it dangerous.[97] Victoria may have suffered from postnatal depression after many of her pregnancies.[98] Letters from Albert to Victoria intermittently complain of her loss of self-control. For example, about a month after Leopold's birth Albert complained in a letter to Victoria about her "continuance of hysterics" over a "miserable trifle".[99] In early 1855, the government of Lord Aberdeen, who had replaced Derby, fell amidst recriminations over the poor management of British troops in the Crimean War. Victoria approached both Derby and Russell to form a ministry, but neither had sufficient support, and Victoria was forced to appoint Palmerston as prime minister.[100] Napoleon III, who had been Britain's closest ally since the Crimean War,[98] visited London in April 1855, and from 17 to 28 August the same year Victoria and Albert returned the visit.[101] Napoleon III met the couple at Boulogne and accompanied them to Paris.[102] They visited the Exposition Universelle (a successor to Albert's 1851 brainchild the Great Exhibition) and Napoleon I's tomb at Les Invalides (to which his remains had only been returned in 1840), and were guests of honour at a 1,200-guest ball at the Palace of Versailles.[103] Portrait by Winterhalter, 1859 On 14 January 1858, an Italian refugee from Britain called Felice Orsini attempted to assassinate Napoleon III with a bomb made in England.[104] The ensuing diplomatic crisis destabilised the government, and Palmerston resigned. Derby was reinstated as prime minister.[105] Victoria and Albert attended the opening of a new basin at the French military port of Cherbourg on 5 August 1858, in an attempt by Napoleon III to reassure Britain that his military preparations were directed elsewhere. On her return Victoria wrote to Derby reprimanding him for the poor state of the Royal Navy in comparison to the French one.[106] Derby's ministry did not last long, and in June 1859 Victoria recalled Palmerston to office.[107] Eleven days after Orsini's assassination attempt in France, Victoria's eldest daughter married Prince Frederick William of Prussia in London. They had been betrothed since September 1855, when Princess Victoria was 14 years old; the marriage was delayed by the Queen and Prince Albert until the bride was 17.[108] The Queen and Albert hoped that their daughter and son-in-law would be a liberalising influence in the enlarging Prussian state.[109] Victoria felt "sick at heart" to see her daughter leave England for Germany; "It really makes me shudder", she wrote to Princess Victoria in one of her frequent letters, "when I look round to all your sweet, happy, unconscious sisters, and think I must give them up too – one by one."[110] Almost exactly a year later, Princess Victoria gave birth to the Queen's first grandchild, Wilhelm, who would become the last German Emperor. Widowhood Victoria photographed by J. J. E. Mayall, 1860 In March 1861, Victoria's mother died, with Victoria at her side. Through reading her mother's papers, Victoria discovered that her mother had loved her deeply;[111] she was heart-broken, and blamed Conroy and Lehzen for "wickedly" estranging her from her mother.[112] To relieve his wife during her intense and deep grief,[113] Albert took on most of her duties, despite being ill himself with chronic stomach trouble.[114] In August, Victoria and Albert visited their son, Edward, Prince of Wales, who was attending army manoeuvres near Dublin, and spent a few days holidaying in Killarney. In November, Albert was made aware of gossip that his son had slept with an actress in Ireland.[115] Appalled, Albert travelled to Cambridge, where his son was studying, to confront him.[116] By the beginning of December, Albert was very unwell.[117] He was diagnosed with typhoid fever by William Jenner, and died on 14 December 1861. Victoria was devastated.[118] She blamed her husband's death on worry over the Prince of Wales's philandering. He had been "killed by that dreadful business", she said.[119] She entered a state of mourning and wore black for the remainder of her life. She avoided public appearances, and rarely set foot in London in the following years.[120] Her seclusion earned her the nickname "widow of Windsor".[121] Her weight increased through comfort eating, which further reinforced her aversion to public appearances.[122] Victoria's self-imposed isolation from the public diminished the popularity of the monarchy, and encouraged the growth of the republican movement.[123] She did undertake her official government duties, yet chose to remain secluded in her royal residences—Windsor Castle, Osborne House, and the private estate in Scotland that she and Albert had acquired in 1847, Balmoral Castle. In March 1864 a protester stuck a notice on the railings of Buckingham Palace that announced "these commanding premises to be let or sold in consequence of the late occupant's declining business".[124] Her uncle Leopold wrote to her advising her to appear in public. She agreed to visit the gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society at Kensington and take a drive through London in an open carriage.[125] Victoria and John Brown at Balmoral, 1863. Photograph by G. W. Wilson. Through the 1860s, Victoria relied increasingly on a manservant from Scotland, John Brown.[126] Slanderous rumours of a romantic connection and even a secret marriage appeared in print, and the Queen was referred to as "Mrs. Brown".[127] The story of their relationship was the subject of the 1997 movie Mrs. Brown. A painting by Sir Edwin Henry Landseer depicting the Queen with Brown was exhibited at the Royal Academy, and Victoria published a book, Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands, which featured Brown prominently and in which the Queen praised him highly.[128] Palmerston died in 1865, and after a brief ministry led by Russell, Derby returned to power. In 1866, Victoria attended the State Opening of Parliament for the first time since Albert's death.[129] The following year she supported the passing of the Reform Act 1867 which doubled the electorate by extending the franchise to many urban working men,[130] though she was not in favour of votes for women.[131] Derby resigned in 1868, to be replaced by Benjamin Disraeli, who charmed Victoria. "Everyone likes flattery," he said, "and when you come to royalty you should lay it on with a trowel."[132] With the phrase "we authors, Ma'am", he complimented her.[133] Disraeli's ministry only lasted a matter of months, and at the end of the year his Liberal rival, William Ewart Gladstone, was appointed prime minister. Victoria found Gladstone's demeanour far less appealing; he spoke to her, she is thought to have complained, as though she were "a public meeting rather than a woman".[134] In 1870 republican sentiment in Britain, fed by the Queen's seclusion, was boosted after the establishment of the Third French Republic.[135] A republican rally in Trafalgar Square demanded Victoria's removal, and Radical MPs spoke against her.[136] In August and September 1871, she was seriously ill with an abscess in her arm, which Joseph Lister successfully lanced and treated with his new antiseptic carbolic acid spray.[137] In late November 1871, at the height of the republican movement, the Prince of Wales contracted typhoid fever, the disease that was believed to have killed his father, and Victoria was fearful her son would die.[138] As the tenth anniversary of her husband's death approached, her son's condition grew no better, and Victoria's distress continued.[139] To general rejoicing, he recovered.[140] Mother and son attended a public parade through London and a grand service of thanksgiving in St Paul's Cathedral on 27 February 1872, and republican feeling subsided.[141] On the last day of February 1872, two days after the thanksgiving service, 17-year-old Arthur O'Connor, a great-nephew of Irish MP Feargus O'Connor, waved an unloaded pistol at Victoria's open carriage just after she had arrived at Buckingham Palace. Brown, who was attending the Queen, grabbed him and O'Connor was later sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment,[142] and a birching.[143] As a result of the incident, Victoria's popularity recovered further.[144] Empress of India Wikisource has original text related to this article: Queen Victoria's Proclamation After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British East India Company, which had ruled much of India, was dissolved, and Britain's possessions and protectorates on the Indian subcontinent were formally incorporated into the British Empire. The Queen had a relatively balanced view of the conflict, and condemned atrocities on both sides.[145] She wrote of "her feelings of horror and regret at the result of this bloody civil war",[146] and insisted, urged on by Albert, that an official proclamation announcing the transfer of power from the company to the state "should breathe feelings of generosity, benevolence and religious toleration".[147] At her behest, a reference threatening the "undermining of native religions and customs" was replaced by a passage guaranteeing religious freedom.[147] Victoria admired Heinrich von Angeli's 1875 portrait of her for its "honesty, total want of flattery, and appreciation of character".[148] In the 1874 general election, Disraeli was returned to power. He passed the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874, which removed Catholic rituals from the Anglican liturgy and which Victoria strongly supported.[149] She preferred short, simple services, and personally considered herself more aligned with the presbyterian Church of Scotland than the episcopal Church of England.[150] Disraeli also pushed the Royal Titles Act 1876 through Parliament, so that Victoria took the title "Empress of India" from 1 May 1876.[151] The new title was proclaimed at the Delhi Durbar of 1 January 1877.[152] On 14 December 1878, the anniversary of Albert's death, Victoria's second daughter Alice, who had married Louis of Hesse, died of diphtheria in Darmstadt. Victoria noted the coincidence of the dates as "almost incredible and most mysterious".[153] In May 1879, she became a great-grandmother (on the birth of Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen) and passed her "poor old 60th birthday". She felt "aged" by "the loss of my beloved child".[154] Between April 1877 and February 1878, she threatened five times to abdicate while pressuring Disraeli to act against Russia during the Russo-Turkish War, but her threats had no impact on the events or their conclusion with the Congress of Berlin.[155] Disraeli's expansionist foreign policy, which Victoria endorsed, led to conflicts such as the Anglo-Zulu War and the Second Anglo-Afghan War. "If we are to maintain our position as a first-rate Power", she wrote, "we must ... be Prepared for attacks and wars, somewhere or other, CONTINUALLY."[156] Victoria saw the expansion of the British Empire as civilising and benign, protecting native peoples from more aggressive powers or cruel rulers: "It is not in our custom to annexe countries", she said, "unless we are obliged & forced to do so."[157] To Victoria's dismay, Disraeli lost the 1880 general election, and Gladstone returned as prime minister.[158] When Disraeli died the following year, she was blinded by "fast falling tears",[159] and erected a memorial tablet "placed by his grateful Sovereign and Friend, Victoria R.I."[160] Later years Victorian farthing, 1884 On 2 March 1882, Roderick Maclean, a disgruntled poet apparently offended by Victoria's refusal to accept one of his poems,[161] shot at the Queen as her carriage left Windsor railway station. Two schoolboys from Eton College struck him with their umbrellas, until he was hustled away by a policeman.[162] Victoria was outraged when he was found not guilty by reason of insanity,[163] but was so pleased by the many expressions of loyalty after the attack that she said it was "worth being shot at—to see how much one is loved".[164] On 17 March 1883, she fell down some stairs at Windsor, which left her lame until July; she never fully recovered and was plagued with rheumatism thereafter.[165] Brown died 10 days after her accident, and to the consternation of her private secretary, Sir Henry Ponsonby, Victoria began work on a eulogistic biography of Brown.[166] Ponsonby and Randall Davidson, Dean of Windsor, who had both seen early drafts, advised Victoria against publication, on the grounds that it would stoke the rumours of a love affair.[167] The manuscript was destroyed.[168] In early 1884, Victoria did publish More Leaves from a Journal of a Life in the Highlands, a sequel to her earlier book, which she dedicated to her "devoted personal attendant and faithful friend John Brown".[169] On the day after the first anniversary of Brown's death, Victoria was informed by telegram that her youngest son, Leopold, had died in Cannes. He was "the dearest of my dear sons", she lamented.[170] The following month, Victoria's youngest child, Beatrice, met and fell in love with Prince Henry of Battenberg at the wedding of Victoria's granddaughter Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine to Henry's brother Prince Louis of Battenberg. Beatrice and Henry planned to marry, but Victoria opposed the match at first, wishing to keep Beatrice at home to act as her companion. After a year, she was won around to the marriage by Henry and Beatrice's promise to remain living with and attending her.[171] Extent of the British Empire in 1898 Victoria was pleased when Gladstone resigned in 1885 after his budget was defeated.[172] She thought his government was "the worst I have ever had", and blamed him for the death of General Gordon at Khartoum.[173] Gladstone was replaced by Lord Salisbury. Salisbury's government only lasted a few months, however, and Victoria was forced to recall Gladstone, whom she referred to as a "half crazy & really in many ways ridiculous old man".[174] Gladstone attempted to pass a bill granting Ireland home rule, but to Victoria's glee it was defeated.[175] In the ensuing election, Gladstone's party lost to Salisbury's and the government switched hands again. Golden Jubilee Main article: Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria The Munshi stands over Victoria as she works at a desk Victoria and the Munshi Abdul Karim In 1887, the British Empire celebrated Victoria's Golden Jubilee. Victoria marked the fiftieth anniversary of her accession on 20 June with a banquet to which 50 kings and princes were invited. The following day, she participated in a procession and attended a thanksgiving service in Westminster Abbey.[176] By this time, Victoria was once again extremely popular.[177] Two days later on 23 June,[178] she engaged two Indian Muslims as waiters, one of whom was Abdul Karim. He was soon promoted to "Munshi": teaching her Urdu (known as Hindustani) and acting as a clerk.[179][180][181] Her family and retainers were appalled, and accused Abdul Karim of spying for the Muslim Patriotic League, and biasing the Queen against the Hindus.[182] Equerry Frederick Ponsonby (the son of Sir Henry) discovered that the Munshi had lied about his parentage, and reported to Lord Elgin, Viceroy of India, "the Munshi occupies very much the same position as John Brown used to do."[183] Victoria dismissed their complaints as racial prejudice.[184] Abdul Karim remained in her service until he returned to India with a pension, on her death.[185] Victoria's eldest daughter became Empress consort of Germany in 1888, but she was widowed within the year, and Victoria's grandchild Wilhelm became German Emperor as Wilhelm II. Under Wilhelm, Victoria and Albert's hopes of a liberal Germany were not fulfilled. He believed in autocracy. Victoria thought he had "little heart or Zartgefühl [tact] – and ... his conscience & intelligence have been completely wharped [sic]".[186] Gladstone returned to power after the 1892 general election; he was 82 years old. Victoria objected when Gladstone proposed appointing the Radical MP Henry Labouchère to the Cabinet, so Gladstone agreed not to appoint him.[187] In 1894, Gladstone retired and, without consulting the outgoing prime minister, Victoria appointed Lord Rosebery as prime minister.[188] His government was weak, and the following year Lord Salisbury replaced him. Salisbury remained prime minister for the remainder of Victoria's reign.[189] Diamond Jubilee Seated Victoria in embroidered and lace dress Victoria in her official Diamond Jubilee photograph by W. & D. Downey On 23 September 1896, Victoria surpassed her grandfather George III as the longest-reigning monarch in British history. The Queen requested that any special celebrations be delayed until 1897, to coincide with her Diamond Jubilee,[190] which was made a festival of the British Empire at the suggestion of the Colonial Secretary, Joseph Chamberlain.[191] The prime ministers of all the self-governing Dominions were invited to London for the festivities.[192] One reason for including the prime ministers of the Dominions and excluding foreign heads of state was to avoid having to invite Victoria's grandson, Wilhelm II of Germany, who, it was feared, might cause trouble at the event.[193] The Queen's Diamond Jubilee procession on 22 June 1897 followed a route six miles long through London and included troops from all over the empire. The procession paused for an open-air service of thanksgiving held outside St Paul's Cathedral, throughout which Victoria sat in her open carriage, to avoid her having to climb the steps to enter the building. The celebration was marked by vast crowds of spectators and great outpourings of affection for the 78-year-old Queen.[194] File:Queen Victoria In Dublin (Rare archive footage from 1900).webmPlay media Queen Victoria in Dublin, 1900 Victoria visited mainland Europe regularly for holidays. In 1889, during a stay in Biarritz, she became the first reigning monarch from Britain to set foot in Spain when she crossed the border for a brief visit.[195] By April 1900, the Boer War was so unpopular in mainland Europe that her annual trip to France seemed inadvisable. Instead, the Queen went to Ireland for the first time since 1861, in part to acknowledge the contribution of Irish regiments to the South African war.[196] Death and succession Queen Victoria aged 80, 1899 In July 1900, Victoria's second son Alfred ("Affie") died. "Oh, God! My poor darling Affie gone too", she wrote in her journal. "It is a horrible year, nothing but sadness & horrors of one kind & another."[197] Following a custom she maintained throughout her widowhood, Victoria spent the Christmas of 1900 at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Rheumatism in her legs had rendered her lame, and her eyesight was clouded by cataracts.[198] Through early January, she felt "weak and unwell",[199] and by mid-January she was "drowsy ... dazed, [and] confused".[200] She died on Tuesday 22 January 1901, at half past six in the evening, at the age of 81.[201] Her son and successor, King Edward VII, and her eldest grandson, Emperor Wilhelm II, were at her deathbed.[202] Her favourite pet Pomeranian, Turi, was laid upon her deathbed as a last request.[203] Poster proclaiming a day of mourning in Toronto on the day of Victoria's funeral In 1897, Victoria had written instructions for her funeral, which was to be military as befitting a soldier's daughter and the head of the army,[98] and white instead of black.[204] On 25 January, Edward, Wilhelm and Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, helped lift her body into the coffin.[205] She was dressed in a white dress and her wedding veil.[206] An array of mementos commemorating her extended family, friends and servants were laid in the coffin with her, at her request, by her doctor and dressers. One of Albert's dressing gowns was placed by her side, with a plaster cast of his hand, while a lock of John Brown's hair, along with a picture of him, was placed in her left hand concealed from the view of the family by a carefully positioned bunch of flowers.[98][207] Items of jewellery placed on Victoria included the wedding ring of John Brown's mother, given to her by Brown in 1883.[98] Her funeral was held on Saturday 2 February, in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, and after two days of lying-in-state, she was interred beside Prince Albert in Frogmore Mausoleum at Windsor Great Park.[208] With a reign of 63 years, seven months and two days, Victoria was the longest-reigning British monarch and the longest-reigning queen regnant in world history until her great-great-granddaughter Elizabeth II surpassed her on 9 September 2015.[209] She was the last monarch of Britain from the House of Hanover. Her son and successor Edward VII belonged to her husband's House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Legacy See also: Cultural depictions of Queen Victoria Victoria smiling Victoria amused. The remark "We are not amused" is attributed to her but there is no direct evidence that she ever said it,[98][210] and she denied doing so.[211] According to one of her biographers, Giles St Aubyn, Victoria wrote an average of 2,500 words a day during her adult life.[212] From July 1832 until just before her death, she kept a detailed journal, which eventually encompassed 122 volumes.[213] After Victoria's death, her youngest daughter, Princess Beatrice, was appointed her literary executor. Beatrice transcribed and edited the diaries covering Victoria's accession onwards, and burned the originals in the process.[214] Despite this destruction, much of the diaries still exist. In addition to Beatrice's edited copy, Lord Esher transcribed the volumes from 1832 to 1861 before Beatrice destroyed them.[215] Part of Victoria's extensive correspondence has been published in volumes edited by A. C. Benson, Hector Bolitho, George Earle Buckle, Lord Esher, Roger Fulford, and Richard Hough among others.[216] Victoria was physically unprepossessing—she was stout, dowdy and only about five feet tall—but she succeeded in projecting a grand image.[217] She experienced unpopularity during the first years of her widowhood, but was well liked during the 1880s and 1890s, when she embodied the empire as a benevolent matriarchal figure.[218] Only after the release of her diary and letters did the extent of her political influence become known to the wider public.[98][219] Biographies of Victoria written before much of the primary material became available, such as Lytton Strachey's Queen Victoria of 1921, are now considered out of date.[220] The biographies written by Elizabeth Longford and Cecil Woodham-Smith, in 1964 and 1972 respectively, are still widely admired.[221] They, and others, conclude that as a person Victoria was emotional, obstinate, honest, and straight-talking.[222] Contrary to popular belief, her staff and family recorded that Victoria "was immensely amused and roared with laughter" on many occasions.[223] Through Victoria's reign, the gradual establishment of a modern constitutional monarchy in Britain continued. Reforms of the voting system increased the power of the House of Commons at the expense of the House of Lords and the monarch.[224] In 1867, Walter Bagehot wrote that the monarch only retained "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn".[225] As Victoria's monarchy became more symbolic than political, it placed a strong emphasis on morality and family values, in contrast to the sexual, financial and personal scandals that had been associated with previous members of the House of Hanover and which had discredited the monarchy. The concept of the "family monarchy", with which the burgeoning middle classes could identify, was solidified.[226] The Victoria Memorial in Kolkata, India Bronze statue of winged victory mounted on a marble four-sided base with a marble figure on each side The Victoria Memorial in front of Buckingham Palace was erected as part of the remodelling of the façade of the Palace a decade after her death. Descendants and haemophilia Victoria's links with Europe's royal families earned her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe".[227] Victoria and Albert had 42 grandchildren, of whom 34 survived to adulthood. Their living descendants include Elizabeth II; Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh; Harald V of Norway; Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden; Margrethe II of Denmark; and Felipe VI of Spain. Victoria's youngest son, Leopold, was affected by the blood-clotting disease haemophilia B and at least two of her five daughters, Alice and Beatrice, were carriers. Royal haemophiliacs descended from Victoria included her great-grandsons, Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia, Alfonso, Prince of Asturias, and Infante Gonzalo of Spain.[228] The presence of the disease in Victoria's descendants, but not in her ancestors, led to modern speculation that her true father was not the Duke of Kent, but a haemophiliac.[229] There is no documentary evidence of a haemophiliac in connection with Victoria's mother, and as male carriers always suffer the disease, even if such a man had existed he would have been seriously ill.[230] It is more likely that the mutation arose spontaneously because Victoria's father was over 50 at the time of her conception and haemophilia arises more frequently in the children of older fathers.[231] Spontaneous mutations account for about a third of cases.[232] Namesakes Around the world, places and memorials are dedicated to her, especially in the Commonwealth nations. Places named after her include Africa's largest lake, Victoria Falls, the capitals of British Columbia (Victoria) and Saskatchewan (Regina), and two Australian states (Victoria and Queensland). The Victoria Cross was introduced in 1856 to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War,[233] and it remains the highest British, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand award for bravery. Victoria Day is a Canadian statutory holiday and a local public holiday in parts of Scotland celebrated on the last Monday before or on 24 May (Queen Victoria's birthday). Titles, styles, honours and arms Titles and styles 24 May 1819 – 20 June 1837: Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901: Her Majesty The Queen At the end of her reign, the Queen's full style and title were: "Her Majesty Victoria, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, Defender of the Faith, Empress of India."[234] Honours Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Star of India – 1861[235] Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert – 1861[236] Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Crown of India – 1878[237] Founder and Sovereign of the Distinguished Service Order – 1886[238] Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Victorian Order – 1896[239] Arms As Sovereign, Victoria used the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. Before her accession, she received no grant of arms. As she could not succeed to the throne of Hanover, her arms did not carry the Hanoverian symbols that were used by her immediate predecessors. Her arms have been borne by all of her successors on the throne. Outside Scotland, the blazon for the shield—also used on the Royal Standard—is: Quarterly: I and IV, Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II, Or, a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III, Azure, a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland). In Scotland, the first and fourth quarters are occupied by the Scottish lion, and the second by the English lions. The crests, mottoes, and supporters also differ in and outside Scotland.[240] Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom in Scotland (1837-1952).svg Royal arms (outside Scotland) Royal arms (in Scotland) Issue See also: Grandchildren of Victoria and Albert and Royal descendants of Queen Victoria and King Christian IX Name Birth Death Spouse and children[234][241] Victoria, Princess Royal 21 November 1840 5 August 1901 Married 1858, Frederick, later German Emperor and King of Prussia (1831–1888); 4 sons (including Wilhelm II, German Emperor), 4 daughters (including Queen Sophia of Greece) Edward VII of the United Kingdom 9 November 1841 6 May 1910 Married 1863, Princess Alexandra of Denmark (1844–1925); 3 sons (including King George V of the United Kingdom), 3 daughters (including Queen Maud of Norway) Princess Alice 25 April 1843 14 December 1878 Married 1862, Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine (1837–1892); 2 sons, 5 daughters (including Empress Alexandra of Russia) Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 6 August 1844 31 July 1900 Married 1874, Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (1853–1920); 2 sons (1 stillborn), 4 daughters (including Queen Marie of Romania) Princess Helena 25 May 1846 9 June 1923 Married 1866, Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (1831–1917); 4 sons (1 stillborn), 2 daughters Princess Louise 18 March 1848 3 December 1939 Married 1871, John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, later 9th Duke of Argyll (1845–1914); no issue Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn 1 May 1850 16 January 1942 Married 1879, Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia (1860–1917); 1 son, 2 daughters (including Crown Princess Margaret of Sweden) Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany 7 April 1853 28 March 1884 Married 1882, Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1861–1922); 1 son, 1 daughter Princess Beatrice 14 April 1857 26 October 1944 Married 1885, Prince Henry of Battenberg (1858–1896); 3 sons, 1 daughter (Queen Victoria Eugenie of Spain) Queen Victoria House of Hanover Cadet branch of the House of Welf Born: 24 May 1819 Died: 22 January 1901 Regnal titles Preceded by William IV Queen of the United Kingdom 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901 Succeeded by Edward VII Vacant Title last held by Bahadur Shah II as Mughal emperor Empress of India 1 May 1876 – 22 January 1901 vte Queen Victoria Events Coronation Honours Hackpen White Horse Wedding Wedding dress Golden Jubilee Honours Medal Police Medal Clock Tower, Weymouth Clock Tower, Brighton Bust Diamond Jubilee Honours Medal Reign Bedchamber Crisis Prime Ministers Edward Oxford Empress of India Victorian era Victorian morality Visits to Manchester Foreign visits Funeral Mausoleum Family Albert, Prince Consort (husband) Victoria, Princess Royal (daughter) Edward VII (son) Princess Alice of the United Kingdom (daughter) Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (son) Princess Helena of the United Kingdom (daughter) Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll (daughter) Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (son) Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany (son) Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom (daughter) Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (father) Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (mother) Grandchildren Royal descendants Princess Feodora of Leiningen (half-sister) Carl, 3rd Prince of Leiningen (half-brother) Early life Kensington System John Conroy Louise Lehzen Lady Flora Hastings Charlotte Percy George Davys Legitimacy Honours Places Empire Day Royal Family Order Victoria Day Victoria Day (Scotland) Victoria Cross Victoria (plant) Depictions Film Sixty Years a Queen (1913) Victoria the Great (1937) Sixty Glorious Years (1938) Mrs Brown (1997) The Young Victoria (2009) Victoria & Abdul (2017) The Black Prince (2017) Television Happy and Glorious (1952) The Young Victoria (1963) Victoria & Albert (2001) Looking for Victoria (2003) Royal Upstairs Downstairs (2011) Victoria (2016–) Stage Victoria and Merrie England (1897) Victoria Regina (1934) I and Albert (1972) Statues and Memorials List of statues Victoria Memorial, London Leeds St Helens Winnipeg Lancaster Penang Bristol Weymouth Chester Sydney Building Square Bangalore Hong Kong Reading Montreal Square Kolkata Victoria, British Columbia Liverpool Adelaide Birmingham London Christchurch Toronto Brisbane Melbourne Queen Victoria Pavilion Guernsey Isle of Man Valletta Birkenhead Regina Dundee Balmoral cairns Poetry "The Widow at Windsor" (1892) "Recessional" (1897) Songs Victoria Choral Songs Stamps Penny stamps Penny Black VR official Penny Blue Penny Lilac Penny Red Penny Venetian Red Two penny blue Others Lilac and Green Embossed stamps Chalon head Canada 12d black Canada 2c Large Queen Dull Rose Three Halfpence Red Halfpenny Rose Red Halfpenny Yellow Inverted Head 4 Annas Jubilee Issue Related Osborne House Queen Victoria's journals John Brown Abdul Karim Pets Dash Diamond Crown vte English, Scottish and British monarchs Monarchs of England until 1603 Monarchs of Scotland until 1603 Alfred the Great Edward the Elder Ælfweard Æthelstan Edmund I Eadred Eadwig Edgar the Peaceful Edward the Martyr Æthelred the Unready Sweyn Edmund II Cnut Harold I Harthacnut Edward the Confessor Harold II Edgar Ætheling William I William II Henry I Stephen Matilda Henry II Henry the Young King Richard I John Henry III Edward I Edward II Edward III Richard II Henry IV Henry V Henry VI Edward IV Edward V Richard III Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI Jane Mary I and Philip Elizabeth I Kenneth I MacAlpin Donald I Constantine I Áed Giric Eochaid Donald II Constantine II Malcolm I Indulf Dub Cuilén Amlaíb Kenneth II Constantine III Kenneth III Malcolm II Duncan I Macbeth Lulach Malcolm III Donald III Duncan II Donald III Edgar Alexander I David I Malcolm IV William I Alexander II Alexander III Margaret of Norway John Balliol Robert I David II Edward Balliol Robert II Robert III James I James II James III James IV James V Mary I James VI Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns from 1603 James VI and I Charles I Charles II James II and VII William III and II and Mary II Anne British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707 Anne George I George II George III George IV William IV Victoria Edward VII George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth II Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. vte British princesses The generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British royal family. Where a princess may have been or is descended from George I more than once, her most senior descent, by which she bore or bears her title, is used. 1st generation Sophia Dorothea, Queen in Prussia 2nd generation Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange Princess Amelia Princess Caroline Mary, Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel Louise, Queen of Denmark and Norway 3rd generation Duchess Augusta of Brunswick Princess Elizabeth Princess Louisa Caroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark and Norway 4th generation Charlotte, Princess Royal and Queen of Württemberg Princess Augusta Sophia Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh Princess Sophia Princess Amelia Princess Sophia of Gloucester Princess Caroline of Gloucester 5th generation Princess Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Princess Elizabeth of Clarence Queen Victoria Augusta, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck 6th generation Victoria, Princess Royal and German Empress Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine Princess Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll Princess Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg Princess Frederica, Baroness von Pawel-Rammingen Princess Marie of Hanover 7th generation Louise, Princess Royal and Duchess of Fife Princess Victoria Maud, Queen of Norway Marie, Queen of Romania Grand Duchess Victoria Feodorovna of Russia Princess Alexandra, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg Princess Beatrice, Duchess of Galliera Margaret, Crown Princess of Sweden Princess Patricia, Lady Patricia Ramsay Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone Princess Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of Baden Alexandra, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Princess Olga of Hanover 8th generation Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife Princess Maud, Countess of Southesk Princess Sibylla, Duchess of Västerbotten Princess Caroline Mathilde of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Frederica, Queen of Greece 9th generation Queen Elizabeth II Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy 10th generation Anne, Princess Royal 11th generation Princess Beatrice of York Princess Eugenie of York Lady Louise Windsor1 12th generation Princess Charlotte of Cambridge 1 Status debatable; see her article. vte Hanoverian princesses by birth 1st generation Charlotte, Queen of Württemberg1 Princess Augusta Sophia1 Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg1 Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh1 Princess Sophia1 Princess Amelia1 2nd generation Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld1 Princess Charlotte of Clarence1 Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom1 Princess Elizabeth of Clarence1 Augusta, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz1 Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck1 3rd generation Princess Frederica, Baroness von Pawel-Rammingen1 Princess Marie1 4th generation Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of Baden1 Alexandra, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin1 Princess Olga1 5th generation Frederica, Queen of the Hellenes1 6th generation Princess Marie, Countess of Hochberg Princess Friederike, Mrs. Jerry Cyr Princess Olga Alexandra, Princess of Leiningen Princess Caroline-Louise Princess Mireille 7th generation Princess Saskia, Mrs. Edward Hooper Princess Vera, Mrs. Manuel Dmoch Princess Nora, Mrs. Christian Falk Princess Alexandra Princess Eugenia 8th generation Princess Elisabeth 849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1849th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 849th year of the 2nd millennium, the 49th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1849, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. Contents 1 Events 1.1 January–March 1.2 April–June 1.3 July–September 1.4 October–December 1.5 Date unknown 2 Births 2.1 January–June 2.2 July–December 2.3 Date unknown 3 Deaths 3.1 January–June 3.2 July–December 3.3 Date unknown 4 References Events January–March January 1 – France issues Ceres, the nation's first postage stamp. January 5 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: The Austrian army, led by Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz, enters in the Hungarian capitals, Buda and Pest. The Hungarian government and parliament flee to Debrecen. January 8 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: Romanian armed groups massacre 600 unarmed Hungarian civilians, at Nagyenyed.[1] January 13 – Second Anglo-Sikh War – Battle of Tooele: British forces retreat from the Sikhs. January 13 – Establishment of the Colony of Vancouver Island. January 21 General elections are held in the Papal States. Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – Battle of Nagyszeben: The Hungarian army in Transylvania, led by Josef Bem, is defeated by the Austrians, led by Anton Puchner. January 23 – Elizabeth Blackwell is awarded her M.D. by the Medical Institute of Geneva, New York, thus becoming the United States' first woman doctor. January 27 – The Fayetteville and Western Plank Road Company is incorporated, to build a plank road from Fayetteville to Bethania, North Carolina.[2] January 31 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: A Russian army of 10,000 soldiers enters Transylvania, in order to help the Austrians defeat the Hungarian forces, led by Josef Bem. February 1 – The abolition of the Corn Laws by the United Kingdom's Importation Act 1846 comes fully into effect. February 4 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – Battle of Vízakna: The Austrian army, led by Anton Puchner, defeats the Hungarians, led by general Josef Bem. February 5 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: The Hungarian revolutionary army, led by Richard Guyon, breaks through the pass of Branyiszkó, defeating the Austrian defenders. February 8 – The new Roman Republic is proclaimed. February 9 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – Battle of Piski: Josef Bem's Hungarian army defeats Anton Puchner. February 14 – In New York City, James Knox Polk becomes the first President of the United States to have his photograph taken. February 21 – Second Anglo-Sikh War – Battle of Gujrat: British East India Company forces defeat those of the Sikh Empire in Punjab. February 27 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – Battle of Kápolna: The Austrians defeat the Hungarians. February 28 – Regular steamboat service from the west to the east coast of the United States begins, with the arrival of the SS California in San Francisco Bay. The California leaves New York Harbor on October 6, 1848, rounds Cape Horn at the tip of South America, and arrives at San Francisco after the 4-month, 21-day journey. March – The Frankfurt Parliament completes its drafting of a liberal constitution, and elects Frederick William IV emperor of the new German national state. March 3 The United States Department of the Interior is established, incorporating the Census Office, General Land Office, Office of Indian Affairs and Patent and Trademark Office. Minnesota becomes a United States territory. The United States Congress passes the Gold Coinage Act allowing the minting of gold coins. March 4 Zachary Taylor becomes the 12th President of the United States, but refuses to be sworn into office on a Sunday. Urban legend holds that David Rice Atchison, President pro tempore of the United States Senate, is President de jure for a single day. Hungarian Revolution of 1848: The Habsburg emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria promulgates at Olomouc the March Constitution of Austria, which abolishes the April Laws promulgated by the Hungarian Batthyány-govern, and degrades Hungary to a simple Austrian province. March 5 Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – Battle of Szolnok: The Hungarians led by János Damjanich and Károly Vécsey defeat the Austrians. President Zachary Taylor is sworn in. March 11 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: The Hungarian army of Transylvania, under general Josef Bem, defeats the Russian-Austrian army at Nagyszeben, capturing the city which is the headquarters of Austrian general Anton Puchner. Most of Transylvania is liberated from the Austrian rule. The Austrian and the Russian troops flee to Wallachia. March 28 – Four Christians are ordered burnt alive in Antananarivo, Madagascar, by Queen Ranavalona I, and 14 others are executed. March 30 – The Second Anglo-Sikh War ends, with the United Kingdom annexing the Punjab. April–June April 1 After 10 days, the insurrection in Brescia is ended by Austrian troops. Hungarian Revolution of 1848: The Hungarian Revolutionary Army, under the leadership of Arthur Görgey, starts the victorious Spring Campaign, which leads to the liberation of much of Hungary from the Austrian forces. April 2 – The German revolutions of 1848–49 end in failure, as King Frederick William IV of Prussia refuses to accept the offer of the Frankfurt National Assembly, to be crowned as German emperor. Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – Battle of Hatvan: The Hungarian revolutionary army, under the command of András Gáspár, defeats the Austrians, led by general Franz Schlik. April 4 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – Battle of Tápióbicske: Hungarian forces, under the generals György Klapka and János Damjanich, defeat the Austrian-Croatian army, led by Franz Schlik and Josip Jelačić. April 6 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – Battle of Isaszeg: The main Hungarian forces, led by Arthur Görgey, defeat the main imperial forces, led by Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz, forcing them to retreat westward. April 10 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – First Battle of Vác: The Hungarians, led by János Damjanich, defeat the Austrians, led by Christian Götz, who dies after the battle due to his injuries. April 12 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: Because of his series of defeats suffered from the Hungarian army, Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz is released from the supreme command of the Austrian forces in Hungary, and replaced by Ludwig von Welden. April 14 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: The Hungarian revolutionary parliament in Debrecen declares independence from the Habsburg Empire. April 19 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – Battle of Nagysalló: The Hungarian revolutionary army, led by György Klapka and János Damjanich, defeat the Austrian army, led by Lt. Gen. Ludwig von Wohlgemuth. April 21 Great Famine (Ireland): 96 inmates of the overcrowded Ballinrobe Union Workhouse have died over the course of the preceding week from illness and other famine-related conditions, a record high. The Austrian government asks Russian help against the Hungarian Revolution. Tsar Nicholas I of Russia agrees to send troops against Hungary. April 22 – The first Kennedy arrives in America. April 25 – James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, the Governor General of Canada, signs the Rebellion Losses Bill, outraging Montreal's English population and triggering the Montreal Riots. April 26 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – Battle of Komárom: Hungarian forces relieve the city and castle with the same name from a long Austrian siege. The Austrian imperial forces and their Croatian, Romanian and Serbian allies are chased out from Hungary, or near the borders of the country. April 27 – Giuseppe Garibaldi enters Rome, to defend it from the French troops of General Charles Oudinot. May – The Second Carlist War ends in Spain. May 2 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: A new independent Hungarian government, led by Bertalan Szemere, is formed. The head of state of Hungary becomes Lajos Kossuth, as governor president. May 3 The May Uprising in Dresden, last of the German revolutions of 1848–49, begins. Richard Wagner is among the participants. The Mississippi River levee at Sauvé's Crevasse breaks, flooding much of New Orleans. May 9 – The May Uprising in Dresden is suppressed by the Kingdom of Saxony. May 10 – The Astor Place Riot takes place in Manhattan, over a dispute between two Shakespearean actors; over 20 people are killed. May 15 – Troops of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies take Palermo, and crush the republican government of Sicily. May 17 – The St. Louis Fire starts, when a steamboat catches fire and nearly burns down the entire city. May 21 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: The Hungarian army, led by Arthur Görgey, captures the Castle of Buda, liberating the Hungarian capital city completely. The leader of the defending Austrian forces, General Heinrich Hentzi, dies because of his injuries. The Hungarian government moves back from Debrecen to Budapest. May 30 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: Julius Jacob von Haynau replaces Ludwig von Welden as leader of the Austrian forces in Hungary, because of the failure of the latter to stop the advance of the Hungarian forces. June 5 Denmark becomes a constitutional monarchy. Hungarian Revolution of 1848: The first Russian troops, led by Lieutenant General Fyodor Sergeyevich Panyutin, who come in the aid of the Habsburgs, cross the Hungarian border at Pozsony, in order to crush the Hungarian revolution. June 6 – The settlement of Fort Worth, Texas, is founded. June 17 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: The main Russian forces, led by Ivan Paskevich, cross the Hungarian border, and together with the Austrian troops, led by Julius Jacob von Haynau, start the final attack against the Hungarian Revolution. Now the Hungarian revolutionary troops, numbering 173,000 soldiers, which even before the Russian attack were in inferiority regarding their numbers, and the quality of their weapons and war industry, face a force of 370,000 Austro-Russian forces,[3] and other tens of thousands of Croatian, Serbian and Romanian insurgents, who serve the Habsburg imperial interests. June 20 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: Russian troops, under the command of Alexander von Lüders, break in Transylvania, and together with the Austrian forces, start to operate against the Hungarian troops, led by Józef Bem. June 21 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: The Russo-Austrian army, led by Julius Jacob von Haynau, defeats the Hungarians under the command of Arthur Görgey at Pered. June 28 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: The Austrian army, led by Julius Jacob von Haynau, defeats the Hungarians, led by Ernő Poeltenberg, at Győr. The Hungarian army is forced to retreat towards Budapest. July–September July 2 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – Second Battle of Komárom: The Hungarian army, led by Arthur Görgey, repulses the combined attack of the Austrian and Russian troops led by Julius Jacob von Haynau. During the battle Görgey suffers a heavy head injury, which prevents him from taking advantage of this success. July 3 – French troops occupy Rome; the Roman Republic surrenders. July 6 – Battle of Fredericia: The Danish Army beats the Prussian army at Fredericia, Jutland, thereby putting an end to the Prussian-Danish War until 1864. July 11 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – Third Battle of Komárom: The Hungarian army, led by Arthur Görgey, is defeated by the Austrians, led by Julius Jacob von Haynau. July 14 Hungarian Revolution of 1848: Because of the imminent Austrian attack, the Hungarian government moves from Budapest to Szeged. Hungarian Revolution of 1848: Hungarian troops, led by Richard Guyon, defeat the Croatian-Austrian army led by Josip Jelačić at Kishegyes, securing southern Hungary for the revolutionary government. July 17 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: Hungarians, led by Arthur Görgey, and the Russians, led by Ivan Paskevich, battle indecisively at Vác. The Russians are unsuccessful in destroying the Hungarian army, which retreats towards the east. July 23 – The French scientist Hippolyte Fizeau measures the speed of light, with an instrument placed on the Earth. July 28 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: The Hungarian government, led by Bertalan Szemere promulgates the Nationality Law, which gives important rights to the nationalities of Hungary, like the right to use their mother tongue in school, church, army, court and administration. The Romanians are declared a nation, and not a minority, in Transylvania. The Jews receive equality thanks to the Emancipation Decree.[4] July 31 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – Battle of Segesvár: The Russian troops in Transylvania, led by Alexander von Lüders, crush the Hungarian forces, under the lead of Józef Bem. Hungarian poet and revolutionary Sándor Petőfi is killed in the battle by the Russians. August 2 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: The Russian main forces, under Ivan Paskevich, defeat the Hungarian army under József Nagysándor, at Debrecen. August 3 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: The Hungarian defenders of Komárom, led by György Klapka, destroy the besieging Austrian forces, liberating Győr and Székesfehérvár. But this victory comes too late to change the course of military events in the eastern part of the country, where the Hungarian forces are about to crumble under the heavy Austro-Russian pressure. August 5 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – Battle of Szőreg: Austrian forces, under Julius Jacob von Haynau, defeat the Hungarian main forces under Henryk Dembiński. August 9 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – Battle of Temesvár: The main Russo-Austrian forces, led by Julius Jacob von Haynau, win a decisive victory against the Hungarians, led by Józef Bem. August 11 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: Lajos Kossuth and the Hungarian Government of Bertalan Szemere resign, and give all powers to the hands of Arthur Görgey. After this Kossuth, the ministries and many military officers leave Hungary, and ask asylum in Turkey. August 13 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: The main Hungarian army, under the lead of Arthur Görgey, capitulates to the Russian troops, led by Theodor von Rüdiger, at Világos, ending the Hungarian Revolution. August 28 – Venice (the Republic of San Marco) surrenders to Austrian troops after a 4-month siege. September 1 – The first segment of the Pennsylvania Railroad, from Lewistown to Harrisburg, opens for service. September 17 – African-American abolitionist Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery. October–December October 4 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848: Komárom, the last bastion of the Hungarian Revolution, surrenders to the Austrian forces. October 6 Hungarian Revolution of 1848: The 13 Martyrs of Arad are executed after the Hungarian War of Independence, in repression by the Austrian authorities led by Julius Jacob von Haynau (these martyrs were the generals of the Hungarian revolutionary army, who did not flee from Hungary after the suppression of the Hungarian revolution by the Russo-Austrian forces). Hungarian Revolution of 1848: Lajos Batthyány, the first Hungarian prime minister, is executed by Austria in Pest. November – Austin College receives a charter in Huntsville, Texas. November 13 – The Constitution of California is ratified in a general election. November 16 – A Russian court sentences Fyodor Dostoyevsky to death, for anti-government activities linked to a radical intellectual group, the Petrashevsky Circle. Facing a firing squad on December 23, the group members are reprieved at the last moment, and exiled to the katorga prison camps in Siberia. December 3 – German missionaries Johann Ludwig Krapf and Johannes Rebmann become the first Europeans to see Mount Kenya. [5] The Abgeordnetenhaus, lower house of the parliament of the Kingdom of Bavaria, passes a bill granting German Jews the same legal rights as German Christians. [6] The measure draws a strong reaction from Christians across Bavaria, who sign petitions urging the upper house to prevent the equal rights measure from becoming law. [7] December 22 – After 17 days of deadlock and 63 votes, Democrat Howell Cobb of Georgia is elected Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, by a plurality of 102 votes to 99 for the former Speaker, the Whig Party's Robert C. Winthrop of Massachusetts. Neither the Democrats nor the Whigs have a majority of the 230 seats in the House, and after neither candidate can obtain the required 116 votes, the Representatives agree that the plurality will decide the leadership. [8] Date unknown The North Carolina General Assembly incorporates the North Carolina Railroad, to complete a rail line from Goldsboro through Raleigh, and Salisbury to Charlotte.[9] Seven of the "best known" opium clippers go missing: Sylph, Coquette, Kelpie, Greyhound, Don Juan, Mischief, and Anna Eliza.[10] Births January–June Edmund Barton Oscar Hertwig Bernhard von Bülow Hallie Quinn Brown January 8 – Stepan Makarov, Russian admiral (d. 1904) January 9 – John Hartley, English tennis player, double winner of Wimbledon (d. 1935) January 14 – James Moore, English winner of the first ever cycle race (d. 1935) January 18 Aleksander Świętochowski, Polish writer of the Positivist period (d. 1938) Edmund Barton, 1st Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1920) January 22 – August Strindberg, Swedish author, playwright, and painter (d. 1912) February 13 – Lord Randolph Churchill, British statesman (d. 1895) February 18 – Alexander Kielland, Norwegian author (d. 1906) February 19 – Giovanni Passannante, Italian anarchist (d. 1910) February 22 – Nikolay Yakovlevich Sonin, Russian mathematician (d. 1915) February 28 – Joseph von Mering, German physician (d. 1908) March 2 – Robert Means Thompson, American naval officer (d. 1930) March 6 – Georg Luger, Austrian firearm designer (d. 1924) March 7 – Luther Burbank, American biologist, botanist (d. 1926) March 10 Hallie Quinn Brown, African-American educator, writer and activist (d. 1949) Mary Evelyn Hitchcock, American author and explorer (d. 1920) March 19 – Alfred von Tirpitz, German admiral (d. 1930) March 24 – Franz S. Exner, Austrian physicist (d. 1926) April 6 – John William Waterhouse, Italian-born artist (d. 1917) April 17 – William R. Day, American politician, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1923) April 20 – Nikolai Nebogatov, Russian admiral (d. 1922) April 21 – Oscar Hertwig, German zoologist (d. 1922) April 24 – Emma Whitcomb Babcock, American litterateur and author (d. 1926) Helen Taggart Clark, American journalist and poet (unknown year of death) Joseph Gallieni, French general (d. 1916) April 25 – Felix Klein, German mathematician (d. 1925) April 28 – Augusto Aubry, Italian admiral, politician (d. 1912) May 1 – Kamimura Hikonojō, Japanese admiral (d. 1916) May 3 Bertha Benz, German automotive pioneer (d. 1944) Bernhard von Bülow, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1929) May 9 – Theodor Leutwein, German colonial administrator (d. 1921) May 19 – John Hubbard, American admiral (d. 1932) May 22 Louis Perrier, member of the Swiss Federal Council (d. 1913) Aston Webb, British architect (d. 1930) May 23 – Károly Khuen-Héderváry, 2-time Prime Minister of Hungary (d. 1918) May 25 – Louise Hammarström, Swedish chemist (d. 1917) May 27 – Alzina Stevens, American labor leader, social reformer, and editor (d. 1900) June 9 – Michael Ancher, Danish painter (d. 1927) June 29 – Pedro Montt, 14th President of Chile (d. 1910) July–December July 4 – Fernand de Langle de Cary, French general (d. 1927) July 7 – Marguerite Moore, Irish-Catholic orator, patriot, activist (d. unknown) July 11 – N. E. Brown, English plant taxonomist (d. 1934) July 16 – Nora Pöyhönen, Finnish horticulturist and school director (d. 1938) July 22 – Emma Lazarus, American author and activist (d. 1887) July 29 Max Nordau, Austrian author, philosopher, and Zionist leader (d. 1923) Edward Theodore Compton, English-German painter, mountain climber (d. 1921) August 9 – John P. Young, managing editor of the San Francisco Chronicle (d. 1921) August 28 – Benjamin Godard, French composer (d. 1895) September 2 – Emma Curtis Hopkins, American spiritual writer (d. 1925) September 3 – Sarah Orne Jewett, American writer (d. 1909) September 11 – Edmund Poë, British admiral (d. 1921) September 14 – Ivan Pavlov, Russian researcher, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1936) September 18 – Martha Place, American murderer, first woman executed in the electric chair (d. 1899) September 21 – Maurice Barrymore, British-American stage actor, playwright (d. 1905) September 23 – Hugo von Seeliger, German astronomer (d. 1924 October 3 – Jeannette Leonard Gilder, American author and editor (d. 1916) October 26 – Ferdinand Georg Frobenius, German mathematician (d. 1917) October 28 – Oskar Enkvist, Russian admiral (d. 1912) October 31 – Marie Louise Andrews, American author and editor (d. 1891) November 19 – Grace Denio Litchfield, American poet and novelist (d. 1944) November 24 – Frances Hodgson Burnett, English-American playwright, author (d. 1924) November 29 – John Ambrose Fleming, English electrical engineer, inventor (d. 1945) December 5 – Eduard Seler, Prussian scholar, Mesoamericanist (d. 1922) December 6 – August von Mackensen, German field marshal (d. 1945) December 12 – William Kissam Vanderbilt, American railway magnate (d. 1920) December 18 – Laura M. Johns, American suffragist, journalist (d. 1935) December 19 – Henry Clay Frick, American industrialist, art collector (d. 1919) December 20 John W. Kern, American politician (d. 1917) Raymond P. Rodgers, American admiral (d. 1925) December 25 – Nogi Maresuke, Japanese general (d. 1912) Date unknown Muhammad Abduh, Islamic reformer (d. 1905) Elisabeth Cavazza, American author, journalist, and music critic (d. 1926) Harriet Abbott Lincoln Coolidge, American philanthropist, author and reformer (d. 1902) Ellen Eglin, American inventor Pavlos Karolidis, Greek historian (d. 1930) Aleksandr Loran, Russian inventor (d. 1911) Euphemia Wilson Pitblado, American activist, social reformer, and writer (d. 1928) Deaths January–June Maria Edgeworth January 18 – Panoutsos Notaras, Greek politician (b. 1752) January 30 – Jonathan Alder, American settler (b. 1773) February 8 – France Prešeren, Slovenian poet (b. 1800) February 28 – Regina von Siebold, German physician, obstetrician (b. 1771) March 14 – King Willem II of the Netherlands (b. 1792) March 15 – Giuseppe Caspar Mezzofanti, Italian Catholic cardinal, linguist (b. 1774) March 18 – Antonin Moine, French sculptor (b. 1796) March 20 – James Justinian Morier, British diplomat, author (b. 1780) March 24 – Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner, German chemist (b. 1780) April 11 – Pedro Ignacio de Castro Barros, Argentine statesman, priest (b. 1777) May 11 Juliette Récamier, French socialite (b. 1777) Otto Nicolai, German composer, conductor (b. 1810) May 22 – Maria Edgeworth, Irish novelist (b. 1767) May 25 – Benjamin D'Urban, British general, colonial administrator (b. 1777) May 28 – Anne Brontë, English author (b. 1820)[11] June 10 – Thomas Robert Bugeaud, Marshal of France, duke of Isly (b. 1784) June 15 – James Knox Polk, 11th President of the United States (b. 1795) July–December Edgar Allan Poe Frédéric Chopin July 12 – Dolley Madison, First Lady of the United States (b. 1768) July 28 – King Charles Albert of Sardinia (b. 1798) July 31 – Sándor Petőfi, Hungarian poet (b. 1823) August 2 – Muhammad Ali of Egypt (b. 1769) September 4 – Friedrich Laun, German novelist (b. 1770) September 6 – Andreas Joseph Hofmann, German philosopher and revolutionary (b. 1752) September 23 – Mary Elizabeth Lee, American writer (b. 1813) September 25 – Johann Strauss, Senior, Austrian composer (b. 1804) October 6 – Lajos Batthyány, Hungarian statesman (executed) (b. 1807) October 7 – Edgar Allan Poe, American writer (b. 1809) October 17 – Frédéric Chopin, Polish-French musician, composer (b. 1810) October 22 – William Miller, American Baptist preacher, leader of the Second Advent Movement (b. 1782) December 2 – Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen of William IV of the United Kingdom (b. 1792) Date unknown Cynthia Taggart, American poet (b. 1801) Millennium: 2nd millennium Centuries: 18th century 19th century 20th century Decades: 1820s 1830s 1840s 1850s 1860s Years: 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1849 in topic Humanities Archaeology – Architecture – Art Literature – Music By country Australia – Belgium – Brazil – Canada – Denmark – France – Germany – Mexico – New Zealand – Norway – Philippines – Portugal – Russia – South Africa – Spain – Sweden – United Kingdom – United States – Venezuela Other topics Rail transport – Science – Sports Lists of leaders Sovereign states – State leaders – Territorial governors – Religious leaders Birth and death categories Births – Deaths Establishments and disestablishments categories Establishments – Disestablishments Works category Works vte 1849 in various calendarsGregorian calendar 1849 MDCCCXLIX Ab urbe condita 2602 Armenian calendar 1298 ԹՎ ՌՄՂԸ Assyrian calendar 6599 Bahá'í calendar 5–6 Balinese saka calendar 1770–1771 Bengali calendar 1256 Berber calendar 2799 British Regnal year 12 Vict. 1 – 13 Vict. 1 Buddhist calendar 2393 Burmese calendar 1211 Byzantine calendar 7357–7358 Chinese calendar 戊申年 (Earth Monkey) 4545 or 4485 — to — 己酉年 (Earth Rooster) 4546 or 4486 Coptic calendar 1565–1566 Discordian calendar 3015 Ethiopian calendar 1841–1842 Hebrew calendar 5609–5610 Hindu calendars - Vikram Samvat 1905–1906 - Shaka Samvat 1770–1771 - Kali Yuga 4949–4950 Holocene calendar 11849 Igbo calendar 849–850 Iranian calendar 1227–1228 Islamic calendar 1265–1266 Japanese calendar Kaei 2 (嘉永2年) Javanese calendar 1777–1778 Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 days Korean calendar 4182 Minguo calendar 63 before ROC 民前63年 Nanakshahi calendar 381 Thai solar calendar 2391–2392 Tibetan calendar 阳土猴年 (male Earth-Monkey) 1975 or 1594 or 822 — to — 阴土鸡年 (female Earth-Rooster) 1976 or 1595 or 823 Condition: In Very Good Condition for its age over 100 years old, Modified Item: No, Country/Region of Manufacture: United Kingdom, Year of Issue: 1902, Denomination: Sovereign Case, Collections/ Bulk Lots: Sovereign Holder, Era: Edward VII (1902-1910)

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