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Seller: ancientgifts (4.647) 100%, Location: Lummi Island, Washington, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 123319582453 “Sicily: Art and Invention between Greece and Rome” by Michael J. Bennett. NOTE: We have 75,000 books in our library, almost 10,000 different titles. Odds are we have other copies of this same title in varying conditions, some less expensive, some better condition. We might also have different editions as well (some paperback, some hardcover, oftentimes international editions). If you don’t see what you want, please contact us and ask. We’re happy to send you a summary of the differing conditions and prices we may have for the same title. DESCRIPTION: Hardcover with dustjacket. Publisher: J. Paul Getty Museum (2013). Pages: 288. Size: 11 x 9 1/2 x 1 inch; 4 pounds. Summary: Ancient Sicily, a prosperous island at the crossroads of the Mediterranean, occupied a pivotal place between Greece, North Africa, and the Italian peninsula. In the late eighth century B.C., émigrés from the Greek mainland founded colonies along the shores of the region they knew as Sikelia, bringing with them the dialects, customs, and religious practices of their homelands. Dearest of all lands to Demeter, goddess of the harvest, Sicily grew wealthy from its agricultural abundance, and colonial settlements emerged as formidable metropolises. “Sicily: Art and Invention between Greece and Rome” is the only English-language book that focuses on the watershed period between the victory over the Carthaginians at the Battle of Himera in 480 B.C. and the Roman conquest of Syracuse in 212 B.C., a time of great social and political ferment. Intended as a sourcebook for Classical and Hellenistic Sicily, this anthology features current research by more than forty international scholars. The essays investigate Sicily not simply as a destination for adventurers and settlers, but as a catalyst that shaped Greek culture at its peak and transmitted Hellenism to Rome. In the opulent courts of the Sicilian city-states, artists, poets, and scientists attained levels of refinement and ingenuity rivaling, even surpassing, those of “old Greece.” Innovation in architecture, engineering, coinage, philosophy, and literature flourished in mixed cultural communities, which offered room for experimentation and gave birth to such influential figures as Empedokles, Theokritos, and Archimedes. This volume accompanies the exhibition “Sicily: Art and Invention between Greece and Rome”, presented at the J. Paul Getty Museum at the Getty Villa (April 3– August 19, 2013), the Cleveland Museum of Art (September 30, 2013–January 5, 2014), and the Palazzo Ajutamicristo in Palermo (February 14–June 15, 2014). CONDITION: NEW. HUGE new hardcover w/dustjacket. J. Paul Getty Museum (2013) 288 pages. Inside the pages are pristine; clean, crisp, unmarked, unmutilated, tightly bound, though I would hasten to add that based on our inspection of the book it seems likely that the book was flipped through a few times while in the bookstore by bookstore browsing "lookie-loo's". From the outside the book is is clean and without blemish, evidencing only very faint edge and corner shelfwear to the dustjacket, principally in the form of faint "crinkling" to the dustjacket spine head and heel, and the "top tips" of the dustjacket (the open corners of the top edge of the dustjacket, front and back). Beneath the dustjacket the full cloth covers are without blemish. Notwithstanding the possibility that the book may have been flipped through once or twice by bookstore "lookie loo's", the condition of the book is entirely consistent with a new book from an open-shelf bookstore environment such as Barnes & Noble or B. Dalton, wherein patrons are permitted to browse open stock. Satisfaction unconditionally guaranteed. In stock, ready to ship. No disappointments, no excuses. PROMPT SHIPPING! HEAVILY PADDED, DAMAGE-FREE PACKAGING! #8964c. PLEASE SEE DESCRIPTIONS AND IMAGES BELOW FOR DETAILED REVIEWS AND FOR PAGES OF PICTURES FROM INSIDE OF BOOK. PLEASE SEE PUBLISHER, PROFESSIONAL, AND READER REVIEWS BELOW. PUBLISHER REVIEWS: REVIEW: Ancient Sicily, a prosperous island at the crossroads of the Mediterranean, occupied a pivotal place in the region. In the late 8th Century B.C., émigrés from the Greek mainland founded colonies along the shores of the region now known as Sicily. Over time, the area grew wealthy from its agricultural abundance, and colonial settlements emerged as formidable metropolises. Sicily is the only English-language book that focuses on the watershed period between 480 B.C. and the Roman conquest of Syracuse in 212 B.C. - a time of great social and political ferment. Essays investigate Sicily not simply as a destination for adventurers and settlers, but as a catalyst that shaped Greek culture at its peak and transmitted Hellenism to Rome. In the opulent courts of the Sicilian city-states, artists, poets, and scientist attained levels of ingenuity rivaling those of "old Greece." Innovation in architecture, engineering, philosophy and literature flourished in mixed cultural communities. This is a richly illustrated volume that demonstrates Sicily's essential role in the development of the ancient Mediterranean world. The essays investigate Sicily not simply as a destination for adventurers and settlers, but as a catalyst that shaped Greek capture at its peak and transmitted Hellenism to Rome. REVIEW: This is a richly illustrated volume that demonstrates Sicily's essential role in the development of the ancient Mediterranean world. Ancient Sicily, a prosperous island at the crossroads of the Mediterranean, occupied a pivotal place in the region. In the late 8th Century B.C., emigres from the Greek mainland founded colonies along the shores of the region now known as Sicily. Over time, the area grew wealthy from its agricultural abundance, and colonial settlements emerged as formidable metropolises. Sicily is the only English-language book that focuses on the watershed period between 480 B.C. and the Roman conquest of Syracuse in 212 B.C. - a time of great social and political ferment. Essays investigate Sicily not simply as a destination for adventurers and settlers, but as a catalyst that shaped Greek culture at its peak and transmitted Hellenism to Rome. In the opulent courts of the Sicilian city-states, artists, poets, and scientist attained levels of ingenuity rivaling those of "old Greece." Innovation in architecture, engineering, philosophy and literature flourished in mixed cultural communities REVIEW: An exploration of ancient masterpieces from the island of Sicily—crossroads of the Greek and Roman worlds. On the island dear to the goddess Demeter and blessed with agricultural abundance, former Greek colonies grew into powerful kingdoms during the 5th to 3rd centuries B.C. Innovations in art, architecture, theater, poetry, philosophy, and science flourished on Sicily, leaving an enduring stamp on mainland Greece and later on Rome. "Sicily: Art and Invention between Greece and Rome presents 145 objects that bear witness to the athletic and military victories, religious rituals, opulent lifestyles, and intellectual attainments that shaped Classical culture at its peak." REVIEW: Claire L. Lyons is acting senior curator of antiquities at the J. Paul Getty Villa and a specialist in the archaeology of Greece and pre-Roman Italy. Michael Bennett is the Cleveland Museum of Art’s first curator of Greek and Roman Art and has overseen the reinstallation of the museum’s collections of Ancient Near Eastern, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman antiquities. Clemente Marconi is James R. McCredie Professor in the History of Greek Art and Archaeology at New York University’s Institute of Fine Arts. His area of specialty is archaeology of ancient Sicily. CONTENTS: Introduction, Claire L. Lyons and Michael Bennett. History, Cultural Politics, and Identity. History of Sicily, 480-211 B.C. by Carmine Ampolo. The Fallen Heroes of Himera by Stefano Vassallo. A Unique Coin of Aitna by Francois de Callatay. Hellenistic Kingship in Sicily: Patronage and Politics under Agathokles and Hieron II by Caroline Veit. Ethnic Identity in Sicily: Greeks and Non-Greeks by Francesca Spatafora. The Gold Phiale of Damarchos by Pier Giovanni Guzzo. Religion and Mythology. The Cult of Demeter and Kore between Tradition and Innovation by Caterina Greco. The Sanctuary at San Francesco Bisconti by Enrico Caruso. The Goddess from Morgantina by Clemente Marconi. Greek Myth and Religion in the Sicilian Context by Monica de Cesare. Herakles Cafeo by Nicola Bonacasa. Sikeliote Culture in Art and Literature. Rivalry, Competition, and Promotion: Cities and Citizens of Sicily in the Sanctuaries of Greece by Gianfranco Adornato. The Mozia Charioteer by Maria Luisa Fama. Imaginary Kings: Visions of Monarchy in Sicilian Literature from Pindar to Theokritos by Kathryn Morgan. Priapos by Malcolm Bell III. Infinite Variety: Ancient Greek Drama in Sicily by Kathryn Bosher. Perseus and Andromeda in Agrigento by Fabio Caruso. Hellenism and Its Legacy. Science in Syracuse: Archimedes in Place by Reviel Netz. The Archimedes Palimpsest by William Noel. Archimedes' Genius by Michael Bennett. The Roman Conquest of Sicily and Its Consequences by Gabriella Cirucci. Morgantina's Silver Treasure by Malcolm Bell III. Sicilian Art and Archaeology in the Classical and Hellenistic Periods. Classical Greek Architecture in Sicily by Margaret M. Miles. Sculpture in Sicily from the Age of the Tyrants to the Reign of Hieron II by Clemente Marconi. The Bronze Ram of Castello Maniace by Agata Villa. The Art of Coinage by Carmen Arnold-Biucchi. Agalmata ek pelou: Aspects of Coroplastic Art in Classical and Hellenistic Sicily by Maria Lucia Ferruzza. Hellenistic Tradition in the Mural Painting of Ancient Sicily by Alessandra Merra. Sicilian Red-Figure Vase Painting by Sebastiano Barresi. PROFESSIONAL REVIEWS: REVIEW: This book, meant to accompany the exhibition of the same name, focuses on the art and culture of Sicily during the Classical and early Hellenistic periods. It begins with a series of forewords written by those involved, including museum directors, Italian officials, and the editors of the volume. A useful timeline follows, which is broken down into short periods extending from ca. 500-209 B.C.E. and correlates significant historical events in mainland and eastern Greece with those in Sicily and the western Mediterranean and with cultural and artistic developments in both areas. The text is likewise written by a series of authors. Its content is established in the “Introduction,” by two of the editors, Claire L. Lyons and Michael Bennett. They discuss the history of Sicily with a particular emphasis on developments following the Greek victory over the Carthaginians at Himera in 480 B.C.E. and extending to the conquest of Syracuse by the Romans in 212 B.C.E. This is the time covered by the exhibition. They further cite various examples of wealthy and powerful individuals (especially the tyrants of Syracuse), little known as well as more famous intellectuals, and important artistic achievements. Major themes are the enormous agricultural wealth of the island as attested by hoards of luxury goods from interior (rural) settlements and the widespread connections of the Sicilians. We know that Sicily was especially wealthy during the Classical and early Hellenistic periods, as demonstrated by literary references and by the extant art, but written sources are fragmentary. Perhaps for that reason, it is often overlooked in studies of Greek art and history. This book aims to fill the gaps in our understanding and to highlight the importance of Sicily within the Greek world. As an exhibition catalogue, it is intended for the general public. This may explain the rather zealous claim of Sicilian influence on building practices of mainland Greece “from Delos to Athens” (p. 3); the evidence for this statement, set out in the essay on architecture, is more limited. Yet the level of most essays may appeal more to a scholarly audience and for this reason the book deserves a place in academic libraries. Following the “Introduction,” the book unfolds in five sections, with between two and six essays and usually three “focus” objects in each. The first of these concerns history, cultural politics, and ethnic identity, with each subject treated in turn in a separate essay. The history of Sicily during the period represented by the exhibition is discussed in some detail, which provides the viewer with a complete background, although this is more useful for the student than the casual visitor. The other essays are more focused but nevertheless engaging. One deals with the period of the two Hellenistic kings Agathokles and Hieron II, finding in their activities the same types of self-promotion used by the successors to Alexander the Great. They can thus be compared to their contemporaries elsewhere in the Greek world. The other essay in this section addresses the interaction of Greeks and non-Greeks. It begins with a discussion of theories of colonization and cultural transmission and argues for a more complex picture. Thus, the establishment of Phoenician and Greek settlements within the previously inhabited territory resulted in varying types of intercultural relations, but with a marked hybridization by the early fifth century. The next section discusses religion and mythology in Sicily. The first essay explains the diverse functions of Demeter, as both lawgiver and insurer of fertility. With the ascendancy of Syracuse in the early fifth century, the cult of Demeter takes on a propagandistic role, as seen by the locations of the Rape of Persephone by Hades and her descent into the Underworld, which are now set in the vicinity of Enna and Syracuse. This essay also traces the various types of representation of Demeter and her daughter, Persephone. Among the best known of such possible depictions is the so-called Goddess from Morgantina, discussed in an embedded “focus” piece. The second contribution in this section also details the political function of mythology, but with an emphasis on heroes. The following group of essays elucidates the cultural contributions of the Sikeliotes (Sicilian Greeks). In the pan-Hellenic sanctuaries these take the form of treasuries and votive dedications. Five of the 12 treasuries at Olympia were dedicated by western cities. Victors in both athletic and military contests commemorated the event with visual offerings, while their achievements were celebrated in poetry commissioned for the occasion. These two means of bringing acclaim to the cities and citizens of Sicily are nicely explained in the first two essays of this section. The third details the innovations of Sicilian playwrights, although this information must be gleaned from comments by other writers (as Aristotle) and archaeological evidence, as no play is fully extant. One important source of evidence consists of vases produced in Sicily, as well as southern Italy, that may display actual performances. These appear in both Greek and non-Greek contexts, raising the possibility that the performances were viewed and appreciated by people throughout Sicily. This section links nicely with the first essay of the next, which explores the achievements and specifically Sicilian identity of one of its most famous citizens, Archimedes. It argues that while Archimedes was part of the wider intellectual world, he contributed much to his own city in terms of inventions for its defense and reflected Sicilian culture in his worldview as well as the dialect in which he wrote. According to the second essay, those specifically Sicilian (and Syracusan) cultural values were passed along to Rome after its conquest of Syracuse. Although the author argues against the view, held since Roman times, that this event was the catalyst for Roman appreciation of Greek art, she nevertheless accepts its importance for the cultural change that occurred in Rome around this time. The book ends with an examination of Sicilian art and archaeology in the Classical and Hellenistic periods, set out in six essays dealing with architecture, sculpture, coinage, coroplastic art, and wall and vase painting. The first essay discusses major buildings and, most significantly, their impact on and interaction with developments in mainland and Aegean Greece. Whereas this essay mentions, but does not treat in any detail, the distinctive traditions of the Archaic period (before 480 B.C.), the next one, on sculpture, gives considerable emphasis to Archaic works in both the text and the illustrations. Here, too, there is interest in elucidating local contributions, in this case to sculptural style, although the author notes the difficulty in determining the origins of the artists. In Sicily, the problem is complicated by the discovery of sculptures in non-Greek contexts; thus, one wonders whether the seated goddess from Grammichele, which is labeled “provincial” in style, looks the way she does not because of the sculptor but because of the patron. Remains of sculpture in Sicily are especially limited after the Early Classical period, due to political and military disruptions and, for temple decoration, perhaps a change in taste. A revival of architectural sculpture occurred under Hieron II, but was cut short by the Roman conquest. The paucity of Classical-period Sicilian sculpture is amply compensated by coinage, in what the author of the next essay refers to as “an embarrassment of riches.” Coinage attests to the high quality of engraving in Sicily as well as to innovations such as a fiduciary system, the regular use of three different metals (silver, gold, and bronze), the engraver’s signature, and the frontal head. Coroplastic (terracotta) art also shows a fairly continuous tradition, as discussed in the next essay. Material is presented from the Archaic through the Hellenistic periods, although, as the author explains, the use of molds complicates the determination of dates, style, and iconography. In objects from the various periods covered, the author suggests a blending of both local and foreign (usually Attic) styles and meanings. Yet the funerary nature of so many of these objects should tell us something of the priorities and beliefs of the Sikeliotes. The final two essays focus on painting. Despite fragmentary preservation, wall painting in Sicily is shown to be highly refined and to participate in the wider tradition within the Mediterranean. Murals from Morgantina reflect Hieron’s connections with the Hellenistic courts in Egypt and Macedonia, while those from more western sites partake of both Greek and Punic influences. The decorative schemes and motifs will be incorporated into Roman painting, both on the island and elsewhere in Italy. Red-figure vase painting is an important product of Sicily, but many questions surround its beginning and end. It was adopted from Athens perhaps, as argued, as early as the third quarter of the fifth century. This would make Sicilian workshops contemporary with those of southern Italy. During the fourth century, there is a shift from a few major centers to workshops at numerous smaller sites and a general decline in quality. Production ceases suddenly, for unknown reasons, probably in the early third century. Thus much study still needs to be done.. The aim of this book, to highlight the distinctive accomplishments of Sicily and its contribution to both the Greek and Roman worlds, is certainly fulfilled. Sometimes it seems, however, as if the authors try too hard to promote Sicily, by citing its impact elsewhere rather than focusing on its local creativity and by the repeated use of Athens for comparison (architecture) or inspiration (sculptural and coroplastic production). To be sure, Athens was responsible for important innovations and her art did serve as a model for Greeks elsewhere, as shown especially by red-figure vase painting (see the last essay), but she was not the only productive center in the Greek world. The Athenocentric orientation of modern scholars should be reassessed, along with the level of Athenian influence on Sicily. One might note here the use of the Ionic order for a temple at Syracuse long before the Athenians adopted Ionic for their better-known buildings. So too, in various essays authors suggest that the Sikeliotes were striving to be part of the Greek world, for example in their dedications of treasuries at Olympia or their adoption of certain styles and motifs. Studies by Gillian Shepherd (not cited in the bibliography) suggest rather a statement of independence and even rivalry by the Western Greeks through their treasuries.1 The book would be more useful to scholars if the bibliography were expanded to include such alternate views and to offer a wider range of sources for the various monuments. For example, several arulae are discussed, but without mention of the work by Meijden. No one can expect a book on such a large topic as Classical and Hellenistic Sicily to be complete, especially one that was organized around an exhibition and thus meant for a wide audience. As is, the various authors do an admirable job of bringing Sicily to life and making their ideas available to the English-language reader. Now that they have demonstrated the importance of Sicily in this period, we hope for more such publications in the future. [Barbara A. Barletta, University of Florida]. REVIEW: This edited volume—a companion to the exhibition of the same name, co-organized by the J. Paul Getty Museum and the Cleveland Museum of Art (CMA), in association with the Sicilian Region and the Assessorato for Cultural Heritage and Sicilian Identity—showcases the art, archaeology, history, and culture of the Greek cities on Sicily from the victory over the Carthaginians at the Battle of Himera in 480 BCE to the defeat of Syracuse in 212 BCE by the Roman general Marcellus. The book’s objective, explained in the forewords by Italian officials, the editors, and museum personnel, and in the introduction by Claire L. Lyons and Michael Bennett, curators at the Getty and CMA, respectively, is to analyze the artistic and intellectual contributions of Sicily to the rest of the Mediterranean world. Furthermore, they seek to redress the predominant scholarly focus on the period of Hellenic colonization on Sicily in the eighth and seventh centuries BCE by investigating the art and archaeology of the island in the Classical and Hellenistic periods. The volume is divided into five thematic sections, each comprising two to six chapters. In addition, there are thirteen one- or two-page “focus” essays by various authors that highlight either signature pieces from the exhibition, such as the Archimedes Palimpsest and the Goddess of Morgantina, or archaeological sites in Sicily. The first section, “History, Cultural Politics, and Identity,” examines the history, politics, and cultural identity of the Sikeliotes—the term used throughout the volume to designate Sicilian Greeks. The first chapter, “History of Sicily, 480–211 B.C.” by Carmine Ampolo, is a very thorough discussion of the history of Sicily, from the fifth to the third centuries BCE, and is supplemented by a timeline at the beginning of the volume. The remaining chapters in this section address specific aspects of Sicilian history. In her chapter on the Hellenistic kingship in Sicily (“Hellenistic Kingship in Sicily: Patronage and Politics under Agathokles and Hieron II”), Caroline Veit places the rulers within the context of the concurrent wars of succession and efforts to define political legitimacy in the wider Mediterranean. Hieron II, for example, placed a great emphasis on his dynastic and royal ancestry and linked the authority of his kingship to the cult of Zeus Olympios. He sponsored building projects, such as a new temple to Zeus Olympios in the Syracusan agora and a religious center in the Neapolis quarter, which linked Zeus, Herakles, and other gods and heroes to prominent members of his family. Hieron also drew connections between himself and a long tradition of Sicilian dedications at the god’s sanctuary at Olympia on mainland Greece. Veit argues that this emphasis on his Hellenism also constructively denoted his opposition to the growing power of Rome at his doorstep. In her essay on ethnic identity (“Ethnic Identity in Sicily: Greeks and Non-Greeks”), Francesca Spatafora discusses different types of “encounters”—avoiding assumptions of power politics that are tied to colonization—between the Greeks, Phoenicians, and native Sikels and furthers the discourse on cross-cultural theory in the ancient Mediterranean. She uses literary sources and archaeological evidence from the necropoleis, sanctuaries, and settlements of Sicily to show that the native Sikels maintained their own distinct communities, yet shared some common architectural vocabulary with the Greek and Phoenician settlers on the island. The rich and varied mythological and religious life of Greek Sicily is investigated in the next section (“Religion and Mythology”), with particular emphasis on the role of the agricultural goddess Demeter. Caterina Greco (“The Cult of Demeter and Kore between Tradition and Innovation”) begins by examining the “civilizing” role the goddess, whose aspect as Thesmophoros (law-giving) emphasized the link between agricultural productivity, female fertility, and the creation of established laws that helped to form civilized cities out of potentially chaotic communities. Her worship played a major role in Sicily, as new urban centers, such as Gela, Akragas, and Selinus, used the agricultural cult to stress female fertility and the gendered division of labor. Greco then proceeds to analyze the implications of the Deinomenid dynasty’s political uses of the implications of Demeter’s myth and cults in the fifth century BCE. The Deinomenids appropriated the myths of Kore’s abduction for propaganda purposes, relocating the story from the territory of Eleusis on the Greek mainland to the sacred landscape of Sicily, specifically Syracuse and Enna. By transferring the sacred geography of Demeter’s most important myth to Sicily, the Deinomenids elevated the importance of their own Demeter sanctuaries and the critical value of the goddess’s agricultural and law-giving aspects. Monica de Cesare’s chapter (“Greek Myth and Religion in the Sicilian Context”) examines some of the other mythological stories involving Sicily, including Odysseus’s adventures and Aeneas’s flight from Troy. She shows how these myths were instrumental in the formation and definition of the Greek ethnic and civic identity in Sicily. The three chapters of the next section focus on the artistic and literary contributions of the Sikeliote culture (“Sikeliote Culture in Art and Literature”). Essays by Gianfranco Adornato (“Rivalry, Competition, and Promotion: Cities and Citizens of Sicily in the Sanctuaries of Greece”) and Kathryn Morgan (“Imaginary Kings: Visions of Monarchy in Sicilian Literature from Pindar to Theokritos”) evaluate the Sicilian contribution to Greek competitive athletic society. Adornato considers the treasuries and other dedications by Sicilian cities at the panhellenic sanctuaries at Olympia and Delphi, and Morgan examines the poetic patronage of the kings and the ways that kingship was exalted, deployed, and constructed not only by Pindar but also by Xenophon, Aeschylus, Plato, and others. Finally, in an essay by the late Kathryn Bosher (“Infinite Variety: Ancient Greek Drama in Sicily”), the fragmentary evidence of Sikeliote dramatists in the Classical and Hellenistic periods is analyzed. Although no Sikeliote plays survive in their entirety from this period, Athenian and Roman sources indicate that they were held in high regard. A fuller picture of these enigmatic playwrights and the varied genres of dramatic productions is created through the consideration of terra-cotta theater masks, Southern Italian and Sikeliote vase paintings, theaters, and textual evidence. The fourth section, “Hellenism and Its Legacy,” begins with the enigmatic figure of Archimedes. Raviel Netz investigates Archimedes, not only as a scientist, but as a Sicilian and Syracusan specifically (“Science in Syracuse: Archimedes in Place”). He focuses on Archimedes’s relationship with his native city, how he represented his city to the rest of the scientific community in the Mediterranean, and how he worked both to promote and defend Syracuse. Gabriella Cirucci (“The Roman Conquest of Sicily and Its Consequences”) argues for the more specific contributions of Sikeliote art to Roman art, showing the Sicilian influence on the so-called “Hellenization” of Rome and pointing out that Roman conquerors used Sikeliote art as a means of self-promotion both before and after the sack of Syracuse. The last section, “Sicilian Art and Archaeology in the Classical and Hellenistic Periods,” is a survey of the architecture, sculpture, coinage, coroplastic arts, wall painting, and vase painting from Classical and Hellenistic Sicily. Margaret M. Miles (“Classical Greek Architecture in Sicily”) analyzes the massive and innovative building projects—key to the early development of the Doric order—in Archaic and Classical Sicily that were made financially possible through the war booty and indemnities commanded by the Sikeliotes after their victory over the Carthaginians. She concludes the chapter with an all-too-brief discussion of the influences of Sikeliote architecture on the Greek East. Clemente Marconi (“Sculpture in Sicily from the Age of the Tyrants to the Reign of Hieron II”) analyzes the fragmentary evidence of sculpture from Sicily, while Carmen Arnold-Biucchi’s discussion of the abundant numismatic evidence (“The Art of Coinage”) analyzes the coins both for their historical value, but also as works of sculpture in their own right. Maria Lucia Ferruzza (“Agalmata ek pelou: Aspects of Coroplastic Art in Classical and Hellenistic Sicily”) discusses the coroplastic arts from Classical and Hellenistic Sicily, with a special focus on mythological themes, highlighting the Sikeliote interest in the heroes Odysseus and Herakles, both of whom traveled to foreign lands and represented the liminal space of the human condition. Alessandra Merra (“Hellenistic Tradition in the Mural Painting of Ancient Sicily”) examines Sicilian wallpainting of the Hellenistic period, and, finally, Sebastiano Barresi (“Sicilian Red-Figure Vase Painting”) traces the history of Sicilian red-figure vase paining, especially in the context of better-known Athenian workshops. "Sicily: Art and Invention between Greece and Rome" provides a strong collection of worthwhile essays about Classical, Hellenistic, and Roman Sicily for an English-speaking audience. My criticisms are largely minor and cosmetic. The treatment of the captions to the many high-quality illustrations is inconsistent. While some exceptional artifacts and archaeological sites have small “focus” essays, others have explanatory captions, and still others have only basic information. Though the aim of the volume is more to thrust the island of Sicily on the Mediterranean stage than to serve as a catalogue for the show, and thus includes artifacts that were not part of the exhibition, it is not clearly noted which were on display and which were not. As a result, there is at times a discontinuity between the articles and the highlighted artifacts. There is also perhaps too much focus on Athens, given the fact that the intended goals of the volume are a reevaluation of the presumption that cultural influence traveled almost exclusively from east to west and to highlight the artistic and intellectual contributions of Sicily to the rest of the Mediterranean world. Many of the essays compare Sikeliote contributions to those of their Attic contemporaries in attempts to legitimize and raise the importance of Sicily in comparison, rather than emphasizing the island as a cultural center in its own right. This volume is part of a large body of scholarship on the complexity and multi-directionality of ancient Mediterranean cultural interaction. Some of the essays, particularly those by Ampolo and Spatafora, are more detailed than what one would normally expect to find in a museum catalogue. The intended audience seems more likely to be academic, rather than the casual museumgoer, and this volume would be beneficial to undergraduates and other scholars who want to engage with Classical and Hellenistic Sicily. It is a welcome addition to the study of the Hellenic cities on Sicily and certainly promotes that island’s place in, and its impact on, the wider Mediterranean. [Karen A. Laurence, Visiting Lecturer, Department of Classics, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign]. REVIEW: Classical antiquity—“the glory that was Greece and the grandeur that was Rome,” in Lord Byron’s neat formulation—has long been considered the bedrock of Western civilization. But our understanding of that heritage is ever-changing, as archaeologists uncover fresh evidence and historians speculate about how to adjust their models of the past, always acknowledging that much has been irretrievably lost. How do we define ancient classicism? Increasingly, we are recognizing how complex and vital were the cross-currents of life around the Mediterranean. An exhibition recently at the Getty Museum, and now at the Cleveland Museum of Art, “Sicily: Art and Invention between Greece and Rome” focuses on a crucial place and time: Sicily in the era of Greek colonization. The Greeks arrived around 734 BC, founded settlements and began calling themselves Sikeliotes (Sicilian Greeks). Sicily was no backwater; it was a major force in Magna Graecia. For half a millennium, Syracuse was one of the great cities of the ancient world. The temples at Segesta, Selinunte and Agrigento are among the best and best-preserved Doric architectural examples in the world. This exhibition—with 150 objects, many on loan from museums in Sicily—consists necessarily of portable artworks, but they suggest the splendor of the temples. Two figurative sculptures from Selinunte, now in the archaeological museum in Palermo, offer dramatic testimony. A terracotta altar depicts the dawn goddess Eos leading the hunter Kephalos (early fifth century BC), and a limestone and marble metope shows Zeus on his throne, tenderly lifting the veil from Hera’s face, a gesture from the wedding ceremony (460–450 BC). These remarkable works should whet any art lover’s appetite for a visit to the Salone di Selinunte in the Palermo museum. The artistry on display is superb, and the subjects reveal the original energy behind the familiar myths: Dementer and Kore; the rape of Europa, with attendant dolphins; Perseus slaying Medusa, and the winged horse Pegasus springing from her blood. Other works from around the island—the nineteen lion-head waterspouts from the Temple of Victory at Himera (480 BC) are particularly striking—fill the museum’s seventeenth-century building, originally a convent, with its cool, landscaped cloisters. The collection is not limited to Greek artifacts. There are Egyptian gods and hieroglyphs, Roman sculpture and Phoenician sarcophagi. Although the catalogue authors—forty international scholars participated in this project1—do not delve deeply into the non-Greek culture of ancient Sicily, the island has always been multicultural. Carthage in North Africa exerted a counter-pull to Athens, and the Phoenicians dominated the west of the island, even as the Greek colonies and city-states flourished. Situated in the Mediterranean at the crossroads of Greece, Italy and North Africa, Sicily had strategic importance and was blessed by nature with a temperate climate, abundant crops and a bounty of seafood. Over millennia, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Normans and Spaniards have contributed to a heady mix of cultures, with a uniquely Sicilian flavor. The Duomo in Syracuse is typical of the fusion of eras and styles. The site was already considered sacred before the ruler Gelon built a great temple to Athena in the fifth century BC. When the site became a Christian church, raised to the status of cathedral in 640, the temple’s cella became the nave, and its Doric columns provided the still-visible skeleton of the building. Remnants of Norman furnishings also remain, behind the Baroque façade, constructed after an earthquake. The novelist Lawrence Durrell describes, in his very personal travel memoir Sicilian Carousel, the “deeply harmonious and congruent” feeling of the place, which embodies “the quick or the quiddity of Sicily”: It has a peaceful feeling of inevitability, as if it had been achieved during sleep, inerringly…. It was also a sort of living X-ray of our whole culture, or let us say, the history of the religious impulse in one vivid cross-section…. Here we were standing on a spot which had been consecrated ground before the Greeks, then during the Greek reign, and finally for the Christians. This sort of inspired, organic hybridization goes on across Sicily, even when the evidence is too subtle to be immediately apparent. The Temple of Concord at Agrigento (fifth century BC), with its thirty-four Doric columns, is a masterpiece of classical architecture, but we owe its state of preservation to its conversion to a Christian basilica in the fourth century ad. (It was restored to its ancient form in 1748.) The curators of this exhibition aim to untangle a single, important strand from Sicily’s multicultural tapestry, adopting a Hellenocentric view. They further limit the subject by focusing on a specific timeline, choosing 480 BC, with the Sikeliotes’ victory over Carthage, as a starting point, and 212 BC, with the Roman conquest of Syracuse, as an end. Within these relatively narrow parameters, a dazzling civilization is revealed, and several masterpieces grace this show. The statue of a youth, known as The Mozia Charioteer (470–460 BC) is a stunning work. The head has an elegant severity, and the body is a tour de force. The relaxed way he shifts his weight—a subtle contrapposto—radiates confidence. The pleating of the thin linen accentuates the muscular limbs. The mix of realism and idealism exemplifies what we think of as classical humanism. The catalogue texts, for the most part, slant toward specialists rather than a general audience. Historians today tend to distinguish between what we actually know about the past and what we think or assume we know. Mary Beard, author of The Roman Triumph (2007) and The Fires of Vesuvius (2008), among other titles, manages to combine these subtleties with a vibrant narrative. The writers of this catalogue are less adept storytellers, but there is much to be gleaned from their analyses, and the objects are compelling. Another highlight of the exhibition is a spectacular religious offering dish, known as a phiale mesophalos (late fourth–early third century BC). Made of two-and-a-half pounds of gold, the libation bowl, used to pour wine onto the altar, is similar to the ones carried by the caryatids at the Erechteion in Athens (reproduced at the Emperor Hadrian’s villa outside Rome). The phiale mesophalos exemplifies the wealth and craftsmanship of ancient Sicily, and the design—spirals of ivy, along with concentric bands of stylized beechnuts, acorns, bees and blossoms—celebrates the natural beauty of the island. The level of artistry extends to coins, as well, and a number of designers took the unusual step of signing their miniature bas-reliefs in tiny script. A silver tetradrachm, (410–403 BC) signed by Choirion, features a frontal head of Apollo, with dynamically sculpted waves and curls framing a pensive face. He wears an oak leaf crown and is flanked by a bow and a lyre, attributes of the god. On the reverse, Nike flies over a chariot, preparing to crown a victor. The quadriga—with four horses at full gallop—was a favorite motif, an opportunity to display the artist’s skill. Numismatists have identified twenty Sicilians who signed their coins, such as Kimon, represented here by a silver decadrachm (405–400 BC) with a head of the nymph Arethousa, who was transformed into a spring on the island of Ortygia at Syracuse. Unsigned but confidently attributed to the Aitna Master is a silver tetradrachma (476–466 BC) with a marvelous profile head of Silenos, companion to Dionysos, on the obverse, and a seated Zeus, on the reverse. Details tie the iconography to Mount Etna, including vine leaves, a fir tree and a specific beetle, all associated with the fertile slopes of the volcano. The Greek pantheon settled comfortably into the life and topography of Sicily. Of all the deities, Demeter and her daughter, Persephone, took root most decisively. By the fifth century BC, it had become canonical that Persephone had been abducted by Hades in Sicily, near Enna, in the meadows, fragrant with wildflowers, around Lake Perusa. Ancient coins from Enna depict Demeter with her attributes, the emblems of her myth: ears of corn, appropriate to the goddess of agriculture and the Eleusinian mysteries of death and rebirth; and the torch she carries as she searches for Persephone. A coin from Syracuse shows Persephone crowned by ears of corn and, on the reverse, Demeter and her torch, lit by the fires of Etna. In her catalogue essay, Caterina Greco notes the dramatic power of Demeter and Persephone as archetypes of female divinity: “the never-ending play of ambivalences and mirrorings—virgin/mother, life/death, human fertility/natural abundance.”4 The story resonates on several levels: as the personal drama of a mother who loses and regains her child, as an explanation of the cycle of the seasons, as the paradox at the heart of ancient mystery rites (echoed in the Christian theme of the seed buried and resurrected). John Milton refers to the myth, using the Roman versions of the deities’ names, Ceres and Proserpine, in Book IV of Paradise Lost: That faire field Of Enna, where Proserpin gath’ring flours Her self a fairer Floure by gloomy Dis Was gathered, which cost Ceres all that pain To seek her through the world. Alfred, Lord Tennyson captured the earthly devastation when Demeter withdraws her favors in his Victorian dramatic monologue “Demeter and Persephone”: My quick tears kill’d the flower, my ravings hush’d; The bird, and lost to utter grief, I fail’d; To send my life thro’ olive-yard and vine; And golden grain, my gift to helpless man. Rain-rotten died the wheat, the barley-spears; Were hollow-husk’d, the leaf fell, and the sun, Pale at my grief, drew down before his time; Sickening, and Aetna kept her winter snow. With the seasonal balance restored, Demeter renewed her vital protection to Earth and—especially, according to the ancient poets—Sicily. The ancient poet Pindar writes of the honors paid to “purple-footed Demeter” by Hieron I of Syracuse, and Bacchyledes says that Zeus put Sicily in the hands of Demeter and Persephone. The cult of the goddesses was pervasive and may have built on even more ancient traditions on the island. The exhibition features a wide range of artifacts, some humble, such as a small terracotta vessel (late fourth–early third century BC) with wheat, barley and spelt seeds, associated with the mysteries. Votive statuettes were a major part of coroplastic production, the manufacture of terracotta objects. A head of Hades—the chthonic deity who abducted Persephone—from c. 350 BC still bears traces of paint. He is a striking individual, with heavy curls and beard; his deep-rimmed eyes may have been embellished with metal eyelashes. A statuette of Demeter (425–400 BC) wears long braids and a basket-shaped crown (polos). A votive relief of Demeter and Kore (420–400 BC) in marble (Kore was Persephone’s alternative name) has a processional dignity. Demeter walks in front, carrying her torch, but with none of the desperation associated with her search. Persephone/Kore follows her, and their graceful movements seem almost choreographed. The relief may illustrate the Eleusinian mysteries. Suggestions of another mystery cult, under the auspices of Dionysos, appear on a terracotta vase, a polychrome lebes gamikos (300–200 BC). It depicts a marriage ceremony, although the figures with a tympanum and an ivy crown also hint at the bride’s participation in a religious initiation. The vessel serves a symbolic function. The conical lid, fixed to the body, looks like a temple roof, with lion’s-head waterspouts. A red-figured calyx krater (375–360 BC), which may have been used in a cremation burial, reveals another side of Dionysos, his rule of the theater. As the god, enthroned, watches, an acrobat does a handstand, and two comic actors cavort. The masks are evidence that North African performers appeared in Sicilian theaters. In their catalogue introduction, Claire L. Lyons and Michael Bennett note that Sicily “was an irresistible magnet for talent from… mainland” Greece.5 The founder of tragedy, Aeschylus, spent significant time in Sicily, drawn by a tradition of theater and the patronage of rulers in Gela and Syracuse. Aeschylus wrote his Women of Aitra, based on the myth of Thaleia, mother of the local deities, for Hieron of Syracuse, and, according to some accounts, wrote the Oresteia trilogy at Gela. Sicily was also the birthplace of the comic dramatist Epicharmos, much admired by Aristotle. Pindar wrote odes to Hieron, celebrating his victory in an Olympic horse race and praising the greatness of his court. The Sicilian courts were formidable centers of intellectual and artistic life, and Plato was one of the luminaries who flocked there. But Plato quarreled with the rulers and left denouncing the lavish tastes of the Sicilians, known for taking their everyday pleasures seriously, especially their food. The first celebrity cookbook authors were Sicilians from the late fifth century BC, Herakleides of Syracuse and Mithaikos. The exhibition features a red-figured bell krater (380–370 BC) depicting a lively exchange between a fishmonger and his customer over a fine tuna. The homegrown Sicilian talent was equally impressive, including the Pre-Socratic poet-philosopher Empedokles, who developed the theory of the four elements and famously died by flinging himself into Mount Etna, and the master rhetorician Gorgias, who taught oratory to Pericles. Two of the most celebrated were the genius inventor Archimedes and the poet Theokritus. Bennett’s assertion that “Archimedes… was the Einstein of antiquity”6 seems convincing, considering the master’s reputation in mathematics, physics and mechanical engineering. His inventions included a water clock, planetaria (kinetic working models of the planets) and various ingenious weapons, including sophisticated catapults. The exhibition represents his genius with the Archimedes Palimpsest, the oldest extant manuscript containing some of his treatises, the unique source for his Method of Mechanical Theorems and Stomachia, and the only Greek text for On Floating Bodies. The Palimpsest itself has a fascinating history, reminiscent of the stories in Stephen Greenblatt’s fascinating study of the rediscovery of Lucretius, The Swerve. The Palimpsest, discovered in the early years of the twentieth century, is a medieval prayer book written over a scraped-down ancient manuscript. The undertext has been recovered through modern technology. Archimedes was killed during the Roman conquest of Sicily, against the orders of the general Marcus Claudius Marcellus. The Roman admiration for Archimedes—and the role of Sicily in the Hellenization of Roman culture—comes into focus in the career of Cicero. When Cicero was quester of Sicily in 75 BC, he restored a monument to Archimedes, a tribute depicted, in high rhetorical style, by Benjamin West in his painting Cicero Discovering the Tomb of Archimedes (1804). The orator made his career, in 70 BC, arguing the case of Sicilian clients in the corruption trial of Gaius Verres, a former governor accused of despoiling the temples. The Roman acquisition of conquered art is a complex issue, combining connoisseurship with looting and admiration. In her catalogue essay, Gabriella Cirucci cites the Roman historian Livy on the treasures of Sicily, the “adornments of a long peace and of royal wealth,” bronze, silver “and many marble statues, with which Syracuse had been adorned more highly than most cities of Greece." Understandably, given its parameters, the catalogue cannot fully explore the scope of Sicily’s influence on Rome as a vital conduit of ancient culture, not just through physical objects but also through ideas. The Sicilian poet Theokritus created, in the pastoral genre in poetry, a world of natural beauty, love laments and elegies that came down, through Virgil’s Eclogues, to shape the imaginations of Renaissance writers and artists. Theokritus’ Idyll I is set in Sicily, on the banks of Himera River. The cast of characters—shepherds and shepherdesses, poets and lovers, mingling with mythic creatures—would reappear in art for millennia. A Renaissance translation by Thomas Creech, from 1684, begins: I dare not, faith I dare not pipe at Noon, Afraid of Pan, or when his Hunting’s done, And he lyes down to sleep by purling streams, He’s very touchy if we break his dreams: But Thyrsis (for you know fair Daphis pains, And singst the best of all the tuneful Swains) Let’s go and sit beneath yon Myrtle boughs, Where stands Priapus, and the Nymphs repose…. Priapos, a guardian of orchards and symbol of virility, appears in the exhibition in the form of a limestone statue (250–212 BC) that captures the ardent per- sonality of the god. That same full-bodied grace appears in the smaller form of an ivory appliqué of a satyr (200–100 BC). Such handsome physical objects exemplify the rich cultural legacy of the Sicilian Greeks. [American Arts Quarterly]. REVIEW: An island at the crossroads of the Mediterranean, Sicily occupied a pivotal place in antiquity between Greece, North Africa, and the Italian peninsula. The exhibit Sicily: Art and Invention between Greece and Rome, now on view at the Getty Villa in Malibu, showcases ancient Sicily as a major center of cultural innovation from the fifth to the third centuries B.C., when art, architecture, theater, poetry, philosophy, and science flourished and left an enduring stamp on mainland Greece and later on Rome. “This is the first major exhibition to arise from the Getty’s 2010 Cultural Agreement with Sicily, presenting masterpieces that are among the most accomplished examples of ancient Greek art in the world,” said Timothy Potts, director of the J. Paul Getty Museum. “We are especially thrilled to have on view the exceptional statue of a victorious Charioteer from Mozia that the Getty has recently conserved. This object is a unique expression of the marvelous artistry of Greek sculptors at the dawn of the Classical era.” The spectacular and newly conserved Mozia Charioteer statue is the centerpiece of the exhibition. Discovered in 1976 on the island of Mozia in western Sicily, it is believed to represent a charioteer who competed at Olympia on behalf of one of the Sicilian rulers. The extraordinary style of the sculpture, especially notable in the sinuous pleating of the long linen xystis that sheathes the figure’s athletic physique, is a tour-de-force of stone carving. Clearly a master of his craft, the sculptor was able to reveal the torso and limbs beneath the thin fabric. With its confident gaze and proud stance, this statue conveys the high level of originality and experimentation achieved by Greek sculptors working in Sicily. Recently on view at the British Museum in London during the 2012 Summer Olympics, the statue has since undergone a conservation treatment at the Getty Villa. Part of the Getty’s cultural agreement with Sicily, this 18-month collaborative conservation project involved remounting the sculpture and the provision of a seismic isolation base, which will accompany the object when it is reinstalled at the Whitaker Museum on the island of Mozia. Together with the Charioteer, "Sicily: Art and Invention between Greece and Rome", co-organized by the J. Paul Getty Museum, the Cleveland Museum of Art, and the Assessorato dei Beni Culturali e dell’Identità Siciliana, features some 150 objects, a major portion on loan from institutions in Sicily, including stone and bronze sculptures, vase-paintings, votive terracotta statuettes and reliefs, carved ivory, gold and silver metalwork, jewelry, inscriptions, architectural revetments, and coins. “These splendid objects bear witness to the athletic and military victories, religious rituals, opulent lifestyles, and intellectual attainments of the Sicilian Greeks, which shaped Greek culture at its peak,” explains Claire Lyons, acting senior curator of antiquities at the J. Paul Getty Museum and curator of the exhibition. Known as the “coin of coins,” the unique Aitna tetradrachm from the Royal Library of Belgium is one of the most precious ancient coins in the world. On view in the exhibition along with 50 other exceptionally crafted Sicilian Greek coins, the image on the tetradrachm depicts the head of Silenos on the obverse and on the reverse, Zeus enthroned with an eagle perched beside him, imagery that alludes to the cult of Zeus on Mt. Etna. Sicily: Art and Invention between Greece and Rome also examines how settlers from the Greek mainland brought their myths and religious practices to Sicily. To sanctify new colonies and maintain ties with mother cities, they built altars and temples to such gods as Apollo, the patron deity of colonists, as well as the deified hero Herakles. Included are terracotta heads of Apollo, Hades, and Persephone, created as cult or votive images of deities that played a central role in ancient Sicilian worship. Another section of the exhibition will focus on Archimedes of Syracuse (about 287–212 B.C.), one of history’s foremost scientists and mathematicians. More than a millennium ahead of its time, his work laid the foundation for branches of math, physics, engineering, and even computer science. When Syracuse’s King Hieron II asked him to determine whether a crown was made of pure gold, Archimedes made his legendary deduction that a solid displaces a volume of liquid equal to its own volume, a discovery that supposedly caused the scientist to leap from his bath and run naked through the streets crying “Eureka” (“I have found it!”). On view is a leaf from the Archimedes Palimpsest, the only surviving manuscript containing copies of Archimedes’ writings. Finally, the exhibition examines the reflections of literature in Sicilian visual arts. "Sicily: Art and Invention between Greece and Rome" is the latest in a series of cooperative efforts between the Getty and the Sicilian Ministry of Culture and Sicilian Identity arising from a 2010 agreement that calls for a number of collaborative projects, including object conservation, seismic protection of collections, exhibitions, scholarly research, and conferences. Recent related projects include the 2010 loan of the Gela Krater, a monumental red-figured volute krater (wine mixing vessel) attributed to the Niobid Painter; The Agrigento Youth, a rare example of an early classical marble statue called a kouros (an idealized nude young man), loaned to the Getty from the Museo Archeologico Regionale in Agrigento (2010/2011); and most recently the loan of thirty-six objects from the sanctuaries of Demeter at Morgantina (2012/January 2013). REVIEW: An island at the crossroads of the Mediterranean, Sicily occupied a pivotal place in antiquity between Greece, North Africa, and the Italian peninsula. Sicily: Art and Invention between Greece and Rome, on view at the Getty Villa April 3–August 19, 2013, will showcase ancient Sicily as a major center of cultural innovation from the fifth to the third centuries B.C., when art, architecture, theater, poetry, philosophy, and science flourished and left an enduring stamp on mainland Greece and later on Rome. "This is the first major exhibition to arise from the Getty’s 2010 Cultural Agreement with Sicily, presenting masterpieces that are among the most accomplished examples of ancient Greek art in the world," said Timothy Potts, director of the J. Paul Getty Museum. "We are especially thrilled to have on view the exceptional statue of a victorious Charioteer from Mozia that the Getty has recently conserved. This object is a unique expression of the marvelous artistry of Greek sculptors at the dawn of the Classical era." Sicily: Art and Invention between Greece and Rome, co-organized by the J. Paul Getty Museum, the Cleveland Museum of Art, and the Assessorato dei Beni Culturali e dell’Identità Siciliana, features some 150 objects, a major portion on loan from institutions in Sicily, including stone and bronze sculptures, vase-paintings, votive terracotta statuettes and reliefs, carved ivory, gold and silver metalwork, jewelry, inscriptions, architectural revetments, and coins. "These splendid objects bear witness to the athletic and military victories, religious rituals, opulent lifestyles, and intellectual attainments of the Sicilian Greeks, which shaped Greek culture at its peak," explains Claire Lyons, acting senior curator of antiquities at the J. Paul Getty Museum and curator of the exhibition. The Mozia Charioteer, widely considered one of the the finest surviving examples of Greek sculpture, serves as the exhibition’s centerpiece. Recently on view at the British Museum in London during the 2012 Summer Olympics, the statue has since undergone conservation treatment at the Getty Villa. Part of the Getty’s cultural agreement with Sicily, this 18-month collaborative conservation project involved remounting the sculpture and the provision of a seismic isolation base, which will accompany the object when it is reinstalled at the Villa Whittaker on the island of Mozia. The triumphant Mozia Charioteer, discovered in 1976 on the island of Mozia in western Sicily, is believed to represent a charioteer who competed at Olympia on behalf of one of the Sicilian rulers. The extraordinary style of the sculpture, especially notable in the sinuous pleating of the long linen xystis that sheathes the figure’s athletic physique, is a tour-de-force of stone carving. Clearly a master of his craft, the sculptor was able to reveal the torso and limbs beneath the thin fabric. With its confident gaze and proud stance, this statue conveys the high level of originality and experimentation achieved by Greek sculptors working in Sicily. Important evidence of Sicilian artistic innovation is also apparent in the exquisite coins of the time. Beginning in the late fifth century B.C., a group of Sicilian Greek coin engravers, mainly based in Syracuse, added their signatures to the dies used to stamp coins. Known as the “Signing Masters,” these remarkable craftsmen created extraordinary works of art on a miniature scale. Departing from the traditional profile view, they devised novel ways of representing the human body in a lively three-quarter perspective or striking frontal pose. This testimony of individual mastery of the medium is virtually exclusive to Sicilian Greek coins created around 400 B.C. Often abbreviated in tiny but legible script, the artists’ signatures are typically all but hidden in locks of hair or elements of jewelry. Known as the “coin of coins,” the unique Aitna tetradrachm from the Royal Library of Belgium is one of the most precious ancient coins in the world. On view in the exhibition along with 50 other exceptionally crafted Sicilian Greek coins, the image on the tetradrachm depicts the head of Silenos on the obverse and on the reverse, Zeus enthroned with an eagle perched beside him, imagery that alludes to the cult of Zeus on Mt. Etna. Sicily: Art and Invention between Greece and Rome will also examine how settlers from the Greek mainland brought their myths and religious practices to Sicily. To sanctify new colonies and maintain ties with mother cities, they built altars and temples to such gods as Apollo, the patron deity of colonists, as well as the deified hero Herakles. Included are terracotta heads of Apollo, Hades, and Persephone, created as cult or votive images of deities that played a central role in ancient Sicilian worship. The skillfully modeled clay, embellished with striking polychrome pigments, compares favorably with the most accomplished works in marble and bronze. An exceptional example of metalwork is a religious offering dish made of two and a half pounds of gold. Known as a phiale mesomphalos, the vessel is embossed from the center outward with bands of beechnuts, acorns, and bees above blossoms; the owner's name—Damarchos, son of Achyris—is inscribed beneath the rim, together with its equivalent weight in gold coins. The divine hero Herakles was also embraced by Greek settlers, who linked his deeds to their ancestral cities. Contrasting aspects of Herakles’ identity—peaceful healer, solitary herdsman, and violent aggressor—heightened the appeal of his cult among the men of rural Sicily, who tended flocks and worked as mercenary soldiers. Among the objects on view is a finely preserved bronze statuette of Herakles recovered from a river-bed in Contrada Cafeo (Modica), which suggests that a shrine to the hero was situated nearby. Preeminent among the honored deities was Demeter, goddess of agriculture, and her daughter Persephone (or Kore). Sanctuaries of the goddesses dotted the island, but their cult was most enthusiastically embraced in central Sicily, where, according to myth, Kore descended to the Underworld as the bride of Hades. Depictions of these deities include a terracotta bust with a rare painted figural scene that may represent part of a ritual honoring or celebrating the goddesses, and a cult statuette discovered near an altar in Gela together with an offering jug of carbonized seeds of grain. A section of the exhibition will focus on Archimedes of Syracuse (about 287–212 B.C.), one of history’s foremost scientists and mathematicians. More than a millennium ahead of its time, his work laid the foundation for branches of math, physics, engineering, and even computer science. When Syracuse's King Hieron II asked him to determine whether a crown was made of pure gold, Archimedes made his legendary deduction that a solid displaces a volume of liquid equal to its own volume, a discovery that supposedly caused the scientist to leap from his bath and run naked through the streets crying “Eureka" ("I have found it!"). On view is a leaf from the Archimedes Palimpsest, the only surviving manuscript containing copies of Archimedes’ writings. The medieval prayer book that included this leaf was inked by a scribe onto recycled parchment that originally bore the theories of Archimedes. The pages were scraped clean before being overwritten, but with the use of advanced imaging technology, the original writing is visible. The leaf on view is a section of text from “Proposition 1” from Archimedes' Method, a work integrating geometry and physics. Finally, the exhibition examines the reflections of literature in Sicilian visual arts. Many mainland Greeks became familiar with Sicily through the epic poetry of Homer, including Odysseus’s wanderings after the Trojan War, which took him to the western Mediterranean. Often depicted in vase-painting and sculpture, Odysseus's encounters with strange creatures like the Cyclops and Scylla were allegories for early colonial settlement and trading enterprises that spread Greek culture to distant, exotic regions. The pastoral genre created and perfected by the Syracusan poet Theokritos (about 300–after 260 B.C.) flourished as Sicily was falling under the dominion of Rome in the third century B.C. He is renowned for his Idylls (literally, “little pictures”), which paint nostalgic word-images of Sicilian country life from the point of view of a sophisticated urbanite. Theokritos’s rustic characters—including satyrs, shepherds, and the woodland deity Priapos—also populated the visual arts of the period, attesting to the appeal of rural fantasies during a time of civic turmoil. On extended loan from Syracuse, a life-size statue of the fertility god Priapos, the earliest such figure in Greek art will be featured in the exhibition. Like the Mozia Charioteer, it was also the subject of a collaborative conservation project undertaken by the Getty Museum. The importance and popularity of Greek comedy and drama outside of Athens is evident in the theatrical figurines, masks and scenes on vases, many of which come from the island of Lipari. The celebrated “Father of Tragedy,” Aeschylus (Greek, 525–456 B.C.) traveled to Sicily on at least two occasions, where his plays found fertile ground in the strong local tradition of performance on the island. On display is a terracotta mixing vessel with the earliest known depiction of the myth of Perseus and Andromeda, which likely reflects a performance of Sophocles’ Andromeda (about 450 B.C.). The Greek inscription painted above the figure of Perseus—“Euaion, the son of Aeschylus, is handsome”—names the actor, son of the great tragedian. Rich harvests, bountiful seas, and a favorable trade location brought immense wealth to the Sicilian city-states, and the exhibition highlights their widespread reputation for luxurious lifestyles with five gilt-silver vessels, part of a larger group of fifteen. The silver treasure had been buried for safekeeping beneath the floor of a house in Morgantina during the Roman sack of the city in 211 B.C. The entire hoard comprises religious vessels as well as a set for the symposion, a convivial drinking party for men that was an important part of the social life of well-to-do Greeks. Sicily: Art and Invention between Greece and Rome is the latest in a series of cooperative efforts between the Getty and the Sicilian Ministry of Culture and Sicilian Identity arising from a 2010 agreement that calls for a number of collaborative projects, including object conservation, seismic protection of collections, exhibitions, scholarly research, and conferences. Recent related projects include the 2010 loan of the Gela Krater, a monumental red-figured volute krater (wine mixing vessel) attributed to the Niobid Painter; The Agrigento Youth, a rare example of an early classical marble statue called a kouros (an idealized nude young man), loaned to the Getty from the Museo Archeologico Regionale in Agrigento (2010/2011); and most recently the loan of thirty-six objects from the sanctuaries of Demeter at Morgantina (2012/January 2013). The exhibition is co-organized by the J. Paul Getty Museum, the Cleveland Museum of Art, and the Assessorato dei Beni Culturali e dell’Identità Siciliana, and celebrates 2013 as the Year of Italian Culture in the United States, an initiative of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, realized under the leadership of the President of the Republic of Italy. REVIEW: "Sicily: Art and Invention between Greece and Rome" is the exhibition catalogue of a landmark show at the Getty Villa in Malibu, California, covering the achievements of an ancient Sicilian golden age that lasted from c. 480-212 BCE. The catalogue’s editors include: Dr. Claire L. Lyons, acting senior curator of antiquities at the J. Paul Getty Villa and a specialist in the archaeology of Greece and pre-Roman Italy; Dr. Michael Bennett, the Cleveland Museum of Art’s first curator of Greek and Roman Art and has overseen the reinstallation of his museum’s collections of Ancient Near Eastern, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman antiquities; and Dr. Clemente Marconi, James R. McCredie Professor in the History of Greek Art and Archaeology at New York University’s Institute of Fine Arts, and specialist on the archaeology of ancient Sicily. This thorough and engaging volume departs from the standard approach of cataloging exhibition items, functioning instead as a “sourcebook” or “anthology” of the latest research by over thirty experts in various fields (archaeology, art history, numismatics, etc.). Divided into five theme-based sections with 29 essays on topics related to the history of Hellenic Sicily, the religion and mythology of Greek settlers, ancient Sicilian art and literature, the legacy of Sicily’s Hellenic heyday, and archaeology in the Classical and Hellenistic Periods, we were surprised that so much information had been condensed into only 254 pages. This worthwhile catalogue affords a much-needed artistic and social foray into an important geographical space and era, while still presenting considerable attention to highlights from the exhibition (including the Mozia Charioteer and the Archimedes Palimpsest among others). Annexes and special features include a complete bibliographical reference with titles in English, French, German, and Italian, a listing of illustration credits, and the biographies of the editors. However, we were surprised that there were no references in Greek given the exhibition’s focus. We were delighted to see a timeline of Sicilian history (by Rosalia Pumo, NYU-IFA) and a useful map of important sites. Mention should be made of the excellent photo quality--in black and white in addition to color--of the 145 items on display. Regardless of one’s academic background, the reader will find that the catalogue provides an excellent, scholarly introduction to Sicily’s importance as a key cultural center, which operated as a conduit of Hellenism to Rome and the wider Mediterranean. The Ancient History Encyclopedia highly recommends this visually attractive work to art historians, social historians, and all those interested in Sicily. This volume has been published in English through Getty Publications in the United States and is now available for $46.49 on Amazon. Special note ought to be made that the catalogue is the only publication in English to give a detailed and encompassing look at Sicily--or “Sikelia”--during Hellenic antiquity. REVIEW: Perhaps one thinks of pizza and the Mafia when one thinks of Sicily (I think of Giuseppe di Lampedusa and The Leopard), but at one point many centuries ago Sicily was an active causeway between Greece, the Italian peninsula, and North Africa, which meant that over time it made a few cultural waves of its own. These have tended to be ignored in the larger picture, but it’ll be hard to do that from now on, at least for those who sink their teeth into this informative exhibition at the Getty Villa. One of the highlights of the show is an armless Statue of a Youth, also known as The Mozia Charioteer, although it can be assumed that he once had hands in order to grip the reins. Sicilians in those days – those days being four or five centuries B.C. – were reputed to be good horsemen and charioteers. They were the Indy 500 racers of yesterday. Also of note, the island honored Demeter, the goddess of agriculture, and it was her daughter, Persephone, who was coerced into spending six months of every year with Hades in the Underworld. Many sanctuaries across the island were dedicated to these goddesses. Of the 150 or so objects on view, many of them statuettes or vessels for household or devotional use, about 50 of them are coins – and seeing these up close is more impressive than it may seem. There’s at least one that looks like the old Mercury dime… or maybe I once had a Sicilian coin in my pocket and just didn’t know it. REVIEW: New opportunities for trade and natural resources such as rich volcanic soils and warm temperatures drew immigrants from Greece to the island then known as Sikelia over 2000 years ago. Greece's artistic culture and prospering economy fostered a flowering in the arts, philosophy, architecture, science, and engineering in what is now Sicily. Focusing on the art created there between 480 BCE and 212 BCE, editors Lyons (acting senior curator, antiquities, J. Paul Getty Villa), Michael Bennett (curator, Greek & Roman art, Cleveland Museum of Art), and Clemente Marconi (Greek art & archaeology, New York Univ.) cover Sicily's classical and early Hellenistic periods and hold the island up as a cultural rival to Athens. With its numerous lavish color illustrations and informative, easy-to-read text, this book is quite enticing. Recommended for art history buffs, students, scholars, and armchair travelers with an interest in Greek and Roman history. [Nancy J. Mactague, Aurora University]. REVIEW: "Sicily: Art and Invention Between Greece and Rome" presents masterpieces of art from ancient Sicily, an island crossroads that forged a distinctive Hellenic identity. Occupying a pivotal position in Mediterranean history, former Greek colonies such as Syracuse, Gela, Akragas, and Selinos emerged as wealthy city-states, where innovation and experimentation flourished. This exhibition celebrates Sicilian culture of the fifth to third centuries BC, when its art, architecture, theater, poetry, philosophy, and science left an original and enduring stamp on both mainland Greece and Rome. Over 150 objects bear witness to the military and athletic victories, religious and civic rituals, opulent lifestyles, and intellectual attainments that shaped the western Greek world. [Cleveland Museum of Art]. REVIEW: We know that Sicily was especially wealthy during the Classical and early Hellenistic periods, as demonstrated by literary references and by the extant art, but written sources are fragmentary. Perhaps for that reason, it is often overlooked in studies of Greek art and history...The various authors do an admirable job of bringing Sicily to life and making their ideas available to the English-language reader. [Bryn Mawr Classical Review]. REVIEW: With its numerous lavish color illustrations and informative, easy-to-read text, this book is quite enticing. Recommended for art history buffs, students, scholars, and armchair travelers with an interest in Greek and Roman history. [Library Journal]. REVIEW: General narrative and analysis are profitably juxtaposed with specialized treatments of selected material, including some of the exhibition’s most dazzling items. [Times Literary Supplement]. REVIEW: A triumph of scholarship and production…Essential. [Choice]. READER REVIEWS: REVIEW: The treasures of Sicily are many, and this fine exploration provides both breadth and depth to some of it. There is much to be savored here, and encourage the reader to discover more of the layers of the history and the civilizations that left their mark here. REVIEW: Reading “Sicily Art and Invention between Greece and Rome” has been rewarding with exceptional production qualities and highlights items which are provided a more thorough treatment. As an amateur with a love of history this book is pitched at the perfect level, I only wish I had seen the accompanying exhibition. REVIEW: I bought it after attending the Sicily show at the Getty Villa Malibu. I wanted to bring the exposition home with me, now I have it in this excellent book. REVIEW: This is an exquisitely put together book that brings new life and greater understanding to the contributions made by Sicilian and Greek cultures. REVIEW: Beautiful book! The artwork is stunning. REVIEW: Fascinating and well researched history of Sicily, Greece, and Rome. See the exhibit, and read the text or in depth understanding of the early empires. REVIEW: Exhibit at the Getty was excellent, and the catalogue adds more information to what I have already learned. It is a good supplement for those interested. REVIEW: Splendid book. I am planning to go and see the show in Sicily next year. I always ship books Media Mail in a padded mailer. This book is shipped FOR FREE via USPS INSURED media mail (“book rate”). All domestic shipments and most international shipments will include free USPS Delivery Confirmation (you might be able to update the status of your shipment on-line at the USPS Web Site) and free insurance coverage. A small percentage of international shipments may require an additional fee for tracking and/or delivery confirmation. If you are concerned about a little wear and tear to the book in transit, I would suggest a boxed shipment - it is an extra $1.00. Whether via padded mailer or box, we will give discounts for multiple purchases. International orders are welcome, but shipping costs are substantially higher. Most international orders cost an additional $9.99 to $37.99 for an insuredshipment in a heavily padded mailer, and typically includes some form of rudimentary tracking and/or delivery confirmation (though for some countries, this is only available at additional cost). However this book is quite heavy, and it is too large to fit into a flat rate mailer. Therefore the shipping costs are somewhat higher than what is otherwise ordinary. There is a discount program which can cut postage costs by 50% to 75% if you’re buying about half-a-dozen books or more (5 kilos+). Rates and available services vary a bit from country to country. You can email or message me for a shipping cost quote, but I assure you they are as reasonable as USPS rates allow, and if it turns out the rate is too high for your pocketbook, we will cancel the sale at your request. ADDITIONAL PURCHASES do receive a VERY LARGE discount, typically about $5 per book (for each additional book after the first) so as to reward you for the economies of combined shipping/insurance costs. Your purchase will ordinarily be shipped within 48 hours of payment. We package as well as anyone in the business, with lots of protective padding and containers. All of our shipments are sent via insured mail so as to comply with PayPal requirements. We do NOT recommend uninsured shipments, and expressly disclaim any responsibility for the loss of an uninsured shipment. Unfortunately the contents of parcels are easily “lost” or misdelivered by postal employees – even in the USA. That’s why all of our domestic shipments (and most international) shipments include a USPS delivery confirmation tag; or are trackable or traceable, and all shipments (international and domestic) are insured. We do offer U.S. Postal Service Priority Mail, Registered Mail, and Express Mail for both international and domestic shipments, as well United Parcel Service (UPS) and Federal Express (Fed-Ex). Please ask for a rate quotation. We will accept whatever payment method you are most comfortable with. If upon receipt of the item you are disappointed for any reason whatever, I offer a no questions asked return policy. Send it back, I will give you a complete refund of the purchase price (less our original shipping costs). Most of the items I offer come from the collection of a family friend who was active in the field of Archaeology for over forty years. However many of the items also come from purchases I make in Eastern Europe, India, and from the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean/Near East) from various institutions and dealers. Though I have always had an interest in archaeology, my own academic background was in sociology and cultural anthropology. After my retirement however, I found myself drawn to archaeology as well. Aside from my own personal collection, I have made extensive and frequent additions of my own via purchases on Ebay (of course), as well as many purchases from both dealers and institutions throughout the world - but especially in the Near East and in Eastern Europe. I spend over half of my year out of the United States, and have spent much of my life either in India or Eastern Europe. In fact much of what we generate on Yahoo, Amazon and Ebay goes to support The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, as well as some other worthy institutions in Europe connected with Anthropology and Archaeology. I acquire some small but interesting collections overseas from time-to-time, and have as well some duplicate items within my own collection which I occasionally decide to part with. Though I have a collection of ancient coins numbering in the tens of thousands, my primary interest is in ancient jewelry. My wife also is an active participant in the "business" of antique and ancient jewelry, and is from Russia. I would be happy to provide you with a certificate/guarantee of authenticity for any item you purchase from me. There is a $2 fee for mailing under separate cover. Whenever I am overseas I have made arrangements for purchases to be shipped out via domestic mail. If I am in the field, you may have to wait for a week or two for a COA to arrive via international air mail. But you can be sure your purchase will arrive properly packaged and promptly - even if I am absent. And when I am in a remote field location with merely a notebook computer, at times I am not able to access my email for a day or two, so be patient, I will always respond to every email. Please see our "ADDITIONAL TERMS OF SALE." Condition: NEW (albeit with very mild "shopwear"). See detailed condition description below., Material: Paper, Provenance: Ancient Sicily, Publisher: J. Paul Getty Museum (2013), Format: Oversized hardcover with dustjacket, Length: 288 pages, Dimensions: 11 x 9½ x 1 inch; 4 pounds

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