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Seller: judaica-bookstore (2.099) 100%, Location: TEL AVIV, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 283510121202 DESCRIPTION : Up for auction is an over 50 years old EXCEPTIONALY RARE and ORIGINAL Jewish Judaica POSTER of a Zionist historicval value. Please pay attention to the date - 7.8.67 , Midst of the 1967 SIX DAY WAR . ISRAEL is fighting one of its MOST CRUCIAL WARS against Egypt, Jordan and Syria , But back home , The Israeli citizens still visiting the cinema halls. A documentary " NEWS from the BATTLEFIELD - Actual WAR DOCUMENTARY " is also a part of the night show. On the top of the poster, An actual encouraging remark " LAUGH is GOOD for HEALTH" . It's the ISRAEL 1967 PREMIERE of WILLIAM WYLER's heist comedy film "HOW TO STEAL A MILLION" . Starring AUDREY HEPBURN , PETER O'TOOLE , ELI WALLACH , CHARLES BOYER and HUGH GRIFFITH in the cinema-movie hall " CINEMA SHARON" in the small rural town of NATHANYA in ISRAEL . "CINEMA SHARON" , A local Israeli version of "Cinema Paradiso" was printing manualy its own posters , And thus you can be certain that this surviving copy is ONE OF ITS KIND. Fully DATED 1967 . Text in HEBREW and ENGLISH . Please note : This is NOT a re-release poster but PREMIERE - FIRST RELEASE projection of the film , One year after its release in 1966 in USA and worldwide . The ISRAELI distributors of the film have given it an amusing and quite archaic Hebrew text .Size around 27" x 31" ( Not accurate ) . Printed in red and blue on white paper . The condition is very good . Folded twice. ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ) Poster will be sent rolled in a special protective rigid sealed tube.AUTHENTICITY : This poster is guaranteed ORIGINAL from 1967 ( Fully dated ) in the midst of the SIX DAY WAR , NOT a reprint or a recently made immitation. , It holds a life long GUARANTEE for its AUTHENTICITY and ORIGINALITY. PAYMENTS : Payment method accepted : Paypal . SHIPPMENT : SHIPP worldwide via registered airmail is $18. Poster will be sent rolled in a special protective rigid sealed tube. Handling within 3-5 days after payment. Estimated duration 14 days.Six-Day War Part of the Arab–Israeli conflict Territory held by Israel before and after the Six Day War. The Straits of Tiran are circled, between the Gulf of Aqaba to the north and the Red Sea to the south. DateJune 5 – 10, 1967 (6 days) LocationMiddle East ResultDecisive Israeli victory Territorial changesIsrael captures the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank(including East Jerusalem) from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria Belligerents Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq[1] Lebanon[2] Supported by: Algeria Kuwait Libya Morocco Pakistan[3] PLO Sudan Tunisia Commanders and leaders Levi Eshkol Moshe Dayan Yitzhak Rabin Uzi Narkiss Motta Gur Israel Tal Mordechai Hod Yeshayahu Gavish Ariel Sharon Ezer Weizman Shlomo Erell David Elazar Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Abdul Munim Riad Hussein Zaid ibn Shaker Asad Ghanma Salah Jadid Nureddin al-Atassi Abdul Rahman Arif Strength 50,000 troops 214,000 reserves 300 combat aircraft 800 tanks[4] Total troops: 264,000 100,000 deployed Egypt: 240,000 Syria, Jordan, and Iraq: 307,000 957 combat aircraft 2,504 tanks[4] Lebanon: 2 combat aircraft [5] Total troops: 547,000 240,000 deployed Casualties and losses 776[6]–983[7] killed 4,517 wounded 15 captured[7] 400 tanks destroyed[8] 46 aircraft destroyed Egypt: 10,000[9]–15,000[10]killed or missing 4,338 captured[11] Jordan: 696[12][13][14] killed or missing 533 captured[11] Syria: 2,500 killed[15][16][17] 591 captured Iraq: 10 killed 30 wounded Lebanon: One aircraft lost[5] Hundreds of tanks destroyed 452+ aircraft destroyed 20 Israeli civilians killed[18] 34 US Navy sailors killed[19][20] [show]vte Six-Day War The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between June 5 and 10, 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria. Relations between Israel and its neighbours had never fully normalised following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. In 1956 Israel invaded the Egyptian Sinai, with one of its objectives being the reopening of the Straits of Tiran which Egypt had blocked to Israeli shipping since 1950. Israel was subsequently forced to withdraw, but won a guarantee that the Straits of Tiran would remain open. While the United Nations Emergency Force was deployed along the border, there was no demilitarisation agreement.[21] In the period leading up to June 1967, tensions became dangerously heightened. Israel reiterated its post-1956 position that the closure of the straits of Tiran to its shipping would be a casus belli. In May Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser announced that the straits would be closed to Israeli vessels and then mobilised its Egyptian forces along its border with Israel. On 5 June Israel launched what it claimed were a series of preemptiveairstrikes against Egyptian airfields. Claims and counterclaims relating to this series of events are one of a number of controversies relating to the conflict. The Egyptians were caught by surprise, and nearly the entire Egyptian air force was destroyed with few Israeli losses, giving the Israelis air supremacy. Simultaneously, the Israelis launched a ground offensive into the Gaza Strip and the Sinai, which again caught the Egyptians by surprise. After some initial resistance, Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser ordered the evacuation of the Sinai. Israeli forces rushed westward in pursuit of the Egyptians, inflicted heavy losses, and conquered the Sinai. Nasser induced Syria and Jordan to begin attacks on Israel by using the initially confused situation to claim that Egypt had defeated the Israeli air strike. Israeli counterattacks resulted in the seizure of East Jerusalem as well as the West Bank from the Jordanians, while Israel's retaliation against Syria resulted in its occupation of the Golan Heights. On June 11, a ceasefire was signed. In the aftermath of the war, Israel had crippled the Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian militaries, having killed over 20,000 troops while only losing less than 1,000 of their own. The Israeli success was the result of a well-played and prepared strategy, the poor leadership of the Arab states and their poor military leadership and strategy. Israel seized the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank from Jordan and the Golan Heights from Syria. Israel's international standing greatly improved in the years after and their victory humiliated Egypt, Jordan and Syria, leading Nasser to resign in shame; he was later reinstated after protests in Egypt against his resignation occurred. However, the speed and ease of Israel's victory would lead to a dangerous overconfidence within the ranks of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), contributing to initial Arab successes in the subsequent 1973 Yom Kippur War; another Israeli success occurred in the Yom Kippur War and the Arab militaries were again crushed. The displacement of civilian populations resulting from the war would have long-term consequences, as 300,000 Palestinians fled the West Bank and about 100,000 Syrians left the Golan Heights to become refugees. Across the Arab world, Jewish minority communities were expelled, with refugees going to Israel or Europe. Contents [hide] 1Background 1.1Military preparation 2Armies and weapons 2.1Armies 2.2Weapons 3Fighting fronts 3.1Preemptive air attack 3.2Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula 3.2.1Northern (El Arish) Israeli division 3.2.2Advance on Arish 3.2.3Mid-front (Abu-Ageila) Israeli division 3.2.4Other Israeli forces 3.2.5The Egyptian Army 3.2.6Next fighting days 3.3West Bank 3.3.1Israeli cabinet meets 3.3.2Initial response 3.3.3Jordanian battalion at Government House 3.3.4Israeli invasion 3.3.5The West Bank (June 7) 3.4Golan Heights 3.4.1Syria's attack 3.4.2Israeli Air Force attacks the Syrian airfields 3.4.3Israelis debate whether the Golan Heights should be attacked 3.4.4Israeli attack: first day 3.4.5Israeli attack: the next day 4Conclusion 4.1Casualties 5Controversies 5.1Preemptive strike v. unjustified attack 5.2Allegations of atrocities committed against Egyptian soldiers 5.3Allegations of military support from the US, UK and Soviet Union 5.4USS Liberty incident 6Aftermath 6.1Israel and Zionism 6.2Jews in Arab countries-Pogroms and expulsion 6.3Antisemitism against Jews in Communist countries 6.4Peace and diplomacy 6.5Captured territories and Arab displaced populations 6.6Long term 7See also 8Notes 9Footnotes 10References 11Further reading 12External links Background Main article: Origins of the Six-Day War On 22 May 1967, President Nasser addressed his pilots at Bir Gifgafa Airfield in Sinai: "The Jews are threatening war – we say to them ahlan wa-sahlan (welcome)!"[22] After the 1956 Suez Crisis, Egypt agreed to the stationing of a United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) in the Sinai to ensure all parties would comply with the 1949 Armistice Agreements.[23] In the following years there were numerous minor border clashes between Israel and its Arab neighbors, particularly Syria. In early November 1966, Syria signed a mutual defense agreement with Egypt.[24] Soon after this, in response to Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) guerilla activity,[25][26]including a mine attack that left three dead,[27] the Israeli Defence Force (IDF) attacked the village of as-Samu in the Jordanian-occupied West Bank.[28] Jordanian units that engaged the Israelis were quickly beaten back.[29] King Hussein of Jordan criticized Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser for failing to come to Jordan's aid, and "hiding behind UNEF skirts".[30][31][32] In May 1967, Nasser received false reports from the Soviet Union that Israel was massing on the Syrian border.[33] Nasser began massing his troops in two defensive lines[34] in the Sinai Peninsula on Israel's border (May 16), expelled the UNEF force from Gaza and Sinai (May 19) and took over UNEF positions at Sharm el-Sheikh, overlooking the Straits of Tiran.[35][36] Israel repeated declarations it made in 1957 that any closure of the Straits would be considered an act of war, or justification for war,[37][38] but Nasser closed the Straits to Israeli shipping on May 22–23.[39][40][41] After the war, U.S. President Lyndon Johnson commented:[42] If a single act of folly was more responsible for this explosion than any other, it was the arbitrary and dangerous announced decision that the Straits of Tiran would be closed. The right of innocent, maritime passage must be preserved for all nations. On May 30, Jordan and Egypt signed a defense pact. The following day, at Jordan's invitation, the Iraqi army began deploying troops and armoured units in Jordan.[43]They were later reinforced by an Egyptian contingent. On June 1, Israel formed a National Unity Government by widening its cabinet, and on June 4 the decision was made to go to war. The next morning, Israel launched Operation Focus, a large-scale surprise air strike that was the opening of the Six-Day War. Military preparation Before the war, Israeli pilots and ground crews had trained extensively in rapid refitting of aircraft returning from sorties, enabling a single aircraft to sortie up to four times a day (as opposed to the norm in Arab air forces of one or two sorties per day). This enabled the Israeli Air Force (IAF) to send several attack waves against Egyptian airfields on the first day of the war, overwhelming the Egyptian Air Force, and allowed it to knock out other Arab air forces on the same day. This has contributed to the Arab belief that the IAF was helped by foreign air forces (see Controversies relating to the Six-Day War). Pilots were extensively schooled about their targets, and were forced to memorize every single detail, and rehearsed the operation multiple times on dummy runways in total secrecy. The Egyptians had constructed fortified defenses in the Sinai. These designs were based on the assumption that an attack would come along the few roads leading through the desert, rather than through the difficult desert terrain. The Israelis chose not to risk attacking the Egyptian defenses head-on, and instead surprised them from an unexpected direction. James Reston, writing in The New York Times on May 23, 1967, noted, "In discipline, training, morale, equipment and general competence his [Nasser's] army and the other Arab forces, without the direct assistance of the Soviet Union, are no match for the Israelis. ... Even with 50,000 troops and the best of his generals and air force in Yemen, he has not been able to work his way in that small and primitive country, and even his effort to help the Congo rebels was a flop."[44] On the eve of the war, Israel believed it could win a war in 3–4 days. The United States estimated Israel would need 7–10 days to win, with British estimates supporting the U.S. view.[45] Armies and weapons Armies The Israeli army had a total strength, including reservists, of 264,000, though this number could not be sustained, as the reservists were vital to civilian life.[46] Against Jordan's forces on the West Bank, Israel deployed about 40,000 troops and 200 tanks (eight brigades).[47] Israeli Central Command forces consisted of five brigades. The first two were permanently stationed near Jerusalem and were the Jerusalem Brigade and the mechanized Harel Brigade. Mordechai Gur's 55th Paratroopers Brigade was summoned from the Sinai front. The 10th Armored Brigade was stationed north of the West Bank. The Israeli Northern Command comprised a division of three brigades led by Major General Elad Peled which was stationed in the Jezreel Valley to the north of the West Bank. On the eve of the war, Egypt massed approximately 100,000 of its 160,000 troops in the Sinai, including all seven of its divisions (four infantry, two armoured and one mechanized), four independent infantry brigades and four independent armoured brigades. Over a third of these soldiers were veterans of Egypt's continuing intervention into the North Yemen Civil War and another third were reservists. These forces had 950 tanks, 1,100 APCs, and more than 1,000 artillery pieces.[48] Syria's army had a total strength of 75,000 and was deployed along the border with Israel.[49] The Jordanian Armed Forces included 11 brigades, totalling 55,000 troops[50]. Nine brigades (45,000 troops, 270 tanks, 200 artillery pieces) were deployed in the West Bank, including the elite armoured 40th, and two in the Jordan Valley. They possessed sizable numbers of M113 APCs and were equipped with some 300 modern Western tanks, 250 of which were U.S. M48 Pattons. They also had 12 battalions of artillery, six batteries of 81 mm and 120 mm mortars,[51] a paratrooper battalion trained in the new U.S.-built school and a new battalion of mechanized infantry. The Jordanian Army, then known as the Arab Legion, was a long-term-service, professional army, relatively well-equipped and well-trained. Israeli post-war briefings said that the Jordanian staff acted professionally, but was always left "half a step" behind by the Israeli moves. The small Royal Jordanian Air Force consisted of only 24 British-made Hawker Hunter fighters, six transports, and two helicopters. According to the Israelis, the Hawker Hunter was essentially on par with the French-built Dassault Mirage III – the IAF's best plane.[52] 100 Iraqi tanks and an infantry division were readied near the Jordanian border. Two squadrons of Iraqi fighter-aircraft, Hawker Hunters and MiG 21s, were rebased adjacent to the Jordanian border.[51] The Arab air forces were reinforced by some aircraft from Libya, Algeria, Morocco, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia to make up for the massive losses suffered on the first day of the war. They were also aided by volunteer pilots from the Pakistan Air Force acting in an independent capacity. PAF pilots shot down several Israeli planes.[53][54] Weapons With the exception of Jordan, the Arabs relied principally on Soviet weaponry. Jordan's army was equipped with American weaponry, and its air force was composed of British aircraft. Egypt had by far the largest and the most modern of all the Arab air forces, consisting of about 420 combat aircraft,[55] all of them Soviet-built and with a heavy quota of top-of-the-line MiG-21s. Of particular concern to the Israelis were the 30 Tu-16 "Badger" medium bombers, capable of inflicting heavy damage on Israeli military and civilian centers.[56] Israeli weapons were mainly of Western origin. Its air force was composed principally of French aircraft, while its armoured units were mostly of British and American design and manufacture. Some infantry weapons, including the ubiquitous Uzi, were of Israeli origin. TypeArab armiesIDF AFVsEgypt, Syria and Iraq used T-34/85, T-54, T-55, PT-76, and SU-100/152World War II-vintage self-propelled guns. Jordan used M-47, M-48, and M-48A1 Patton tanks. Panzer IV (used by Syria)[57][58]M50 and M51 Shermans, M48A3 Patton, Centurion, AMX-13. The Centurion was upgraded with the British 105 mm L7 gun prior to the war. The Sherman also underwent extensive modifications including a larger 105 mm medium velocity, French gun, redesigned turret, wider tracks, more armour, and upgraded engine and suspension. APCs/IFVsBTR-40, BTR-152, BTR-50, BTR-60 APCsM2, / M3 Half-track, Panhard AML ArtilleryM1937 Howitzer, BM-21, D-30 (2A18) Howitzer, M1954 field gun, M-52 105 mm self-propelled howitzer (used by Jordan)M50 self-propelled howitzer and Makmat 160 mm self-propelled mortar, Obusier de 155 mm Modèle 50, AMX 105 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer AircraftMiG-21, MiG-19, MiG-17, Su-7B, Tu-16, Il-28, Il-18, Il-14, An-12, Hawker Hunter used by Jordan and IraqDassault Mirage III, Dassault Super Mystère, Sud Aviation Vautour, Mystere IV, Dassault Ouragan, Fouga Magister trainer outfitted for attack missions, Nord 2501IS military cargo plane HelicoptersMi-6, Mi-4Super Frelon, Sikorsky S-58 AAWSA-2 Guideline, ZSU-57-2 mobile anti-aircraft cannonMIM-23 Hawk, Bofors 40 mm Infantry weaponsPort Said submachine gun, AK-47, RPK, RPD, DShK HMG, B-10 and B-11 recoilless riflesUzi, FN FAL, FN MAG, AK-47, M2 Browning, Cobra, Nord SS.10, RL-83 Blindicide anti-tank infantry weapon, Jeep-mounted 106 mm recoilless rifle Fighting fronts Preemptive air attack Main article: Operation Focus See also: Order of battle for the Six-Day War Israeli troops examine destroyed Egyptian aircraft. Dassault Mirage at the Israeli Air Force Museum. Operation Focus was mainly conducted using French built aircraft. Israel's first and most critical move was a surprise attack on the Egyptian Air Force. Initially, both Egypt and Israel announced that they had been attacked by the other country. On June 5 at 7:45 Israeli time, as civil defense sirens sounded all over Israel, the IAF launched Operation Focus (Moked). All but 12 of its nearly 200 operational jets[59] launched a mass attack against Egypt's airfields.[60] The Egyptian defensive infrastructure was extremely poor, and no airfields were yet equipped with hardened aircraft shelters capable of protecting Egypt's warplanes. Most of the Israeli warplanes headed out over the Mediterranean Sea, flying low to avoid radar detection, before turning toward Egypt. Others flew over the Red Sea.[61] Meanwhile, the Egyptians hindered their own defense by effectively shutting down their entire air defense system: they were worried that rebel Egyptian forces would shoot down the plane carrying Field Marshal Abdel Hakim Amer and Lt-Gen. Sidqi Mahmoud, who were en route from al Maza to Bir Tamada in the Sinai to meet the commanders of the troops stationed there. In any event, it did not make a great deal of difference as the Israeli pilots came in below Egyptian radar cover and well below the lowest point at which its SA-2 surface-to-air missile batteries could bring down an aircraft.[62] Although the powerful Jordanian radar facility at Ajloun detected waves of aircraft approaching Egypt and reported the code word for "war" up the Egyptian command chain, Egyptian command and communications problems prevented the warning from reaching the targeted airfields.[61] The Israelis employed a mixed-attack strategy: bombing and strafing runs against planes parked on the ground, and bombing to disable runways with special tarmac-shredding penetration bombs developed jointly with France, leaving surviving aircraft unable to take off. The runway at the Arish airfield was spared, as the Israelis expected to turn it into a military airport for their transports after the war. Surviving aircraft were taken out by later attack waves. The operation was more successful than expected, catching the Egyptians by surprise and destroying virtually all of the Egyptian Air Force on the ground, with few Israeli losses. Only four unarmed Egyptian training flights were in the air when the strike began.[63] A total of 338 Egyptian aircraft were destroyed and 100 pilots were killed,[64] although the number of aircraft lost by the Egyptians is disputed.[65] Among the Egyptian planes lost were all 30 Tu-16 bombers, 27 out of 40 Il-28 bombers, 12 Su-7 fighter-bombers, over 90 MiG-21s, 20 MiG-19s, 25 MiG-17 fighters, and around 32 assorted transport planes and helicopters. In addition, Egyptian radars and SAM missiles were also attacked and destroyed. The Israelis lost 19 planes, including two destroyed in air-to-air combat and 13 downed by anti-aircraft artillery.[66] One Israeli plane, which was damaged and unable to break radio silence, was shot down by Israeli Hawk missiles after it strayed over the Negev Nuclear Research Center.[67] Another was destroyed by an exploding Egyptian bomber.[68] The attack guaranteed Israeli air supremacy for the rest of the war. Attacks on other Arab air forces by Israel took place later in the day as hostilities broke out on other fronts. The large numbers of Arab aircraft claimed destroyed by Israel on that day were at first regarded as "greatly exaggerated" by the Western press. However, the fact that the Egyptian Air Force, along with other Arab air forces attacked by Israel, made practically no appearance for the remaining days of the conflict proved that the numbers were most likely authentic. Throughout the war, Israeli aircraft continued strafing Arab airfield runways to prevent their return to usability. Meanwhile, Egyptian state-run radio had reported an Egyptian victory, falsely claiming that 70 Israeli planes had been downed on the first day of fighting.[69] Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula Conquest of Sinai. June 5–6, 1967 People in a bomb shelter at Kfar Maimon The Egyptian forces consisted of seven divisions: four armoured, two infantry, and one mechanized infantry. Overall, Egypt had around 100,000 troops and 900–950 tanks in the Sinai, backed by 1,100 APCs and 1,000 artillery pieces.[70] This arrangement was thought to be based on the Soviet doctrine, where mobile armour units at strategic depth provide a dynamic defense while infantry units engage in defensive battles. Israeli forces concentrated on the border with Egypt included six armoured brigades, one infantry brigade, one mechanized infantry brigade, three paratrooper brigades, giving a total of around 70,000 men and 700 tanks, who were organized in three armoured divisions. They had massed on the border the night before the war, camouflaging themselves and observing radio silence before being ordered to advance. The Israeli plan was to surprise the Egyptian forces in both timing (the attack exactly coinciding with the IAF strike on Egyptian airfields), location (attacking via northern and central Sinai routes, as opposed to the Egyptian expectations of a repeat of the 1956 war, when the IDF attacked via the central and southern routes) and method (using a combined-force flanking approach, rather than direct tank assaults). Northern (El Arish) Israeli division On June 5, at 7:50 a.m., the northernmost Israeli division, consisting of three brigades and commanded by Major General Israel Tal, one of Israel's most prominent armour commanders, crossed the border at two points, opposite Nahal Oz and south of Khan Yunis. They advanced swiftly, holding fire to prolong the element of surprise. Tal's forces assaulted the "Rafah Gap", a seven-mile stretch containing the shortest of three main routes through the Sinai towards El-Qantarah el-Sharqiyya and the Suez Canal. The Egyptians had four divisions in the area, backed by minefields, pillboxes, underground bunkers, hidden gun emplacements and trenches. The terrain on either side of the route was impassable. The Israeli plan was to hit the Egyptians at selected key points with concentrated armour.[67] Tal's advance was led by the 7th Armored Brigade under Colonel Shmuel Gonen. The Israeli plan called for the 7th Brigade to outflank Khan Yunis from the north and the 60th Armored Brigade under Colonel Menachem Aviram would advance from the south. The two brigades would link up and surround Khan Yunis, while the paratroopers would take Rafah. Gonen entrusted the breakthrough to a single battalion of his brigade.[71] Initially, the advance was met with light resistance, as Egyptian intelligence had concluded that it was a diversion for the main attack. However, as Gonen's lead battalion advanced, it suddenly came under intense fire and took heavy losses. A second battalion was brought up, but was also pinned down. Meanwhile, the 60th Brigade became bogged down in the sand, while the paratroopers had trouble navigating through the dunes. The Israelis continued to press their attack, and despite heavy losses, cleared the Egyptian positions and reached the Khan Yunis railway junction in little over four hours.[71] Gonen's brigade then advanced nine miles to Rafah in twin columns. Rafah itself was circumvented, and the Israelis attacked Sheikh Zuweid, eight miles to the southwest, which was defended by two brigades. Though inferior in numbers and equipment, the Egyptians were deeply entrenched and camouflaged. The Israelis were pinned down by fierce Egyptian resistance, and called in air and artillery support to enable their lead elements to advance. Many Egyptians abandoned their positions after their commander and several of his staff were killed.[71] The Israelis broke through with tank-led assaults. However, Aviram's forces misjudged the Egyptians' flank, and were pinned between strongholds before they were extracted after several hours. By nightfall, the Israelis had finished mopping up resistance. Israeli forces had taken significant losses, with Colonel Gonen later telling reporters that "we left many of our dead soldiers in Rafah, and many burnt-out tanks." The Egyptians suffered some 2,000 casualties and lost 40 tanks.[71] Advance on Arish Israeli reconnaissance forces from the "Shaked" unit in Sinai during the war. On June 5, with the road open, Israeli forces continued advancing towards Arish. Already by late afternoon, elements of the 79th Armored Battalion had charged through the seven-mile long Jiradi defile, a narrow pass defended by well-emplaced troops of the Egyptian 112th Infantry Brigade. In fierce fighting, which saw the pass change hands several times, the Israelis charged through the position. The Egyptians suffered heavy casualties and tank losses, while Israeli losses stood at 66 dead, 93 wounded and 28 tanks. Emerging at the western end, Israeli forces advanced to the outskirts of Arish.[72] As it reached the outskirts of Arish, Tal's division also consolidated its hold on Rafah and Khan Yunis. The following day, June 6, the Israeli forces on the outskirts of Arish were reinforced by the 7th Brigade, which fought its way through the Jiradi pass. After receiving supplies via an airdrop, the Israelis entered the city and captured the airport at 7:50 am. The Israelis entered the city at 8:00 am. Company commander Yossi Peled recounted that "Al-Arish was totally quiet, desolate. Suddenly, the city turned into a madhouse. Shots came at us from every alley, every corner, every window and house." An IDF record stated that "clearing the city was hard fighting. The Egyptians fired from the rooftops, from balconies and windows. They dropped grenades into our half-tracks and blocked the streets with trucks. Our men threw the grenades back and crushed the trucks with their tanks."[73][74] Gonen sent additional units to Arish, and the city was eventually taken. Brigadier-General Avraham Yoffe's assignment was to penetrate Sinai south of Tal's forces and north or Sharon's. Yoffe's attack allowed Tal to complete the capture of the Jiradi defile, Khan Yunis. All of them were taken after fierce fighting. Gonen subsequently dispatched a force of tanks, infantry and engineers under Colonel Yisrael Granit to continue down the Mediterranean coast towards the Suez Canal, while a second force led by Gonen himself turned south and captured Bir Lahfan and Jabal Libni. Mid-front (Abu-Ageila) Israeli division Major-General Ariel Sharon during the Battle of Abu-Ageila Further south, on June 6, the Israeli 38th Armored Division under Major-General Ariel Sharon assaulted Um-Katef, a heavily fortified area defended by the Egyptian 2nd Infantry Division under Major-General Sa'adi Nagib, and consisting of some 16,000 troops. The Egyptians also had a battalion of tank destroyers and a tank regiment, formed of Soviet World War II armour, which included 90 T-34-85 tanks, 22 SU-100 tank destroyers, and about 16,000 men. The Israelis had about 14,000 men and 150 post-World War II tanks including the AMX-13, Centurions, and M50 Super Shermans (modified M-4 Sherman tanks). Two armoured brigades in the meantime, under Avraham Yoffe, slipped across the border through sandy wastes that Egypt had left undefended because they were considered impassable. Simultaneously, Sharon's tanks from the west were to engage Egyptian forces on Um-Katef ridge and block any reinforcements. Israeli infantry would clear the three trenches, while heliborne paratroopers would land behind Egyptian lines and silence their artillery. An armoured thrust would be made at al-Qusmaya to unnerve and isolate its garrison. Israeli Armor of the Six Day War: pictured here the AMX 13 As Sharon's division advanced into the Sinai, Egyptian forces staged successful delaying actions at Tarat Umm, Umm Tarfa, and Hill 181. An Israeli jet was downed by anti-aircraft fire, and Sharon's forces came under heavy shelling as they advanced from the north and west. The Israeli advance, which had to cope with extensive minefields, took a large number of casualties. A column of Israeli tanks managed to penetrate the northern flank of Abu Ageila, and by dusk, all units were in position. The Israelis then brought up ninety 105 mm and 155 mm artillery guns for a preparatory barrage, while civilian buses brought reserve infantrymen under Colonel Yekutiel Adam and helicopters arrived to ferry the paratroopers. These movements were unobserved by the Egyptians, who were preoccupied with Israeli probes against their perimeter.[75] As night fell, the Israeli assault troops lit flashlights, each battalion a different color, to prevent friendly fire incidents. At 10:00 pm, Israeli artillery began a barrage on Um-Katef, firing some 6,000 shells in less than twenty minutes, the most concentrated artillery barrage in Israel's history.[76][77] Israeli tanks assaulted the northernmost Egyptian defenses and were largely successful, though an entire armoured brigade was stalled by mines, and had only one mine-clearance tank. Israeli infantrymen assaulted the triple line of trenches in the east. To the west, paratroopers commanded by Colonel Danny Mattlanded behind Egyptian lines, though half the helicopters got lost and never found the battlefield, while others were unable to land due to mortar fire.[78][79] Those that successfully landed on target destroyed Egyptian artillery and ammunition dumps and separated gun crews from their batteries, sowing enough confusion to significantly reduce Egyptian artillery fire. Egyptian reinforcements from Jabal Libni advanced towards Um-Katef to counterattack, but failed to reach their objective, being subjected to heavy air attacks and encountering Israeli lodgements on the roads. Egyptian commanders then called in artillery attacks on their own positions. The Israelis accomplished and sometimes exceeded their overall plan, and had largely succeeded by the following day. The Egyptians took heavy casualties, while the Israelis lost 40 dead and 140 wounded.[78][79] Yoffe's attack allowed Sharon to complete the capture of the Um-Katef, after fierce fighting. The main thrust at Um-Katef was stalled due to mines and craters. After IDF engineers had cleared a path by 4:00 pm, Israeli and Egyptian tanks engaged in fierce combat, often at ranges as close as ten yards. The battle ended in an Israeli victory, with 40 Egyptian and 19 Israeli tanks destroyed. Meanwhile, Israeli infantry finished clearing out the Egyptian trenches, with Israeli casualties standing at 14 dead and 41 wounded and Egyptian casualties at 300 dead and 100 taken prisoner.[80] Other Israeli forces Further south, on June 5, the 8th Armored Brigade under Colonel Albert Mandler, initially positioned as a ruse to draw off Egyptian forces from the real invasion routes, attacked the fortified bunkers at Kuntilla, a strategically valuable position whose capture would enable Mandler to block reinforcements from reaching Um-Katef and to join Sharon's upcoming attack on Nakhl. The defending Egyptian battalion, outnumbered and outgunned, fiercely resisted the attack, hitting a number of Israeli tanks. However, most of the defenders were killed, and only three Egyptian tanks, one of them damaged, survived. By nightfall, Mendler's forces had taken Kuntilla.[73] With the exceptions of Rafah and Khan Yunis, Israeli forces had initially avoided entering the Gaza Strip. Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Dayan had expressly forbidden entry into the area. After Palestinian positions in Gaza opened fire on the Negev settlements of Nirim and Kissufim, IDF Chief of Staff Yitzhak Rabin overrode Dayan's instructions and ordered the 11th Mechanized Brigade under Colonel Yehuda Reshef to enter the Strip. The force was immediately met with heavy artillery fire and fierce resistance from Palestinian forces and remnants of the Egyptian forces from Rafah. By sunset, the Israelis had taken the strategically vital Ali Muntar ridge, overlooking Gaza City, but were beaten back from the city itself. Some 70 Israelis were killed, along with Israeli journalist Ben Oyserman and American journalist Paul Schutzer. Twelve members of UNEF were also killed. On the war's second day, June 6, the Israelis were bolstered by the 35th Paratroopers Brigade under Colonel Rafael Eitan, and took Gaza City along with the entire Strip. The fighting was fierce, and accounted for nearly half of all Israeli casualties on the southern front. However, Gaza rapidly fell to the Israelis. Meanwhile, on June 6, two Israeli reserve brigades under Yoffe, each equipped with 100 tanks, penetrated the Sinai south of Tal's division and north of Sharon's, capturing the road junctions of Abu Ageila, Bir Lahfan, and Arish, taking all of them before midnight. Two Egyptian armoured brigades counterattacked, and a fierce battle took place until the following morning. The Egyptians were beaten back by fierce resistance coupled with airstrikes, sustaining heavy tank losses. They fled west towards Jabal Libni.[81] The Egyptian Army During the ground fighting, remnants of the Egyptian Air Force attacked Israeli ground forces, but took losses from the Israeli Air Force and from Israeli anti-aircraft units. Throughout the last four days, Egyptian aircraft flew 150 sorties against Israeli units in the Sinai. Many of the Egyptian units remained intact and could have tried to prevent the Israelis from reaching the Suez Canal or engaged in combat in the attempt to reach the canal. However, when the Egyptian Field Marshal Abdel Hakim Amer heard about the fall of Abu-Ageila, he panicked and ordered all units in the Sinai to retreat. This order effectively meant the defeat of Egypt. Meanwhile, President Nasser, having learned of the results of the Israeli air strikes, decided together with Field Marshal Amer to order a general retreat from the Sinai within 24 hours. No detailed instructions were given concerning the manner and sequence of withdrawal.[82] Next fighting days This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Conquest of Sinai. June 7–8, 1967 Newsreel from June 6 about the first Israeli-Egyptian fighting. An Israeli gunboat passes through the Straits of Tiran near Sharm El Sheikh. As Egyptian columns retreated, Israeli aircraft and artillery attacked them. Israeli jets used napalm bombs during their sorties. The attacks destroyed hundreds of vehicles and caused heavy casualties. At Jabal Libni, retreating Egyptian soldiers were fired upon by their own artillery. At Bir Gafgafa, the Egyptians fiercely resisted advancing Israeli forces, knocking out three tanks and eight half-tracks, and killing 20 soldiers. Due to the Egyptians' retreat, the Israeli High Command decided not to pursue the Egyptian units but rather to bypass and destroy them in the mountainous passes of West Sinai. Therefore, in the following two days (June 6 and 7), all three Israeli divisions (Sharon and Tal were reinforced by an armoured brigade each) rushed westwards and reached the passes. Sharon's division first went southward then westward, via An-Nakhl, to Mitla Pass with air support. It was joined there by parts of Yoffe's division, while its other units blocked the Gidi Pass. These passes became killing grounds for the Egyptians, who ran right into waiting Israeli positions and suffered heavy losses. According to Egyptian diplomat Mahmoud Riad, 10,000 men were killed in one day alone, and many others died from hunger and thirst. Tal's units stopped at various points to the length of the Suez Canal. Israel's blocking action was partially successful. Only the Gidi pass was captured before the Egyptians approached it, but at other places, Egyptian units managed to pass through and cross the canal to safety. Due to the haste of the Egyptian retreat, soldiers often abandoned weapons, military equipment, and hundreds of vehicles. Many Egyptian soldiers were cut off from their units had to walk about 200 kilometers on foot before reaching the Suez Canal with limited supplies of food and water and were exposed to intense heat. Thousands of soldiers died as a result. Many Egyptian soldiers chose instead to surrender to the Israelis. However, the Israelis eventually exceeded their capabilities to provide for prisoners. As a result, they began directing soldiers towards the Suez Canal and only taking prisoner high-ranking officers, who were expected to be exchanged for captured Israeli pilots. During the offensive, the Israeli Navy landed six combat divers from the Shayetet 13 naval commando unit to infiltrate Alexandria harbour. The divers sank an Egyptian minesweeper before being taken prisoner. Shayetet 13 commandos also infiltrated into Port Said harbour, but found no ships there. A planned commando raid against the Syrian Navy never materialized. Both Egyptian and Israeli warships made movements at sea to intimidate the other side throughout the war, but did not engage each other. However, Israeli warships and aircraft did hunt for Egyptian submarines throughout the war. On June 7, Israel began the conquest of Sharm el-Sheikh. The Israeli Navy started the operation with a probe of Egyptian naval defenses. An aerial reconnaissance flight found that the area was less defended than originally thought. At about 4:30 am, three Israeli missile boats opened fire on Egyptian shore batteries, while paratroopers and commandos boarded helicopters and Nord Noratlas transport planes for an assault on Al-Tur, as Chief of Staff Rabin was convinced it was too risky to land them directly in Sharm el-Sheikh.[83] However, the city had been largely abandoned the day before, and reports from air and naval forces finally convinced Rabin to divert the aircraft to Sharm el-Sheikh. There, the Israelis engaged in a pitched battle with the Egyptians and took the city, killing 20 Egyptian soldiers and taking 8 prisoner. At 12:15 pm, Defense Minister Dayan announced that the Straits of Tiran constituted an international waterway open to all ships without restriction.[83] On June 8, Israel completed the capture of the Sinai by sending infantry units to Ras Sudar on the western coast of the peninsula. Several tactical elements made the swift Israeli advance possible: first, the surprise attack that quickly gave the Israeli Air Force complete air superiority over the Egyptian Air Force; second, the determined implementation of an innovative battle plan; third, the lack of coordination among Egyptian troops. These factors would prove to be decisive elements on Israel's other fronts as well. West Bank See also: Jordanian campaign (1967) The Jordan salient, June 5–7. Jordan was reluctant to enter the war. Nasser used the confusion of the first hours of the conflict to convince King Hussein that he was victorious; he claimed as evidence a radar sighting of a squadron of Israeli aircraft returning from bombing raids in Egypt, which he said was an Egyptian aircraft en route to attack Israel.[84] One of the Jordanian brigades stationed in the West Bankwas sent to the Hebron area in order to link with the Egyptians. Hussein decided to attack. The IDF's strategic plan was to remain on the defensive along the Jordanian front, to enable focus in the expected campaign against Egypt. Intermittent machine-gun exchanges began taking place in Jerusalem at 9:30 am, and the fighting gradually escalated as the Jordanians introduced mortar and recoilless rifle fire. Under the orders from General Narkis, the Israelis responded only with small-arms fire, firing in a flat trajectory to avoid hitting civilians, holy sites or the Old City. At 10:00 am on June 5, the Jordanian Army began shelling Israel. Two batteries of 155 mm Long Tom cannons opened fire on the suburbs of Tel Avivand Ramat David Airbase. The commanders of these batteries were instructed to lay a two-hour barrage against military and civilian settlements in central Israel. Some shells hit the outskirts of Tel Aviv.[85] By 10:30 am, Eshkol had sent a message via Odd Bull to King Hussein promising not to initiate any action against Jordan if it stayed out of the war.[86] King Hussein replied that it was too late, "the die was cast".[87] At 11:15 am, Jordanian howitzers began a 6,000-shell barrage at Israeli Jerusalem. The Jordanians initially targeted kibbutz Ramat Rachel in the south and Mount Scopusin the north, then ranged into the city center and outlying neighborhoods. Military installations, the Prime Minister's Residence, and the Knesset compound were also targeted. Israeli civilian casualties totalled 20 dead and about 1,000 wounded. Some 900 buildings were damaged, including Hadassah Ein Kerem Hospital.[18] At 11:50 am, sixteen Jordanian Hawker Hunters attacked Netanya, Kfar Sirkin and Kfar Saba, killing one civilian, wounding seven and destroying a transport plane. Three Iraqi Hawker Hunters strafed civilian settlements in the Jezreel Valley, and an Iraqi Tupolev Tu-16 attacked Afula, and was shot down near the Megiddo airfield. The attack caused minimal material damage, hitting only a senior citizens' home and several chicken coops, but sixteen Israeli soldiers were killed, most of them when the Tupolev crashed.[18] Israeli cabinet meets When the Israeli cabinet convened to decide what to do, Yigal Allon and Menahem Begin argued that this was an opportunity to take the Old City of Jerusalem, but Eshkol decided to defer any decision until Moshe Dayan and Yitzhak Rabin could be consulted.[88] Uzi Narkiss made a number of proposals for military action, including the capture of Latrun, but the cabinet turned him down. Dayan rejected multiple requests from Narkiss for permission to mount an infantry assault towards Mount Scopus. However, Dayan sanctioned a number of more limited retaliatory actions.[89] Initial response Shortly before 12:30 pm, the Israeli Air Force attacked Jordan's two airbases. The Hawker Hunters were refueling at the time of the attack. The Israeli aircraft attacked in two waves, the first of which cratered the runways and knocked out the control towers, and the second wave destroyed all 21 of Jordan's Hawker Hunter fighters, along with six transport aircraft and two helicopters. One Israeli jet was shot down by ground fire.[89] Israeli aircraft also attacked H-3, an Iraqi Air Force base in western Iraq. During the attack, 12 MiG-21s, 2 MiG-17s, 5 Hunter F6s, and 3 Il-28 bombers were destroyed or shot down. A Pakistani pilot stationed at the base shot down an Israeli fighter and a bomber during the raid. The Jordanian radar facility at Ajloun was destroyed in an Israeli airstrike. Israeli Fouga Magister jets attacked the Jordanian 40th Brigade with rockets as it moved south from the Damiya Bridge. Dozens of tanks were knocked out, and a convoy of 26 trucks carrying ammunition was destroyed. In Jerusalem, Israel responded to Jordanian shelling with a missile strike that devastated Jordanian positions. The Israelis used the L missile, a surface-to-surface missile developed jointly with France in secret.[89] Jordanian battalion at Government House Further information: Battle of Ammunition Hill A Jordanian battalion advanced up Government House ridge and dug in at the perimeter of Government House, the headquarters of the United Nations observers,[90][91][92] and opened fire on Ramat Rachel, the Allenby Barracks and the Jewish section of Abu Tor with mortars and recoilless rifles. UN observers fiercely protested the incursion into the neutral zone, and several manhandled a Jordanian machine gun out of Government House after the crew had set it up in a second-floor window. After the Jordanians occupied Jabel Mukaber, an advance patrol was sent out and approached Ramat Rachel, where they came under fire from four civilians, including the wife of the director, who were armed with old Czech-made weapons.[93][94] Israeli paratroopers flush out Jordanian soldiers from trenches during the Battle of Ammunition Hill. Silhouette of Israeli paratroops advancing on Ammunition Hill. The immediate Israeli response was an offensive to retake Government House and its ridge. The Jerusalem Brigade's Reserve Battalion 161, under Lieutenant-Colonel Asher Dreizin, was given the task. Dreizin had two infantry companies and eight tanks under his command, several of which broke down or became stuck in the mud at Ramat Rachel, leaving three for the assault. The Jordanians mounted fierce resistance, knocking out two tanks.[95] The Israelis broke through the compound's western gate and began clearing the building with grenades, before General Odd Bull, commander of the UN observers, compelled the Israelis to hold their fire, telling them that the Jordanians had already fled. The Israelis proceeded to take the Antenna Hill, directly behind Government House, and clear out a series of bunkers to the west and south. The fighting, often conducted hand-to-hand, continued for nearly four hours before the surviving Jordanians fell back to trenches held by the Hittin Brigade, which were steadily overwhelmed. By 6:30 pm, the Jordanians had retreated to Bethlehem, having suffered about 100 casualties. All but ten of Dreizin's soldiers were casualties, and Dreizin himself was wounded three times.[95] Israeli invasion During the late afternoon of June 5, the Israelis launched an offensive to encircle Jerusalem, which lasted into the following day. During the night, they were supported by intense tank, artillery and mortar fire to soften up Jordanian positions. Searchlights placed atop the Labor Federation building, then the tallest in Israeli Jerusalem, exposed and blinded the Jordanians. The Jerusalem Brigade moved south of Jerusalem, while the mechanized Harel Brigade and 55th Paratroopers Brigade under Mordechai Gur encircled it from the north.[96] A combined force of tanks and paratroopers crossed no-man's land near the Mandelbaum Gate. One of Gur's paratroop battalions approached the fortified Police Academy. The Israelis used bangalore torpedoes to blast their way through barbed wire leading up to the position while exposed and under heavy fire. With the aid of two tanks borrowed from the Jerusalem Brigade, they captured the Police Academy. After receiving reinforcements, they moved up to attack Ammunition Hill.[96][97] The Jordanian defenders, who were heavily dug-in, fiercely resisted the attack. All of the Israeli officers except for two company commanders were killed, and the fighting was mostly led by individual soldiers. The fighting was conducted at close quarters in trenches and bunkers, and was often hand-to-hand. The Israelis captured the position after four hours of heavy fighting. During the battle, 36 Israeli and 71 Jordanian soldiers were killed.[96][97] The battalion subsequently drove east, and linked up with the Israeli enclave on Mount Scopus and its Hebrew Universitycampus. Gur's other battalions captured the other Jordanian positions around the American Colony, despite being short on men and equipment and having come under a Jordanian mortar bombardment while waiting for the signal to advance.[96][97] At the same time, the mechanized Harel Brigade attacked the fortress at Latrun, which the Jordanians had abandoned due to heavy Israeli tank fire. The brigade attacked Har Adar, but seven tanks were knocked out by mines, forcing the infantry to mount an assault without armoured cover. The Israeli soldiers advanced under heavy fire, jumping between stones to avoid mines. The fighting was conducted at close-quarters, often with knives and bayonets. The Jordanians fell back after a battle that left two Israeli and eight Jordanian soldiers dead, and Israeli forces advanced through Beit Horon towards Ramallah, taking four fortified villages along the way. By the evening, the brigade arrived in Ramallah. Meanwhile, the 163rd Infantry Battalion secured Abu Tor following a fierce battle, severing the Old City from Bethlehem and Hebron. Meanwhile, 600 Egyptian commandos stationed in the West Bank moved to attack Israeli airfields. Led by Jordanian intelligence scouts, they crossed the border and began infiltrating through Israeli settlements towards Ramla and Hatzor. They were soon detected and sought shelter in nearby fields, which the Israelis set on fire. Some 450 commandos were killed, and the remainder escaped to Jordan.[98] From the American Colony, the paratroopers moved towards the Old City. Their plan was to approach it via the lightly defended Salah al-Din Street. However, they made a wrong turn onto the heavily defended Nablus Road. The Israelis ran into fierce resistance. Their tanks fired at point-blank range down the street, while the paratroopers mounted repeated charges. Despite repelling repeated Israeli charges, the Jordanians gradually gave way to Israeli firepower and momentum. The Israelis suffered some 30 casualties – half the original force – while the Jordanians lost 45 dead and 142 wounded.[99] Meanwhile, the Israeli 71st Battalion breached barbed wire and minefields and emerged near Wadi Joz, near the base of Mount Scopus, from where the Old City could be cut off from Jericho and East Jerusalem from Ramallah. Israeli artillery targeted the one remaining route from Jerusalem to the West Bank, and shellfire deterred the Jordanians from counterattacking from their positions at Augusta-Victoria. An Israeli detachment then captured the Rockefeller Museum after a brief skirmish.[99] Afterwards, the Israelis broke through to the Jerusalem-Ramallah road. At Tel al-Ful, the Israelis fought a running battle with up to thirty Jordanian tanks. The Jordanians stalled the advance and destroyed a number of half-tracks, but the Israelis launched air attacks and exploited the vulnerability of the external fuel tanks mounted on the Jordanian tanks. The Jordanians lost half their tanks, and retreated towards Jericho. Joining up with the 4th Brigade, the Israelis then descended through Shuafat and the site of what is now French Hill, through Jordanian defenses at Mivtar, emerging at Ammunition Hill.[100] An Israeli airstrike near the Augusta-Victoria Hospital With Jordanian defenses in Jerusalem crumbling, elements of the Jordanian 60th Brigade and an infantry battalion were sent from Jericho to reinforce Jerusalem. Its original orders were to repel the Israelis from the Latrun corridor, but due to the worsening situation in Jerusalem, the brigade was ordered to proceed to Jerusalem's Arab suburbs and attack Mount Scopus. Parallel to the brigade were infantrymen from the Imam Ali Brigade, who were approaching Issawiya. The brigades were spotted by Israeli aircraft and decimated by rocket and cannon fire. Other Jordanian attempts to reinforce Jerusalem were beaten back, either by armoured ambushes or airstrikes. Fearing damage to holy sites and the prospect of having to fight in built-up areas, Dayan ordered his troops not to enter the Old City.[88] He also feared that Israel would be subjected to a fierce international backlash and the outrage of Christians worldwide if it forced its way into the Old City. Privately, he told David Ben-Gurion that he was also concerned over the prospect of Israel capturing Jerusalem's holy sites, only to be forced to give them up under the threat of international sanctions. The West Bank (June 7) On June 7, heavy fighting ensued. Dayan had ordered his troops not to enter the Old City; however, upon hearing that the UN was about to declare a ceasefire, he changed his mind, and without cabinet clearance, decided to capture it.[88] Two paratroop battalions attacked Augusta-Victoria Hill, high ground overlooking the Old City from the east. One battalion attacked from Mount Scopus, and another attacked from the valley between it and the Old City. Another paratroop battalion, personally led by Gur, broke into the Old City, and was joined by the other two battalions after their missions were complete. The paratroopers met little resistance. The fighting was conducted solely by the paratroopers; the Israelis did not use armour during the battle out of fear of severe damage to the Old City. In the north, one battalion from Peled's division was sent to check Jordanian defenses in the Jordan Valley. A brigade belonging to Peled's division captured the western part of the West Bank. One brigade attacked Jordanian artillery positions around Jenin, which were shelling Ramat David Airbase. The Jordanian 12th Armored Battalion, which outnumbered the Israelis, held off repeated attempts to capture Jenin. However, Israeli air attacks took their toll, and the Jordanian M48 Pattons, with their external fuel tanks, proved vulnerable at short distances, even to the Israeli-modified Shermans. Twelve Jordanian tanks were destroyed, and only six remained operational.[98] David Rubinger's famed photograph of IDFparatroopers at Jerusalem's Western Wall shortly after its capture. From left to right: Zion Karasenti, Yitzhak Yifat, and Haim Oshri.[a] Just after dusk, Israeli reinforcements arrived. The Jordanians continued to fiercely resist, and the Israelis were unable to advance without artillery and air support. One Israeli jet attacked the Jordanian commander's tank, wounding him and killing his radio operator and intelligence officer. The surviving Jordanian forces then withdrew to Jenin, where they were reinforced by the 25th Infantry Brigade. The Jordanians were effectively surrounded in Jenin.[98] Jordanian infantry and their three remaining tanks managed to hold off the Israelis until 4:00 am, when three battalions arrived to reinforce them in the afternoon. The Jordanian tanks charged, and knocked out multiple Israeli vehicles, and the tide began to shift. After sunrise, Israeli jets and artillery conducted a two-hour bombardment against the Jordanians. The Jordanians lost 10 dead and 250 wounded, and had only seven tanks left, including two without gas, and sixteen APCs. The Israelis then fought their way into Jenin, and captured the city after fierce fighting.[101] After the Old City fell, the Jerusalem Brigade reinforced the paratroopers, and continued to the south, capturing Judea and Gush Etzion. Hebron was taken without any resistance. Fearful that Israeli soldiers would exact retribution for the 1929 massacre of the city's Jewish community, Hebron's residents flew white sheets from their windows and rooftops, and voluntarily gave up their weapons.[citation needed] The Harel Brigade proceeded eastward, descending to the Jordan River. On June 7, Israeli forces seized Bethlehem, taking the city after a brief battle that left some 40 Jordanian soldiers dead, with the remainder fleeing. On the same day, one of Peled's brigades seized Nablus; then it joined one of Central Command's armoured brigades to fight the Jordanian forces; as the Jordanians held the advantage of superior equipment and were equal in numbers to the Israelis. Again, the air superiority of the IAF proved paramount as it immobilized the Jordanians, leading to their defeat. One of Peled's brigades joined with its Central Command counterparts coming from Ramallah, and the remaining two blocked the Jordan river crossings together with the Central Command's 10th. Engineering Corps sappers blew up the Abdullah and Hussein bridges with captured Jordanian mortar shells, while elements of the Harel Brigade crossed the river and occupied positions along the east bank to cover them, but quickly pulled back due to American pressure. The Jordanians, anticipating an Israeli offensive deep into Jordan, assembled the remnants of their army and Iraqi units in Jordan to protect the western approaches to Amman and the southern slopes of the Golan Heights. No specific decision had been made to capture any other territories controlled by Jordan. After the Old City was captured, Dayan told his troops to dig in to hold it. When an armoured brigade commander entered the West Bank on his own initiative, and stated that he could see Jericho, Dayan ordered him back. It was only after intelligence reports indicated that Hussein had withdrawn his forces across the Jordan River that Dayan ordered his troops to capture the West Bank.[92] According to Narkis: First, the Israeli government had no intention of capturing the West Bank. On the contrary, it was opposed to it. Second, there was not any provocation on the part of the IDF. Third, the rein was only loosened when a real threat to Jerusalem's security emerged. This is truly how things happened on June 5, although it is difficult to believe. The end result was something that no one had planned.[102] Golan Heights The Battle of Golan Heights, June 9–10. In May–June 1967, the Israeli government did everything in its power to confine the confrontation to the Egyptian front. Eshkol and his colleagues took into account the possibility of some fighting on the Syrian front.[87] Syria's attack False Egyptian reports of a crushing victory against the Israeli army[69] and forecasts that Egyptian forces would soon be attacking Tel Aviv influenced Syria's decision to enter the war. Syrian artillery began shelling northern Israel, and twelve Syrian jets attacked Israeli settlements in the Galilee. Israeli fighter jets intercepted the Syrian aircraft, shooting down three and driving off the rest.[103] In addition, two Lebanese Hawker Hunter jets, two of the twelve Lebanon had, crossed into Israeli airspace and began strafing Israeli positions in the Galilee. They were intercepted by Israeli fighter jets, and one was shot down.[2][5] People in a bomb shelter at Kibbutz Dan A minor Syrian force tried to capture the water plants at Tel Dan (the subject of a fierce escalation two years earlier), Dan, and She'ar Yashuv. These attacks were repulsed with the loss of twenty soldiers and seven tanks. An Israeli officer was also killed. But a broader Syrian offensive quickly failed. Syrian reserve units were broken up by Israeli air attacks, and several tanks were reported to have sunk in the Jordan River.[103] Other problems included tanks being too wide for bridges, lack of radio communications between tanks and infantry, and units ignoring orders to advance. A post-war Syrian army report concluded: Our forces did not go on the offensive either because they did not arrive or were not wholly prepared or because they could not find shelter from the enemy's planes. The reserves could not withstand the air attacks; they dispersed after their morale plummeted.[104] The Syrians abandoned hopes of a ground attack and began a massive bombardment of Israeli communities in the Hula Valleyinstead. Israeli Air Force attacks the Syrian airfields On the evening of June 5, the Israeli Air Force attacked Syrian airfields. The Syrian Air Force lost some 32 MiG 21s, 23 MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighters, and two Ilyushin Il-28 bombers, two-thirds of its fighting strength. The Syrian aircraft that survived the attack retreated to distant bases and played no further role in the war. Following the attack, Syria realised that the news it had received from Egypt of the near-total destruction of the Israeli military could not have been true.[103] Israelis debate whether the Golan Heights should be attacked On June 7 and 8, the Israeli leadership debated about whether to attack the Golan Heights as well. Syria had supported pre-war raids that had helped raise tensions and had routinely shelled Israel from the Heights, so some Israeli leaders wanted to see Syria punished.[105] Military opinion was that the attack would be extremely costly, since it would entail an uphill battle against a strongly fortified enemy. The western side of the Golan Heights consists of a rock escarpment that rises 500 meters (1,700 ft) from the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan River, and then flattens to a gently sloping plateau. Dayan opposed the operation bitterly at first, believing such an undertaking would result in losses of 30,000 and might trigger Soviet intervention. Prime Minister Eshkol, on the other hand, was more open to the possibility, as was the head of the Northern Command, David Elazar, whose unbridled enthusiasm for and confidence in the operation may have eroded Dayan's reluctance. Eventually, the situation on the Southern and Central fronts cleared up, intelligence estimated that the likelihood of Soviet intervention had been reduced, reconnaissance showed some Syrian defenses in the Golan region collapsing, and an intercepted cable revealed that Nasser was urging the President of Syria to immediately accept a cease-fire. At 3 am on June 9, Syria announced its acceptance of the cease-fire. Despite this announcement, Dayan became more enthusiastic about the idea and four hours later at 7 am, "gave the order to go into action against Syria"[i][105] without consultation or government authorisation.[106] The Syrian army consisted of about 75,000 men grouped in nine brigades, supported by an adequate amount of artillery and armour. Israeli forces used in combat consisted of two brigades (the 8th Armored Brigade and the Golani Brigade) in the northern part of the front at Givat HaEm, and another two (infantry and one of Peled's brigades summoned from Jenin) in the center. The Golan Heights' unique terrain (mountainous slopes crossed by parallel streams every several kilometers running east to west), and the general lack of roads in the area channeled both forces along east-west axes of movement and restricted the ability of units to support those on either flank. Thus the Syrians could move north-south on the plateau itself, and the Israelis could move north-south at the base of the Golan escarpment. An advantage Israel possessed was the excellent intelligence collected by Mossad operative Eli Cohen (who was captured and executed in Syria in 1965) regarding the Syrian battle positions. Syria had built extensive defensive fortifications in depths up to 15 kilometers,[107] comparable to the Maginot Line. As opposed to all the other campaigns, IAF was only partially effective in the Golan because the fixed fortifications were so effective. However, the Syrian forces proved unable to put up effective defense largely because the officers were poor leaders and treated their soldiers badly; often officers would retreat from danger, leaving their men confused and ineffective. The Israelis also had the upper hand during close combat that took place in the numerous Syrian bunkers along the Golan Heights, as they were armed with the Uzi, a submachine gun designed for close combat, while Syrian soldiers were armed with the heavier AK-47 assault rifle, designed for combat in more open areas. Israeli attack: first day Israeli tanks advancing on the Golan Heights. June 1967 On the morning of June 9, Israeli jets began carrying out dozens of sorties against Syrian positions from Mount Hermon to Tawfiq, using rockets salvaged from captured Egyptian stocks. The airstrikes knocked out artillery batteries and storehouses and forced transport columns off the roads. The Syrians suffered heavy casualties and a drop in morale, with a number of senior officers and troops deserting. The attacks also provided time as Israeli forces cleared paths through Syrian minefields. However, the airstrikes did not seriously damage the Syrians' bunkers and trench systems, and the bulk of Syrian forces on the Golan remained in their positions.[108] About two hours after the airstrikes began, the 8th Armored Brigade, led by Colonel Albert Mandler, advanced into the Golan Heights from Givat HaEm. Its advance was spearheaded by Engineering Corps sappers and eight bulldozers, which cleared away barbed wire and mines. As they advanced, the force came under fire, and five bulldozers were immediately hit. The Israeli tanks, with their maneuverability sharply reduced by the terrain, advanced slowly under fire toward the fortified village of Sir al-Dib, with their ultimate objective being the fortress at Qala. Israeli casualties steadily mounted. Part of the attacking force lost its way and emerged opposite Za'ura, a redoubt manned by Syrian reservists. With the situation critical, Colonel Mandler ordered simultaneous assaults on Za'ura and Qala. Heavy and confused fighting followed, with Israeli and Syrian tanks struggling around obstacles and firing at extremely short ranges. Mandler recalled that "the Syrians fought well and bloodied us. We beat them only by crushing them under our treads and by blasting them with our cannons at very short range, from 100 to 500 meters." The first three Israeli tanks to enter Qala were stopped by a Syrian bazooka team, and a relief column of seven Syrian tanks arrived to repel the attackers. The Israelis took heavy fire from the houses, but could not turn back, as other forces were advancing behind them, and they were on a narrow path with mines on either side. The Israelis continued pressing forward, and called for air support. A pair of Israeli jets destroyed two of the Syrian tanks, and the remainder withdrew. The surviving defenders of Qala retreated after their commander was killed. Meanwhile, Za'ura fell in an Israeli assault, and the Israelis also captured the 'Ein Fit fortress.[109] In the central sector, the Israeli 181st Battalion captured the strongholds of Dardara and Tel Hillal after fierce fighting. Desperate fighting also broke out along the operation's northern axis, where Golani Brigade attacked thirteen Syrian positions, including the formidable Tel Fakhr position. Navigational errors placed the Israelis directly under the Syrians' guns. In the fighting that followed, both sides took heavy casualties, with the Israelis losing all nineteen of their tanks and half-tracks.[110] The Israeli battalion commander then ordered his twenty-five remaining men to dismount, divide into two groups, and charge the northern and southern flanks of Tel Fakhr. The first Israelis to reach the perimeter of the southern approach laid bodily down on the barbed wire, allowing their comrades to vault over them. From there, they assaulted the fortified Syrian positions. The fighting was waged at extremely close quarters, often hand-to-hand.[110] On the northern flank, the Israelis broke through within minutes and cleared out the trenches and bunkers. During the seven-hour battle, the Israelis lost 31 dead and 82 wounded, while the Syrians lost 62 dead and 20 captured. Among the dead was the Israeli battalion commander. The Golani Brigade's 51st Battalion took Tel 'Azzaziat, and Darbashiya also fell to Israeli forces.[110] Universal Newsreel from June 9 about the war and UN reactions. By the evening of June 9, the four Israeli brigades had all broken through to the plateau, where they could be reinforced and replaced. Thousands of reinforcements began reaching the front, those tanks and half-tracks that had survived the previous day's fighting were refueled and replenished with ammunition, and the wounded were evacuated. By dawn, the Israelis had eight brigades in the sector. Syria's first line of defense had been shattered, but the defenses beyond that remained largely intact. Mount Hermon and the Banias in the north, and the entire sector between Tawfiq and Customs House Road in the south remained in Syrian hands. In a meeting early on the night of June 9, Syrian leaders decided to reinforce those positions as quickly as possible, and to maintain a steady barrage on Israeli civilian settlements. Israeli attack: the next day Throughout the night, the Israelis continued their advance. Though it was slowed by fierce resistance, an anticipated Syrian counterattack never materialized. At the fortified village of Jalabina, a garrison of Syrian reservists, leveling their anti-aircraft guns, held off the Israeli 65th Paratroop Battalion for four hours before a small detachment managed to penetrate the village and knock out the heavy guns. Meanwhile, the 8th Brigade's tanks moved south from Qala, advancing six miles to Wasit under heavy artillery and tank bombardment. At the Banias in the north, Syrian mortar batteries opened fire on advancing Israeli forces only after Golani Brigade sappers cleared a path through a minefield, killing sixteen Israeli soldiers and wounding four. On the next day, June 10, the central and northern groups joined in a pincer movement on the plateau, but that fell mainly on empty territory as the Syrian forces retreated. At 8:30 am, the Syrians began blowing up their own bunkers, burning documents and retreating. Several units joined by Elad Peled's troops climbed to the Golan from the south, only to find the positions mostly empty. When the 8th Brigade reached Mansura, five miles from Wasit, the Israelis met no opposition and found abandoned equipment, including tanks, in perfect working condition. In the fortified Banias village, Golani Brigade troops found only several Syrian soldiers chained to their positions.[111] During the day, the Israeli units stopped after obtaining manoeuvre room between their positions and a line of volcanic hills to the west. In some locations, Israeli troops advanced after an agreed-upon cease-fire[112] to occupy strategically strong positions.[113] To the east, the ground terrain is an open gently sloping plain. This position later became the cease-fire line known as the "Purple Line". Time magazine reported: "In an effort to pressure the United Nations into enforcing a ceasefire, Damascus Radio undercut its own army by broadcasting the fall of the city of Quneitra three hours before it actually capitulated. That premature report of the surrender of their headquarters destroyed the morale of the Syrian troops left in the Golan area."[114] Conclusion Main article: Israeli Military Governorate Universal Newsreel from June 13 about the war By June 10, Israel had completed its final offensive in the Golan Heights, and a ceasefire was signed the day after. Israel had seized the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, the West Bank of the Jordan River (including East Jerusalem), and the Golan Heights.[115] About one million Arabs were placed under Israel's direct control in the newly captured territories. Israel's strategic depth grew to at least 300 kilometers in the south, 60 kilometers in the east, and 20 kilometers of extremely rugged terrain in the north, a security asset that would prove useful in the Yom Kippur War six years later. Speaking three weeks after the war ended, as he accepted an honorary degree from Hebrew University, Yitzhak Rabin gave his reasoning behind the success of Israel: Our airmen, who struck the enemies' planes so accurately that no one in the world understands how it was done and people seek technological explanations or secret weapons; our armoured troops who beat the enemy even when their equipment was inferior to his; our soldiers in all other branches … who overcame our enemies everywhere, despite the latter's superior numbers and fortifications—all these revealed not only coolness and courage in the battle but … an understanding that only their personal stand against the greatest dangers would achieve victory for their country and for their families, and that if victory was not theirs the alternative was annihilation.[116] In recognition of contributions, Rabin was given the honour of naming the war for the Israelis. From the suggestions proposed, including the "War of Daring", "War of Salvation", and "War of the Sons of Light", he "chose the least ostentatious, the Six-Day War, evoking the days of creation".[117] Dayan's final report on the war to the Israeli general staff listed several shortcomings in Israel's actions, including misinterpretation of Nasser's intentions, overdependence on the United States, and reluctance to act when Egypt closed the Straits. He also credited several factors for Israel's success: Egypt did not appreciate the advantage of striking first and their adversaries did not accurately gauge Israel's strength and its willingness to use it.[117] In Egypt, according to Heikal, Nasser had admitted his responsibility for the military defeat in June 1967.[118] According to historian Abd al-Azim Ramadan, Nasser's mistaken decisions to expel the international peacekeeping force from the Sinai Peninsula and close the Straits of Tiran in 1967 led to a state of war with Israel, despite Egypt's lack of military preparedness.[119] After the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Egypt reviewed the causes of its loss of the 1967 war. Issues that were identified included "the individualistic bureaucratic leadership"; "promotions on the basis of loyalty, not expertise, and the army's fear of telling Nasser the truth"; lack of intelligence; and better Israeli weapons, command, organization, and will to fight.[117] Casualties See also: Israeli casualties of war Between 776[6] and 983 Israelis were killed and 4,517 were wounded. Fifteen Israeli soldiers were captured. Arab casualties were far greater. Between 9,800[9] and 15,000[10] Egyptian soldiers were listed as killed or missing in action. An additional 4,338 Egyptian soldiers were captured.[11] Jordanian losses are estimated to be 700 killed in action with another 2,500 wounded.[7][12] The Syrians were estimated to have sustained between 1,000[120] and 2,500[15][17] killed in action. Between 367[11]and 591[16] Syrians were captured. Controversies Main article: Controversies relating to the Six-Day War Preemptive strike v. unjustified attack Further information: Preemptive war At the commencement of hostilities, both Egypt and Israel announced that they had been attacked by the other country.[121] The Israeli government later abandoned its initial position, acknowledging Israel had struck first, claiming that it was a preemptive strike in the face of a planned invasion by Egypt.[121][122] On the other hand, the Arab view was that it was unjustified to attack Egypt.[123][124] Many commentators consider the war as the classic case of anticipatory attack in self-defense.[125][126] Allegations of atrocities committed against Egyptian soldiers It has been alleged that Nasser did not want Egypt to learn of the true extent of his defeat and so ordered the killing of Egyptian army stragglers making their way back to the Suez canal zone.[127] There have also been allegations from both Israeli and Egyptian sources that Israeli troops killed unarmed Egyptian prisoners.[128][129][130][131][132][133][134] Allegations of military support from the US, UK and Soviet Union There have been a number of allegations of direct military support of Israel during the war by the US and the UK, including the supply of equipment (despite an embargo) and the participation of US forces in the conflict.[135][136][137][138][139] Many of these allegations and conspiracy theories[140] have been disputed and it has been claimed that some were given currency in the Arab world to explain the Arab defeat.[141] It has also been claimed that the Soviet Union, in support of its Arab allies, used its naval strength in the Mediterranean to act as a major restraint on the US Navy.[142][143] America features prominently in Arab conspiracy theories purporting to explain the June 1967 defeat. Mohamed Hassanein Heikal, a confidant of Nasser, claims that President Lyndon B. Johnson was obsessed with Nasser and that Johnson conspired with Israel to bring him down.[144] The reported Israeli troop movements seemed all the more threatening because they were perceived in the context of a US conspiracy against Egypt. Salah Bassiouny of the Foreign ministry, claims that Foreign Ministry saw the reported Israeli troop movements as credible because Israel had reached the level at which it could find strategic alliance with the United States.[145]During the war, Cairo announced that American and British planes were participating in the Israeli attack. Nasser broke off diplomatic relations following this allegation. Nasser's image of the United States was such that he might well have believed the worst. However Anwar Sadat implied that Nasser used this deliberate conspiracy in order to accuse the United States as a political cover-up for domestic consumption.[146] Lutfi Abd al-Qadir, the director of Radio Cairo during the late 1960s, who accompanied Nasser to his visits in Moscow, had his conspiracy theory that both the Soviets and the Western powers wanted to topple Nasser or to reduce his influence.[147] USS Liberty incident Main article: USS Liberty incident On June 8, 1967, USS Liberty, a United States Navy electronic intelligence vessel sailing 13 nautical miles (24 km) off Arish (just outside Egypt's territorial waters), was attacked by Israeli jets and torpedo boats, nearly sinking the ship, killing 34 sailors and wounding 171. Israel said the attack was a case of mistaken identity, and that the ship had been misidentified as the Egyptian vessel El Quseir. Israel apologized for the mistake, and paid compensation to the victims or their families, and to the United States for damage to the ship. After an investigation, the U.S. accepted the explanation that the incident was friendly fire and the issue was closed by the exchange of diplomatic notes in 1987. Others however, including the then United States Secretary of State Dean Rusk, Chief of Naval Operations at the time, Admiral Thomas Moorer, some survivors of the attack and intelligence officials familiar with transcripts of intercepted signals on the day, have rejected these conclusions as unsatisfactory and maintain that the attack was made in the knowledge that the ship was American.[148][149][150] Aftermath The political importance of the 1967 War was immense; Israel demonstrated that it was able and willing to initiate strategic strikes that could change the regional balance. Egypt and Syria learned tactical lessons and would launch an attack in 1973 in an attempt to reclaim their lost territory.[151] After following other Arab nations in declaring war, Mauritania remained in a declared state of war with Israel until about 1999.[152] The United States imposed an embargo on new arms agreements to all Middle East countries, including Israel. The embargo remained in force until the end of the year, despite urgent Israeli requests to lift it.[153] Israel and Zionism Following the war, Israel experienced a wave of national euphoria, and the press praised the military's performance for weeks afterward. New "victory coins" were minted to celebrate. In addition, the world's interest in Israel grew, and the country's economy, which had been in crisis before the war, flourished due to an influx of tourists and donations, as well as the extraction of oil from the Sinai's wells.[154] The aftermath of the war also saw a baby boom, which lasted for four years.[155] The aftermath of the war is also of religious significance. Under Jordanian rule, Jews were expelled from Jerusalem and were effectively barred from visiting the Western Wall (even though Article VIII of the 1949 Armistice Agreement demanded Israeli Jewish access to the Western Wall).[156][157] Jewish holy sites were not maintained, and Jewish cemeteries had been desecrated. After the annexation to Israel, each religious group was granted administration over its holy sites. For the first time since 1948, Jews could visit the Old City of Jerusalem and pray at the Western Wall, the holiest site where Jews are permitted to pray.[158] Despite the Temple Mount being the most important holy site in Jewish tradition, the al-Aqsa Mosque has been under sole administration of the Jordanian Muslim Waqf, and Jews are barred from praying on the Temple Mount, although they are allowed to visit it.[159][160] In Hebron, Jews gained access to the Cave of the Patriarchs (the second most holy site in Judaism, after the Temple Mount) for the first time since the 14th century (previously Jews were allowed to pray only at the entrance).[161] Other Jewish holy sites, such as Rachel's Tomb in Bethlehem and Joseph's Tomb in Nablus, also became accessible.[162][163] The war inspired the Jewish diaspora, which was swept up in overwhelming support for Israel. According to Michael Oren, the war enabled American Jews to "walk with their backs straight and flex their political muscle as never before. American Jewish organizations which had previously kept Israel at arms length suddenly proclaimed their Zionism."[164] Thousands of Jewish immigrants arrived from Western countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, France, and South Africa after the war. Many of them returned to their countries of origin after a few years; one survey found that 58% of American Jews who immigrated to Israel between 1961 and 1972 returned to the US. Nevertheless, this immigration to Israel of Jews from Western countries, which was previously only a trickle, was a significant force for the first time.[165][166] Most notably, the war stirred Zionist passions among Jews in the Soviet Union, who had by that time been forcibly assimilated. Many Soviet Jews subsequently applied for exit visas and began protesting for their right to immigrate to Israel. Following diplomatic pressure from the West, the Soviet government began granting exit visas to Jews in growing numbers. From 1970 to 1988, some 291,000 Soviet Jews were granted exit visas, of whom 165,000 immigrated to Israel and 126,000 immigrated to the United States.[167] The great rise in Jewish pride in the wake of Israel's victory also fueled the beginnings of the baal teshuva movement.[168][169][170] Jews in Arab countries-Pogroms and expulsion Main article: Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries In the Arab nations, populations of minority Jews faced persecution and expulsion following the Israeli victory. According to historian and ambassador Michael B. Oren: Mobs attacked Jewish neighborhoods in Egypt, Yemen, Lebanon, Tunisia, and Morocco, burning synagogues and assaulting residents. A pogrom in Tripoli, Libya, left 18 Jews dead and 25 injured; the survivors were herded into detention centers. Of Egypt's 4,000 Jews, 800 were arrested, including the chief rabbis of both Cairo and Alexandria, and their property sequestered by the government. The ancient communities of Damascus and Baghdad were placed under house arrest, their leaders imprisoned and fined. A total of 7,000 Jews were expelled, many with merely a satchel.[171] Antisemitism against Jews in Communist countries Following the war, a series of antisemitic purges began in Communist countries.[172][173] Some 11,200 Jews from Poland immigrated to Israel during the 1968 Polish political crisis and the following year.[174] Peace and diplomacy Following the war, Israel made an offer for peace that included the return of most of the recently captured territories. According to Chaim Herzog: On June 19, 1967, the National Unity Government [of Israel] voted unanimously to return the Sinai to Egypt and the Golan Heights to Syria in return for peace agreements. The Golans would have to be demilitarized and special arrangement would be negotiated for the Straits of Tiran. The government also resolved to open negotiations with King Hussein of Jordan regarding the Eastern border.[175] The June 19 Israeli cabinet decision did not include the Gaza Strip, and left open the possibility of Israel permanently acquiring parts of the West Bank. On June 25–27, Israel incorporated East Jerusalem together with areas of the West Bank to the north and south into Jerusalem's new municipal boundaries. The Israeli decision was to be conveyed to the Arab nations by the United States. The U.S. was informed of the decision, but not that it was to transmit it. There is no evidence of receipt from Egypt or Syria, and some historians claim that they may never have received the offer.[176] In September, the Khartoum Arab Summit resolved that there would be "no peace, no recognition and no negotiation with Israel". However, as Avraham Sela notes, the Khartoum conference effectively marked a shift in the perception of the conflict by the Arab states away from one centered on the question of Israel's legitimacy, toward one focusing on territories and boundaries. This was shown on November 22 when Egypt and Jordan accepted United Nations Security Council Resolution 242.[177]Nasser forestalled any movement toward direct negotiations with Israel. In dozens of speeches and statements, Nasser posited the equation that any direct peace talks with Israel were tantamount to surrender.[178] After the war, the entire Soviet bloc of Eastern Europe (with the exception of Romania) broke off diplomatic relations with Israel.[179] The 1967 War laid the foundation for future discord in the region, as the Arab states resented Israel's victory and did not want to give up territory. On November 22, 1967, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 242, the "land for peace" formula, which called for Israeli withdrawal "from territories occupied" in 1967 and "the termination of all claims or states of belligerency". Resolution 242 recognized the right of "every state in the area to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force." Israel returned the Sinai to Egypt in 1978, after the Camp David Accords, and disengaged from the Gaza Strip in the summer of 2005. Its army frequently re-enters Gaza for military operations and still retains control of the seaports, airports and most of the border crossings. Captured territories and Arab displaced populations Main article: 1967 Palestinian exodus There was extensive displacement of populations in the captured territories: of about one million Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza, 300,000 (according to the United States Department of State)[180] either fled, or were displaced from their homes, to Jordan, where they contributed to the growing unrest.[181] The other 700,000[182] remained. In the Golan Heights, an estimated 80,000 Syrians fled.[183] Israel allowed only the inhabitants of East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights to receive full Israeli citizenship, applying its law, administration and jurisdiction to these territories in 1967 and 1981, respectively. The vast majority of the populations in both territories declined to take citizenship. See also Israeli–Palestinian conflict and Golan Heights. In his book Righteous Victims (1999), Israeli "New Historian" Benny Morris writes: In three villages southwest of Jerusalem and at Qalqilya, houses were destroyed "not in battle, but as punishment ... and in order to chase away the inhabitants ... contrary to government ... policy," Dayan wrote in his memoirs. In Qalqilya, about a third of the homes were razed and about 12,000 inhabitants were evicted, though many then camped out in the environs. The evictees in both areas were allowed to stay and later were given cement and tools by the Israeli authorities to rebuild at least some of their dwellings. But many thousands of other Palestinians now took to the roads. Perhaps as many as seventy thousand, mostly from the Jericho area, fled during the fighting; tens of thousands more left over the following months. Altogether, about one-quarter of the population of the West Bank, about 200–250,000 people, went into exile. ... They simply walked to the Jordan River crossings and made their way on foot to the East Bank. It is unclear how many were intimidated or forced out by the Israeli troops and how many left voluntarily, in panic and fear. There is some evidence of IDF soldiers going around with loudspeakers ordering West Bankers to leave their homes and cross the Jordan. Some left because they had relatives or sources of livelihood on the East Bank and feared being permanently cut off. Thousands of Arabs were taken by bus from East Jerusalem to the Allenby Bridge, though there is no evidence of coercion. The free Israeli-organized transportation, which began on June 11, 1967, went on for about a month. At the bridge they had to sign a document stating that they were leaving of their own free will. Perhaps as many as 70,000 people emigrated from the Gaza Strip to Egypt and elsewhere in the Arab world. On July 2, the Israeli government announced that it would allow the return of those 1967 refugees who desired to do so, but no later than August 10, later extended to September 13. The Jordanian authorities probably pressured many of the refugees, who constituted an enormous burden, to sign up to return. In practice only 14,000 of the 120,000 who applied were allowed by Israel back into the West Bank by the beginning of September. After that, only a trickle of "special cases" were allowed back, perhaps 3,000 in all. (328–29) In addition, between 80,000 and 110,000 Syrians fled the Golan Heights,[184] of which about 20,000 were from the city of Quneitra.[185] According to more recent research by the Israeli daily Haaretz, a total of 130,000 Syrian inhabitants fled or were expelled from the territory, most of them pushed out by the Israeli army.[186] Long term Israel made peace with Egypt following the Camp David Accords of 1978 and completed a staged withdrawal from the Sinai in 1982. However, the position of the other occupied territories has been a long-standing and bitter cause of conflict for decades between Israel and the Palestinians, and the Arab world in general. Jordan and Egypt eventually withdrew their claims to sovereignty over the West Bank and Gaza, respectively. (The Sinai was returned to Egypt on the basis of the Camp David Accords of 1978.) Israel and Jordan signed a peace treaty in 1994. After the Israeli conquest of these newly acquired 'territories', it launched a large settlement effort in these areas to secure a permanent foothold. There are now hundreds of thousands of Israeli settlers in the West Bank. They are a matter of controversy within Israel, both among the general population and within different political administrations, supporting them to varying degrees. Palestinians consider them a provocation. The Israeli settlements in Gaza were evacuated and destroyed in August 2005 as a part of Israeli disengagement from Gaza. ********* How to Steal a Million is a 1966 heist comedy film, directed by William Wyler and starring Audrey Hepburn, Peter O'Toole, Eli Wallach and Hugh Griffith. The picture is set and was filmed in France, though the characters speak entirely in English. Audrey Hepburn's clothes were designed by Givenchy. Contents [hide] · 1Plot · 2Cast · 3Reception · 4Popular culture · 5See also · 6References · 7External links Plot[edit] Charles Bonnet (Hugh Griffith) is well-known as an art collector, but actually he forges paintings to sell them. His daughter Nicole (Audrey Hepburn) disapproves and is also afraid that he may get caught. Bonnet lends a renowned "Cellini" statuette of Venus to the Kléber-Lafayette Museum in Paris for an important exhibition. He has never sold it because modern testing would reveal it as a forgery (by his father). That night Nicole finds a burglar, Simon Dermott (Peter O'Toole), holding a "Van Gogh" forged by her father. She threatens him with an antique gun and it goes off accidentally. To avoid an investigation around the fake masterpieces, she does not call the police, but instead cleans Simon's flesh wound and drives him to his hotel. He suddenly kisses her goodbye. Soon after, Nicole has a dinner date with American tycoon Davis Leland (Eli Wallach). She fears he knows her father's secret, but in fact he is obsessed with owning the Cellini Venus: he arranged the dinner in order to buy it. Relieved, she kisses him and tells him that the statue is not for sale. The next day, a museum employee arrives and has Charles sign the insurance policy for the sculpture—and then mentions that Charles has just consented to a technical examination of it. Desperate to save her father from prison, Nicole asks Simon to use his burglary skills to steal the Venus for her. He agrees, but at first does not believe it is possible. On the night of the heist, Davis shows up again at Charles and Nicole's home. Davis is so desperate to acquire the Cellini that he asks her to marry him. Not wanting to be late, she quickly accepts and leaves for the museum. Nicole and Simon hide in a utility closet until the museum closes. After noting the guards' routine, Simon sets off the security alarm surrounding the Cellini Venus using a toy boomerang, then catches it and hides. The guards and police rush in and check the museum, but nothing is missing, so they soon leave and reset the alarm. Simon reveals that he knows why Nicole wants the statue stolen, which she confirms. He had suspected that it was a fake because it resembled Nicole (her grandmother was the model). He is helping because he has feelings for her. They kiss, then Simon sets off the alarms again. After realizing that nothing is missing, the frustrated guards decide the security system has malfunctioned. Because high-ranking politicians in the area have complained about the noisy alarm, they turn it completely off. Simon then steals the statuette, Nicole hides it in a cleaner's bucket, and they escape in the confusion after it is discovered missing. The next morning, after the news of the robbery has spread, Davis quickly looks for a lead on the missing statuette, desperate to acquire it at any cost. He meets Simon, who says he will give the Venus to him, but that he can never mention the statue to anyone, or see Nicole again. He says Davis will be contacted later about payment. Later, Nicole joins Simon at his table to celebrate the robbery. Simon finally reveals to Nicole that he is not a professional burglar, but an expert investigator hired by major art galleries to strengthen security and uncover forgeries. The Cellini Venus was, in fact, his first heist. Later, at the steps of a private plane, Simon passes Davis the Venus. When he opens the box, Davis also finds the engagement ring he had given to Nicole. Simon assures Charles that the fake Venus is safely out of the country. Charles is so relieved that he is only momentarily disappointed when Simon tells him that the purchase price was, and will remain, zero dollars. Simon and Nicole extract a promise from Charles that he will stop selling forged paintings. Nicole and Simon marry. As they leave the mansion, however, a collector who earlier had admired Charles' new "Van Gogh" arrives and is welcomed by the old forger. Nicole explains him as a cousin, and Simon fondly admires her new flair for lying. Cast[edit] · Audrey Hepburn as Nicole Bonnet · Peter O'Toole as Simon Dermott · Hugh Griffith as Charles Bonnet · Eli Wallach as Davis Leland · Charles Boyer as DeSolnay · Fernand Gravey as Grammont · Marcel Dalio as Paravideo · Jacques Marin as Head of Security · Roger Tréville as Auctioneer · Edward Malin as Insurance Clerk (as Eddie Malin) · Moustache as Guard Reception[edit] How to Steal a Million was a critical and commercial hit upon its original release.[citation needed] The film currently scores 100% on Rotten Tomatoes with an Average Rating of 6.9/10.[3] Popular culture[edit] · A verbal exchange between Nicole and her father during the film ("Papa!" "Nicole") was borrowed and adapted in a successful series of commercials for the Renault Clio.[4] · The robbery scenes in the film were later copied for the Tamil film Lingaa, and the Hindi film Loafer.[5][6][7] How to Steal a Million is a 1966 heist comedy film, directed by William Wyler and starring Audrey Hepburn, Peter O'Toole, Eli Wallach and Hugh Griffith. The picture is set and was filmed in France, though the characters speak entirely in English. Audrey Hepburn's clothes were designed by Givenchy. Contents [hide] · 1Plot · 2Cast · 3Reception · 4Popular culture · 5See also · 6References · 7External links Plot[edit] Charles Bonnet (Hugh Griffith) is well-known as an art collector, but actually he forges paintings to sell them. His daughter Nicole (Audrey Hepburn) disapproves and is also afraid that he may get caught. Bonnet lends a renowned "Cellini" statuette of Venus to the Kléber-Lafayette Museum in Paris for an important exhibition. He has never sold it because modern testing would reveal it as a forgery (by his father). That night Nicole finds a burglar, Simon Dermott (Peter O'Toole), holding a "Van Gogh" forged by her father. She threatens him with an antique gun and it goes off accidentally. To avoid an investigation around the fake masterpieces, she does not call the police, but instead cleans Simon's flesh wound and drives him to his hotel. He suddenly kisses her goodbye. Soon after, Nicole has a dinner date with American tycoon Davis Leland (Eli Wallach). She fears he knows her father's secret, but in fact he is obsessed with owning the Cellini Venus: he arranged the dinner in order to buy it. Relieved, she kisses him and tells him that the statue is not for sale. The next day, a museum employee arrives and has Charles sign the insurance policy for the sculpture—and then mentions that Charles has just consented to a technical examination of it. Desperate to save her father from prison, Nicole asks Simon to use his burglary skills to steal the Venus for her. He agrees, but at first does not believe it is possible. On the night of the heist, Davis shows up again at Charles and Nicole's home. Davis is so desperate to acquire the Cellini that he asks her to marry him. Not wanting to be late, she quickly accepts and leaves for the museum. Nicole and Simon hide in a utility closet until the museum closes. After noting the guards' routine, Simon sets off the security alarm surrounding the Cellini Venus using a toy boomerang, then catches it and hides. The guards and police rush in and check the museum, but nothing is missing, so they soon leave and reset the alarm. Simon reveals that he knows why Nicole wants the statue stolen, which she confirms. He had suspected that it was a fake because it resembled Nicole (her grandmother was the model). He is helping because he has feelings for her. They kiss, then Simon sets off the alarms again. After realizing that nothing is missing, the frustrated guards decide the security system has malfunctioned. Because high-ranking politicians in the area have complained about the noisy alarm, they turn it completely off. Simon then steals the statuette, Nicole hides it in a cleaner's bucket, and they escape in the confusion after it is discovered missing. The next morning, after the news of the robbery has spread, Davis quickly looks for a lead on the missing statuette, desperate to acquire it at any cost. He meets Simon, who says he will give the Venus to him, but that he can never mention the statue to anyone, or see Nicole again. He says Davis will be contacted later about payment. Later, Nicole joins Simon at his table to celebrate the robbery. Simon finally reveals to Nicole that he is not a professional burglar, but an expert investigator hired by major art galleries to strengthen security and uncover forgeries. The Cellini Venus was, in fact, his first heist. Later, at the steps of a private plane, Simon passes Davis the Venus. When he opens the box, Davis also finds the engagement ring he had given to Nicole. Simon assures Charles that the fake Venus is safely out of the country. Charles is so relieved that he is only momentarily disappointed when Simon tells him that the purchase price was, and will remain, zero dollars. Simon and Nicole extract a promise from Charles that he will stop selling forged paintings. Nicole and Simon marry. As they leave the mansion, however, a collector who earlier had admired Charles' new "Van Gogh" arrives and is welcomed by the old forger. Nicole explains him as a cousin, and Simon fondly admires her new flair for lying. Cast[edit] · Audrey Hepburn as Nicole Bonnet · Peter O'Toole as Simon Dermott · Hugh Griffith as Charles Bonnet · Eli Wallach as Davis Leland · Charles Boyer as DeSolnay · Fernand Gravey as Grammont · Marcel Dalio as Paravideo · Jacques Marin as Head of Security · Roger Tréville as Auctioneer · Edward Malin as Insurance Clerk (as Eddie Malin) · Moustache as Guard Reception[edit] How to Steal a Million was a critical and commercial hit upon its original release.[citation needed] The film currently scores 100% on Rotten Tomatoes with an Average Rating of 6.9/10.[3] Popular culture[edit] · A verbal exchange between Nicole and her father during the film ("Papa!" "Nicole") was borrowed and adapted in a successful series of commercials for the Renault Clio.[4] · The robbery scenes in the film were later copied for the Tamil film Lingaa, and the Hindi film Loafer.[5][6][7] How to Steal a Million (1966) via: http://www.impawards.com/1966/howtostealamillion.html Unless otherwise noted, all images are my own How to Steal a Million is an eternally delightful film that happens to be one of my very favorites. It was released in 1966, but it has the feel of a 1930s comedy with the modern zazz of the 1960s. Clever, funny dialogue, lovely sets and costumes, a snappy plot, and a light, mocking tone make it lots of fun to watch. If that isn’t enough for you, it stars the unbelievably suave-yet-goofy Peter O’Toole and the eternally elegant and very amusing Audrey Hepburn. If even that isn’t enough, the film was directed by the legendary William Wyler, (who directed Hepburn in her first Hollywood film, Roman Holiday, for which she won the Best Actress Oscar, and in The Children’s Hour (1961).) And the catchy score was composed by one of the greatest of them all, John Williams, who composed the scores for Jaws, Star Wars, and Harry Potter, among many, many others. It’s also a very pretty movie. How to Steal a Million was shot in Paris by one of Hepburn’s favorite cinematographers, Charles Lang, who also shot Paris When it Sizzles and Charade. Plus, the film is set in fancy places and museums, and Hepburn is clothed in Givenchy, so there are beautiful things everywhere. Givenchy had designed Hepburn’s costumes (and perfume–he got a screen credit for Miss Hepburn’s scent on Paris When it Sizzles!) ever since his work on Sabrina in 1954, and he does not skimp on this film. (The black strappy number in the poster does not appear in the movie, but those stockings do!) Hepburn had starred in another Parisian comedy just two years before called Paris When it Sizzles (1964). That film was trying to be a clever, irreverent, self-referential spoof, but didn’t quite make it. She’d also starred in a Parisian mystery/thriller/comedy, Charade (1963), with a darker edge of murder and betrayal. How to Steal a Million plays it straighter than Paris When It Sizzles without taking itself too seriously, but doesn’t go as serious as Charade; the finished product is a charming delight. To the film! Audrey Hepburn plays Nicole Bonnet, a wealthy Parisian whose aristocratic family has a famous art collection. We open at a shockingly red auction house where Nicole’s father Charles (played by Hugh Griffith) watches the energetic bidding on a Cézanne from his family’s collection. As the price skyrockets ever higher, we cut to a glamorously mod woman in a ridiculous chapeau and huge sunglasses driving along the Seine in what appears to be a toy car. She stops briefly and turns up the radio just in time to hear an announcement about the record-breaking figure that the Bonnet Cézanne reached at the auction. Her eyes pop open, which must have been an effort as they are swathed in kohl. This movie is worth watching just as an eyeliner tutorial, I think. Here is Hepburn getting a touch-up on set: via: http://filmnoirphotos.blogspot.com/2011/09/on-set-audrey-hepburn.html Anyway, Nicole is utterly shocked to hear the auction news. She whizzes home in her tiny car. And what a home it is, smack in the middle of Paris! Fun fact: This mansion was a real house on the rue Parmentier, in Neuilly-sur-Seine, but it has since been demolished. Into the house she flies, past the butler and up the stairs to a large dresser with a secret door leading to a secret staircase leading to a secret room! Shock! Fun fact: Most of the interiors were sets built in the Studios de Boulogne, a large complex of sound stages in Paris. Production designer Alexandre Trauner did a superb job. What is Monsieur Bonnet doing in this secret room? Why, he’s currently forging Van Gogh’s signature on that lovely painting! Unbeknownst to the world, Monsieur Bonnet is a brilliant forger and the famed Bonnet collection is peppered with his “Van Goghs” and “Monets.” The “Cézanne” that just sold at auction was one of Monsieur Bonnet’s works. Nicole is in a tizzy, scolding her father for selling yet another fake masterpiece, and warning him that it has to stop. Sooner or later someone is going to discover Monsieur Bonnet’s illegal hobby! Her father laughs off Nicole’s concerns and tells her about his latest effort, that gorgeous “Van Gogh” on his easel. He brags about scraping the dirt off of 19th century canvases to give it that extra touch of authenticity: Fun fact: Local artists were hired to paint the works of art we see in the Bonnet house and the museum. Police sirens interrupt their conversation. Nicole goes to the window and sees a whole mess of official vehicles driving into the courtyard. She panics. But her father was expecting this hullabaloo. He has agreed to lend the Bonnet’s famous sculpture, the Venus by the Renaissance master Cellini, to the (fictional) Musée Kléber-Lafayette Museum for a special exhibition. The motorcade has come to retrieve the statue. Nicole loses her cool when she hears that the Cellini Venus is going on public display. She chases her father out of the secret tower room with more shocking news for us: Although Nicole’s father sticks to painting, her grandfather was a sculptor, and he carved the Venus, not Cellini! Nicole tries to explain to her father that you can’t forge sculpture anymore because of new scientific tests. She says that it is much too risky to display the Venus because if the museum discovers it is a forgery, then the entire Bonnet collection will be cast into doubt! Her father dismisses her concerns. Why would they test the Venus? It isn’t as though he is planning to sell it! Nicole is unconvinced, but obviously they can’t argue about it in front of the museum staff. In a very funny bit, she tries to damage the Venus on its way from its niche to the special padded box, hoping the whole thing will get called off if the sculpture is dropped/crushed. But her father evades her murderous efforts, and the Venus is safely stowed and taken to the museum. Once the Bonnets are alone again, we get more background on the Venus. As I mentioned before, Nicole’s grandfather carved it, and her grandmother posed for it, “before she started eating those enormous lunches,” chuckles Monsieur Bonnet. Golly, Nicole is the spitting image of her grandmother! Costume break: here is Nicole’s first Givenchy costume. (She had a matching coat and that driving hat, too). Most of her costumes are straight and simple (even deceptively so; notice the pleats in the side of the skirt), accessorized with skinny belts or eye-catching stockings. Hepburn cut her hair short for this film, though it’s so pouf-ed up in the back that it looks as though she has an elaborate updo. She’s playing a wealthy, sophisticated Parisian, so it’s a great excuse for fine, chic outfits. Wealth and class practically drip from the simple, luxurious fabrics draped so beautifully on Hepburn’s slender frame. No one does elegant mod like Hepburn in head-to-toe Givenchy. Anyway, soon the museum opens its “Masterpieces from French Collections” exhibition with a fancy gala. Monsieur Bonnet attends, but Nicole stays home and reads some scary Hitchcock stories, instead. As she reads, we follow a shadowy figure as he breaks into the Bonnet mansion. Nicole hears some suspicious noises: She’s alone in the house and pretty freaked out, but she summons her courage and goes to investigate. She sees someone downstairs and wiggles an antique revolver off of a heraldic display on the wall. What she can’t see from her position on the stairs is that the man is chipping a piece of paint off of the newly finished Van Gogh…how curious! In a very brave move, Nicole turns on the lights and fixes her gun on the burglar. This is our introduction to Peter O’Toole as Simon Dermott. I love the first shots of his face as he hides behind the painting. His amazingly blue eyes just pop in the dim light. Swoon. It’s hard to tell who is more frightened, Nicole or Simon! He slowly lowers the painting, revealing the rest of his stunningly handsome face, and stares at Nicole in her pink nightie. She comes downstairs to the telephone and begins dialing the police, but Simon tries to bargain his way out of being arrested: He is dashing yet charmingly wimpy. The whole scene is very funny with light touches of comedy throughout that add to the overall humor of the situation. For example, Nicole gets her huge revolver tangled in the telephone cord, Simon tries to hide behind the marble column, and he’s impeccably attired in a splendidly cut tuxedo while she is in a flimsy nightie. (What kind of burglar works in a tux?) Nicole is all set to have him arrested until she notices which painting he was stealing. She’s afraid that the publicity from an arrest would bring unwanted attention to the collection and this newly “discovered” “Van Gogh,” so she tells Simon that she will let him go this time. Nicole sets the gun on the table, but the antique firearm goes off with a bang and a flash! She flees up the purple-banistered staircase and he falls to the ground, clutching his arm. She shot him! They both faint: he falls flat on his face and she slides down the column clutching her stomach. Comedy! You can watch the scene here. Nicole feels rather badly about wounding Simon, and he doesn’t help, wincing and emitting little cries as she cleans and bandages the very minor injury: Then it’s a problem of transportation. He claims that he is unable to drive, and when she offers to send him home in a taxi, he says it wouldn’t be ideal for his car to be found at her house the next morning…”I’m really thinking of you,” he says, faux-courteously. So Nicole offers to drive him home. She pulls on a pair of black galoshes and a shocking-pink coat over her nightdress. It’s the only time she wears anything even slightly ramshackle in the whole film. Simon likes what he sees… Fun fact: There is a clear raincoat with white trim draped on the same chair where she finds the pink coat, and there are some behind-the-scenes photographs of Hepburn wearing the plastic coat over the nightgown: via: http://www.elegantwoman.org/audrey-hepburn-hair-cuts.html Maybe there was a deleted scene with Hepburn wearing that coat instead of the pink one? Or perhaps they tried the scene with both coat options? The clear coat would be funny since it doesn’t actually cover her nightgown, but the pink coat pops beautifully in the dark. Anyway, Nicole is very surprised when they arrive at Simon’s gleaming Jaguar. She quips: He tells her that it is stolen–she is shocked! It’s one of my favorite moments in the movie. Nicole is a daring driver, and Simon cowers as they speed across Paris to the Ritz Hotel (“You’re a very chic burglar,” she tells Simon when he directs her to his lodgings). Nicole darts across traffic and speeds around corners, and Simon jumps and flinches. One athletic dive beneath the dashboard prompts Nicole to comment on his injury: This handsome thief always has an answer. They arrive at the Ritz, and Nicole suddenly seems smitten by this handsome weirdo. It’s a very quick switch from exasperation to bewitchment, but go with it. He asks her to wipe down the frame of the “Van Gogh” to erase his fingerprints, and she agrees, before telling him: She rides home in a taxi in a daze while he conducts some experiments on that chip of “Van Gogh” paint. We don’t know what he finds out, but he smiles…We will see those magnifying spectacles again, by the way. And back at the museum, this man seems rather taken with the Venus: It’s Davis Leland (Eli Wallach), an American tycoon. He gets back in his chauffeured car and leaves a message for his secretary asking her to cancel all of his appointments and find out everything she can about the Bonnet family and their art collection. Hmm. Fun fact: George C. Scott (Patton) was originally cast as Leland, but he didn’t show up for his first day of filming, so Wyler replaced him with Wallach. It seems that Scott had partied too hard in Parisian nightclubs the night before his call, and he was stricken with a nasty hangover. Back at the Bonnet mansion, Nicole arrives to find her father in a celebratory mood raiding their beautiful bar cart. She tells him about her eventful evening, and he agrees that she was right to let the thief go, but he’s taken aback by the way she describes the burglar: He’s concerned, to say the least! The next day, Nicole visits the museum to see her grandfather’s Venus on display. She wears a beautiful tweed suit for the occasion. As she turns to go, she literally runs into that “quite good-looking, terrible man.” She is shocked, and he is pleasant. He says he has something important to say to her, but she has no interest in his company. To her embarrassed dismay, the director of the museum spots her and invites them on a tour of the security features guarding the Venus. Nicole is horrified to be giving a thief the inside look at security, and Simon doesn’t help things. He encourages the director with questions and the sly admission that he is interested in “art” and in “security.” We get some important information in this scene about the infrared beams and alarm guarding the statue, but I love it because of the delightful interplay between an annoyed Nicole attempting to drag Simon away, and Simon’s unabashed efforts to prolong the tour. You can watch the scene here. O’Toole and Hepburn became good friends while making this movie, and they have wonderful chemistry. It is their charming, exasperating, romantic, and goofy work together that makes the movie. Here they are between takes of this scene: via: http://hollygohardly.tumblr.com/post/29121979148 Once Nicole finally pulls Simon out of the museum, she tells him to “go away” and jumps into her toy car. Off she zooms, despite Simon’s suddenly sincere request to talk to her about something important… Here is Hepburn filming this scene: via: http://audreyhepburninblackandwhite.tumblr.com/post/29081858100/audrey-hepburn-behind-the-scenes-of-how-to-steal-a How amazing is it to see the divinely elegant Audrey Hepburn making silly faces in her impeccable Givenchy suit and white gloves? I’m so used to seeing Miss Hepburn looking classy and poised that I find it really fun to see her looking silly. Though she somehow still looks classy and poised even when she’s goofing off! Back to the movie world! Simon visits an art dealer named DeSolnay (Charles Boyer, Gaslight). He has been waiting to hear from Simon about the Bonnet “Van Gogh.” DeSolnay seems to suspect that it is a fake, but Simon only gives him a significant look, no definitive answers. DeSolnay goes on a long explanation of why wealthy Monsieur Bonnet forges paintings (for the love and thrill of it, not the money), but Simon seems lost in thought. This is not our first clue that Simon is not actually an art thief, but it’s a pretty big one. Meanwhile, Nicole is preparing for a date with an American millionaire named Davis Leland who she met that day. Remember Mr. Leland and his interest in the Venus? We get a quick glimpse at her ornate bedroom: Pretty wild, right? I like how her green outfit is lying on the bed, ready to go! Anyway, Nicole’s excitement turns to worry when she mentions her date’s name to her father, and he tells her that Leland is an avid art collector with several (forged) pieces from the Bonnet collection. Nicole is not pleased to hear this, as Leland had told Nicole that he didn’t even like art! She’s scared that Leland arranged to meet her because he is suspicious of the Bonnet collection. She’s on edge throughout their fancy dinner, but she looks fabulous in lime Givenchy and sparkling Cartier earrings! (Cartier got an onscreen credit for “Miss Hepburn’s Jewelry.”) It eventually comes out that Leland wanted to form a relationship with Nicole in hopes of persuading her father to sell him the Venus. This is terrific news for Nicole, as she’d been terrified that Leland had discovered her father’s forgeries! Her concern evaporates and she even kisses the dorky tycoon, telling him that if it was up to her the Venus would be on his doorstep in the morning! Fortunately for us, Simon makes an appearance in this scene, too. He lures Davis away from the table with a faked phone call (a strategy that is now obsolete) and slides in next to Nicole with this fantastic quip: She’s furious at his intrusion, but he tells her that he must talk to her about something very important. He manages to give her his phone number and escape the table before Davis sees him, and before Nicole causes a scene. As Simon leaves the restaurant, he pauses to hiss his number across the room to Nicole one more time. I love the silly grin Simon gives the woman looking up at him: This restaurant looks as though it is set up in Honore’s apartment in Gigi (1958) with all those art nouveau curves. Actually, this scene was filmed at the legendary restaurant Maxim’s, which features in Gigi, too. Nicole is seated for the entire scene, so we only see her green dress from the waist up. Here’s a costume appreciation break with a photograph from a costume test: Left via: http://audreykathleenhepburn.tumblr.com/post/62071487278/thefashionofaudrey-the-actress-audrey-hepburn The next morning, Nicole is dressed in sunny yellow so bright it can blind you if you’re not careful. The color echoes her happy mood: she tells her father that Davis Leland only wants the Venus and he has no suspicions about the Bonnet collection. I think this is my least favorite outfit of the film, though I like how the white and yellow scarf so perfectly goes with the white belt and lattice stockings. But otherwise the lemony suit feels almost cartoonish, though it matches the sun in the “Van Gogh” perfectly! Anyway, something happens to spoil their morning. An elderly insurance clerk arrives and asks for Monsieur Bonnet’s signature on the million dollar policy the museum has taken out on the Venus. Monsieur Bonnet signs the form, and only then does the clerk tell him that by activating the policy, Monsieur Bonnet has just authorized a series of technical examinations of the Venus. This could be the end of the Bonnets. Nicole and her father helplessly watch the clerk depart with the signed form, and fall into chairs in a deep depression. If the Venus is outed as a forgery, the entire Bonnet collection would come under suspicion, and Monsieur Bonnet would probably end up in prison. Into this gloom and doom enters an energetic South American man desperate to buy the “Van Gogh” Monsieur Bonnet just painted. It’s French actor Marcel Dalio, who delivers these winning lines about having to leave Paris immediately because of “a revolution in my country. Also, some of my mines are flooded.” But he couldn’t leave without seeing the “Van Gogh!” Monsieur Bonnet throws him out of the house in a rage before crumpling. All seems lost, until Nicole remembers a certain recent acquaintance. She wipes away her tears and calls the Ritz. The next time we see Nicole, she is at the Ritz bar waiting for Simon. She looks somehow different. The hungry camera moves slowly up from her black pumps, intricate stockings, lace skirt, and lace jacket until it finds her terribly glamorous face covered in a lace half-mask. It’s the only time in the movie we see her smoking, but she’s going for a femme fatal thing, so naturally she brought some cigarettes. Simon arrives for their meeting and walks right past the sexy woman in black lace. She hisses at him, and he realizes his mistake in a brilliant bit of slow-motion understanding. Simon is bewildered at the alteration in Mademoiselle Bonnet. He appears rather dazed and then amused at Nicole as full-on queen of the underworld. She requests that Simon use “no names” as though they are being surveilled, and speaks in phrases she clearly picked up from the movies. For all her sophistication, Nicole is a nice, innocent girl playing at being a criminal, and it’s clear she has no idea what she is doing. Simon even starts speaking in a cartoonish gangster accent out of the side of his mouth when he realizes what she’s up to. He’s somewhat mesmerized and highly curious by the vision in black lace requesting his illegal services, but when she tells him that she wants him to steal the Cellini Venus, his immediate response is a resounding no. Let’s take a moment and appreciate Nicole’s large diamond earrings, lace mask, and eye-makeup. Her lash line and lid have been outlined in thick black liner connecting in an exaggerated cat eye, making her eyes look even larger than normal, and her eyelids are covered in silver sparkles as though coated in diamonds. Naturally, Nicole can’t tell Simon why she wants him to steal the Venus, and he refuses to undertake the insane attempt. Her face falls and she moves to leave, but Simon reconsiders. He likes Nicole. He tells her he will think about it, and they can meet again tomorrow morning for some reconnaissance. He’s not ready to say goodbye to Nicole now that he’s got her attention, though: She’s strictly in it for business and eventually untangles herself from her charming hired thief. He watches her go, gulping down his Scotch as he realizes what he has gotten himself into. The next morning, Nicole and Simon meet at the museum. Nicole has left her lace mask at home. Simon tries to look professional and busy, though he often steals glances at his companion when she’s not looking. Nicole follows Simon around eagerly, but he’s pessimistic about their chances. When he puts on his funny magnifying spectacles to stare at the Venus and her infrared beams, he notices a peculiar resemblance between the Venus and Nicole: I can’t really see it, but Simon does. No one besides Mr. O’Toole can look that debonair and handsome in those glasses. How cute is his dotted tie? Simon explores the place thoroughly, finding a broom cupboard and a back exit, and even conning his way into the guard’s room. Here are our stars taking a break between takes: via: http://audreyhepburnforever.tumblr.com/post/70138743341 Too adorable. After Simon’s reconnaissance is complete, they leave the museum and walk around the manicured museum garden. Fun fact: The museum exteriors were filmed at the Musée Carnavalet in Paris, but the interiors were sets built for the movie. (Thank you to this site and this one for helping me figure out these locations.) Unsurprisingly, Simon has questions: Then Simon suggests that they wait until the Venus is back in the Bonnet home and do a “nice, clean inside job,” or even start with a theft at a small gallery, and “gathering confidence as we go,” work their way up to the museum. But she tells him that she is not stealing the Venus for publicity or a silly adventure–she must do it now, and she can’t tell him why! Look at this lovely pair hanging out on set. It’s a nice view of more Givenchy stockings, too. via: http://filmnoirphotos.blogspot.com/2011/09/on-set-audrey-hepburn.html Nicole and Simon walk around Paris for so long that Nicole accuses him of “working by the mile.” Here they are behind the scenes in a park. Look at O’Toole goofing around with a child actor! Top left: http://onthesetwithaudreyhepburn.tumblr.com/post/58044193470/how-to-steal-a-million-1966-did-you-notice Top right: http://audreykathleenhepburn.tumblr.com/post/64610138199 Nicole is frustrated by Simon’s silence and apparent nonchalance, but he assures her that he is working hard on their problem: The two wind up in Simon’s hotel room with a bag of frumpy clothes, a boomerang, and a bucket. Simon issues an order immediately upon arrival: I just love these two and their back-and-forth! Nicole emerges from the bathroom a changed woman. When she asks why she is wearing this horrific getup, Simon answers, “Well, for one thing, it gives Givenchy a night off!” Love it. It’s a nice reverse My Fair Lady (1964) twist, too; in this film, Hepburn goes from sophisticated aristocrat to frumpy scrubwoman, if only for one evening! Nicole asks Simon what the plan is, and he tells her that there is no plan. He is not going to do the job because it’s crazy and she won’t even give him a good reason! She starts to cry, but he’s not having it! I laugh every time at the “I’m too tough” line, especially because a few moments later he changes his mind, clearly against his better judgment, and tells her to meet him at the museum tomorrow evening. He really likes her! The next evening, Nicole is heading out the door to meet Simon at the appointed time when Davis Leland shows up. She attempts to sneak out of the mansion, but he sees her in a mirror, though he doesn’t realize it is a mirror until he crashes into it. He’s a very effective foil to Simon, that’s for sure! Wyler is known for depth staging and deep focus cinematography (see my review on Roman Holiday for more on that), and he often uses mirrors, as in these shots from Roman Holiday and quite a few in this film: Davis has come to ask Nicole to marry him. He tosses her a Cartier box and settles back for her answer, which probably isn’t what he expected: Leland won’t take no for an answer, so Nicole agrees to marry him and scoots to the museum, arriving quite late. Simon is waiting, and is rendered speechless by Nicole’s explanation: Once in the museum, Simon puts his plan into action. At the point of no return, he asks if Nicole reallywants to go through with it. Yes! she says with conviction. So off they go. Obviously I’m not great at holding back spoilers, but I’m going to show some uncharacteristic restraint and not walk you through the heist moment by moment. Suffice it to say that Simon’s plan uses “psychological warfare” and “normal human reactions,” plus the mundane collection of coins, chalk, a magnet, a boomerang, a bucket, the scrubwoman clothes, pliers, and some tubing. It’s a wonderful, refreshing change from most caper films with their hyper-complicated gadgets and special effects. Plus, no one dies! When the closing bell rings, Nicole and Simon stow away in the broom cupboard beneath the stairs. See what I mean about mirrors? If I knew that I was going to rob a museum, I might not wear a short shift dress, but then I don’t have Givenchy on call. Here is Hepburn’s robbery outfit. Note the double-layer skirt, backwards collar, buttons along the back, and draped pockets beneath the narrow black belt. See what I mean about deceptively simple clothes? It looks basic but there’s a lot going on! It’s very similar to the dress she wears in the opening scenes of the film, so I wish it was something a little different, but, as usual, it’s disgustingly chic. So, Simon and Nicole are stuck in a cupboard beneath the stairs, just like Harry Potter! The guards are none the wiser and the museum is silent and still. Here they are in the film and behind-the-scenes in the tiny closet set. As you can see, Wyler sometimes films the closet with black space on either side. It emphasizes the teeny tiny space of the tall, narrow closet compared to the wide screen 2.35:1 Panavision aspect ratio. Once Simon brilliantly unlocks the closet door, (a feat you can watch here), he occasionally leaves their cozy digs and causes trouble. Nicole puts on the scrubwoman clothes, and things really start happening a few hours into their stay. Nicole is nearly hysterical with worry and fear and tells Simon she had no right to drag him into her problem. But what about the Venus’ technical examinations? Simon asks her. And her eyes get wide. “It’s a fake, isn’t it?” he says. And her eyes get wider: She admits it, and asks him when he figured it out. He says that he knew the Venus was a forgery when she first asked him to steal it. She has a question of her own: And suddenly the closet isn’t so cramped at all! After a respectful cross-dissolve from the kiss to shots of the museum, we return to our newly declared couple to find them relaxing in a warm embrace until Nicole accidentally scratches Simon with her monstrous engagement ring. This brings them to the topic of her fiancé, Davis Leland, “Or is it Leland Davis?” wonders a dazed Nicole between kisses. It reminds me of the fantastic stoop scene in The More the Merrier when Joel McCrea and Jean Arthur calmly and kindly discuss her fiancé and ring while caressing each other! Nicole and Simon’s love fest is interrupted with some of Simon’s mischief, after which he returns unseen to his closet and his love. They kiss as policeman and museum guards scurry about. I shan’t say how, but Simon’s ingenious plan works! He substitutes a drunk guard’s bottle for the Venus. When the museum’s cleaning staff arrives, Nicole attempts to blend in. Her engagement ring flashes amusingly until she turns it around on her finger! There’s an extra bit of comedy watching aristocratic Nicole try to act like a scrubwoman. She has no idea what she is doing, and tries to scrub the oddest things, like tapestries and velvet ropes. Eventually, a guard notices the substitution, and Nicole waits with breath that is bated! The head guard (Jacques Marin, who was also in Charade (1963) with Hepburn) has a spectacular reaction, and soon all hell breaks loose within the museum! Nicole and Simon escape the museum in creative fashion: cut to the next morning! The thieves have a sweet chat over the phone and arrange to meet at the Ritz Bar. Meanwhile, the press have descended upon the Bonnet household, and Monsieur Bonnet gives them exactly what they want, black bows and all. But once they have departed, his fake grief turns to real joy. He and Nicole are saved! Meanwhile, Davis Leland is even more keyed-up than the Bonnets. He wants the Venus, and doesn’t care if it’s “hot or cold!” DeSolnay, who happens to be Leland’s art dealer, discourages him from buying stolen merchandise and sends him to Simon. They meet at the Ritz bar. Simon says he has a few leads and might be able to procure the Venus. He then warns Leland that he must sever any contact with the Bonnet family, as the dangerous criminals Simon suspects of stealing the Venus (ha!) would immediately suspect a trap! Davis whines that he’s engaged to Nicole Bonnet, but decides then and there that he would rather have the Venus. As Leland leaves the bar, he runs into Nicole, who tries to return his ring. Simon watches with undisguised amusement at Leland’s frantic attempts to get away from her. Simon is a clever man, that’s for sure! In one fell swoop he disposed of the Venus and a romantic rival.This scene is also a nice echo of the earlier Ritz bar scene when Simon watched a lace-clad Nicole leave the bar. Nicole is rattled by her encounter with Leland, and she’s even more rattled a moment later when Simon casually admits that the Venus was his first burglary… Simon grabs hold of Nicole and very calmly reveals his true identity. He’s not a burglar at all, but instead is a highly educated, sought-after criminologist and museum security expert who specializes in detecting and tracking down forgeries. Nicole is beyond dismayed and whimpers, “You’re all of that? Then you’re not a burglar?” in tones of immense disappointment and shock. It’s a very funny scene. Poor Nicole is blindsided, but we knew early on that Simon was not really a thief. At that very dramatic moment, Monsieur Bonnet appears at their table. He recognizes this tall, slim, blue-eyed man from his daughter’s description, and guesses, quite correctly, that Simon is the one to thank for the Venus’ theft. They speak in vague terms; when Monsieur Bonnet asks which “girl” Simon intends to keep, Simon very wisely answers, “The real one.” It’s a decision Monsieur Bonnet and Nicole are delighted to hear. Or Nicole would be delighted, if she wasn’t still reeling. Nicole has no idea what to say, but fortunately for her, Simon leaves to take care of some business regarding the Venus. He is gone in a flash: The film ties up the loose ends–no more forgeries for Monsieur Bonnet!–and sends its wonderful leads out into the world to be married. As Nicole and Simon drive away from the Bonnet mansion, the South American gentleman passes them on his way in. Simon asks who it is, and Nicole pauses for just a moment before answering that it is Papa’s cousin. Simon doesn’t believe it for a moment, but he doesn’t seem to care, either: Here they are filming this scene, wearing hard hats for some reason: via: http://audreyhepburnforever.tumblr.com/post/72498962663 And here is Miss Hepburn in her checkered coat and blue swirly hat. It’s lovely up close, but from a distance it looks dull and baggy, in my opinion: Here she is in a publicity photo in a different hat and gloves: via: http://pleasurephoto.wordpress.com/2012/10/26/audrey-hepburn-at-the-studio-de-boulogne-during-the-making-of-how-to-steal-a-million-in-paris-photograph-by-douglas-kirkland-1965/ Whew, so many slim-cut, outrageously chic costumes, and even more clever, outrageously delightful moments! In my opinion, you can’t go wrong with Peter O’Toole and Audrey Hepburn directed by the great William Wyler. Throw in Paris, Givenchy, a clever if outlandish script, and plenty of funny moments, and you’ve got a winner! Style in Film: Audrey Hepburn in ‘How to Steal a Million’ A few actresses had as much influence on the fashion of the fifties and sixties as Audrey Hepburn. And it’s felt today that the items she popularised are still considered essential to every woman’s wardrobe. Because true style has no age. Richard Avedon was one of the people who advised her to emphasize and not hide her distinctive traits like her body, a new, modern model of femininity opposed to the shapely sexiness in vogue at Hollywood at the time, her eye-makeup created by the Italian Alberto De Rossi, thick eyebrows and her natural brown hair, cut short. In How to Steal a Million, as Nicole Bonnet, the daughter of a master art forger, she plays alongside Peter O’Toole, whom she thinks a society burglar, but is in fact a detective specialised in art fraud. It is a delightful lighthearted comedy, with a handsome couple in the leading roles, beautiful decors and clothes, of course. Audrey’s wardrobe was designed by Hubert de Givenchy, her lifelong friend and the French designer who invented minimal fashion – a very clean, essential but sophisticated form of high fashion: these words perfectly describe her clothes in the film. “Givenchy dresses are so beautiful and simple, I felt wonderful in them.” The iconic helmet hat she wears in her first scene with Oliver Goldsmith white sunglasses and a cream skirt suit, one of the several streamlined day suits she wears throughout the film. Audrey sported her new short hair-do in How to Steal a Million. The man who created it was the famous Alexandre of Paris, and he named this style “Coupe Infante ’66”. What a divine pink coat! I could easily name a few designers who were inspired by this cut over the last seasons. All the coats Audrey is wearing in the film are exquisite. I would wear each and every one today and not a single one of them would look not even slightly out-dated. A beautiful wool skirt suit. All the jackets and coats are 3/4 sleeved and the gloves are a must. These gorgeous drop earrings are my favourite piece of jewellery, all by Cartier in the film. The small heels were another Audrey trademark. She didn’t need high heels to be attractive, as Ralph Lauren commented in 1990: “There are two or three people who the public will never forget for their charm and elegance. Audrey Hepburn is number one.” Black chantilly lace dress and jacket, black lace eye mask and that dramatic silver glitter eye shadow (the make-up was once again the creation of Alberto De Rossi). The military style coat, in beautiful navy hue, could not be overlooked as part of such a timeless wardrobe. This one and Yves Saint Laurent’s coat worn by Catherine Deneuve in ‘Belle de Jour’are two of the all-time most beautiful military inspired coats. Again the oversized white sunglasses: one of the many styles Audrey is synonymous with, and three ways of wearing her scarf. Those fabulous sculpted front pockets! And a beautiful orange strap Cartier watch. I usually go for men’s style watches, but I like how feminine and delicate this one is. The hats: another department her wardrobe excels in. Above she’s wearing a pillbox hat with a white-lapel nautical navy (again) suit and black accessories (the double chain strap bag is the one I love the most in the film). Below: another beautiful belted checkered coat. “She had a natural grace, an innate elegance, a dazzling splendor.” Cecil Beaton Audrey had a unique sense of chic that will never be beaten, and her wardrobe in How to Steal a Million is a reflection of the perfect synergy between Givenchy’s elegant lines and her impeccable taste: it felt like they both designed the clothes. Audrey Hepburn Hepburn in 1956 BornAudrey Kathleen Ruston 4 May 1929 Ixelles, Brussels, Belgium Died20 January 1993 (aged 63) Tolochenaz, Vaud, Switzerland Cause of deathAppendiceal cancer Resting placeTolochenaz Cemetery, Tolochenaz, Vaud NationalityBritish Other names Edda van Heemstra Audrey Kathleen Hepburn-Ruston Occupation Actress (1948–1989) Humanitarian (1988–1992) Spouse(s) Mel Ferrer (m. 1954; div. 1968) Andrea Dotti (m. 1969; div. 1982) Partner(s)Robert Wolders (1980–her death) ChildrenSean Hepburn Ferrer (de) Luca Dotti Parent(s) Joseph Victor Anthony Ruston Baroness Ella van Heemstra Relatives Baron Aarnoud van Heemstra (maternal grandfather) Emma Ferrer (granddaughter) Signature Audrey Hepburn (/ˈɔːdri ˈhɛpˌbɜːrn/; born Audrey Kathleen Ruston; 4 May 1929 – 20 January 1993) was a British actress, model, dancer and humanitarian. Recognised as a film and fashion icon, Hepburn was active during Hollywood's Golden Age. She was ranked by the American Film Institute as the third-greatest female screen legend in Golden Age Hollywood and was inducted into the International Best Dressed List Hall of Fame. Born in Ixelles, a district of Brussels, Hepburn spent her childhood between Belgium, England and the Netherlands. In Amsterdam, she studied ballet with Sonia Gaskell before moving to London in 1948, continuing her ballet training with Marie Rambert, and then performing as a chorus girl in West End musical theatre productions. Following minor appearances in several films, Hepburn starred in the 1951 Broadway play Gigi after being spotted by French novelist Colette, on whose work the play was based. She shot to stardom for playing the lead role in Roman Holiday (1953), for which she was the first actress to win an Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award and a BAFTA Awardfor a single performance. That same year, Hepburn won a Tony Award for Best Lead Actress in a Play for her performance in Ondine. She went on to star in a number of successful films, such as Sabrina (1954), The Nun's Story(1959), Breakfast at Tiffany's (1961), Charade (1963), My Fair Lady (1964) and Wait Until Dark (1967), for which she received Academy Award, Golden Globe and BAFTA nominations. Hepburn won three BAFTA Awards for Best British Actress in a Leading Role. In recognition of her film career, she was awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award from BAFTA, the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award, the Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award and the Special Tony Award. She remains one of the 12 people who have won Academy, Emmy, Grammy and Tony Awards. Hepburn appeared in fewer films as her life went on, devoting much of her later life to UNICEF. She had contributed to the organisation since 1954, then worked in some of the poorest communities of Africa, South America and Asia between 1988 and 1992. She was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in recognition of her work as a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador in December 1992. A month later, Hepburn died of appendiceal cancer at her home in Switzerland at the age of 63. Contents [hide] 1Early life 1.1Family and early childhood (1929–1938) 1.2Experiences during World War II (1939–1945) 2Entertainment career 2.1Ballet studies and early acting roles (1945–1952) 2.2Roman Holiday and stardom (1953–1960) 2.3Breakfast at Tiffany's and continued success (1961–1967) 2.4Semi-retirement and final projects (1968–1993) 3Humanitarian career 3.11988–1989 3.21990–1992 3.3Recognition 4Personal life 4.1Marriages, relationships and children 4.2Illness and death 5Legacy 5.1Style icon 6Filmography and stage roles 7Awards, honours, nominations and recognitions 8See also 9References 9.1Notes 9.2Citations 9.3Sources 10Further reading 11External links Early life[edit] Family and early childhood (1929–1938)[edit] Audrey Hepburn was born Audrey Kathleen Ruston or Edda Kathleen Hepburn-Ruston[1] on May 4, 1929 at number 48 Rue Keyenveld in Ixelles, Brussels, Belgium.[2]Her father, Joseph Victor Anthony Ruston (21 November 1889 – 16 October 1980), was a British subject born in Auschitz, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary.[3][a] He was the son of Victor John George Ruston, of British and Austrian descent[4] and Anna Wels, of Austrian descent.[5] In 1923-24, Joseph had been an honorary British consul in Samarang in the Dutch East Indies[6] and prior to his marriage to Hepburn's mother he had been married to Cornelia Bisschop, a Dutch heiress.[3][7] Although born with the surname Ruston, he later double-barrelled his name to the more "aristocratic" Hepburn-Ruston, mistakenly believing himself descended from James Hepburn, third husband of Mary, Queen of Scots.[4][7] Hepburn's mother, Baroness Ella van Heemstra (12 June 1900 – 26 August 1984), was a Dutch noblewoman. She was the daughter of Baron Aarnoud van Heemstra, who served as mayor of Arnhem from 1910 to 1920 and as Governor of Dutch Suriname from 1921 to 1928, and Baroness Elbrig Willemine Henriette van Asbeck (1873–1939).[8] At the age of nineteen, Ella had married Jonkheer Hendrik Gustaaf Adolf Quarles van Ufford, an oil executive based in Batavia, Dutch East Indies, where they subsequently lived.[9] They had two sons, Jonkheer Arnoud Robert Alexander Quarles van Ufford (1920–1979) and Jonkheer Ian Edgar Bruce Quarles van Ufford (1924–2010), before divorcing in 1925.[7][10] Hepburn's parents were married in Batavia in September 1926.[9] At the time, Ruston worked for a trading company, but soon after the marriage, the couple relocated to Europe, where he began working for a loan company. After a year in London, they moved to Brussels, where he had been assigned to open a branch office.[9][11] After three years spent travelling between Brussels, Arnhem, The Hague and London, the family settled in the suburban Brussels municipality of Linkebeek in 1932.[9][12]Hepburn's early childhood was sheltered and privileged.[9] As a result of her multinational background and travelling with her family due to her father's job,[13][b] she learned to speak five languages: Dutch and English from her parents, and later varying degrees of French, Spanish, and Italian. In the mid-1930s, Hepburn's parents recruited and collected donations for the British Union of Fascists.[14] Joseph left the family abruptly in 1935 and moved to London, where he became more deeply involved in Fascist activity and never visited his daughter abroad.[15] Hepburn later professed that her father's departure was "the most traumatic event of my life".[9][16] That same year, her mother moved with Hepburn to her family's estate in Arnhem. Sometime in 1937, Ella and Hepburn moved to Kent, England, where Hepburn was educated at a small independent school in Elham.[17][18] Hepburn's parents officially divorced in 1938. In the 1960s, Hepburn renewed contact with her father after locating him in Dublin through the Red Cross; although he remained emotionally detached, Hepburn supported him financially until his death.[19] Experiences during World War II (1939–1945)[edit] After Britain declared war on Germany in September 1939, Hepburn's mother relocated her daughter back to Arnhem in the hope that, as during the First World War, the Netherlands would remain neutral and be spared a German attack. While there, Hepburn attended the Arnhem Conservatory from 1939 to 1945. She had begun taking ballet lessons during her last years at boarding school, and continued training in Arnhem under the tutelage of Winja Marova, becoming her "star pupil".[9] After the Germans invaded the Netherlands in 1940, Hepburn used the name Edda van Heemstra, because an "English-sounding" name was considered dangerous during the German occupation. Her family was profoundly affected by the occupation, with Hepburn later stating that "had we known that we were going to be occupied for five years, we might have all shot ourselves. We thought it might be over next week...six months...next year...that's how we got through".[9] In 1942, her uncle, Otto van Limburg Stirum (husband of her mother's older sister, Miesje), was executed in retaliation for an act of sabotage by the resistance movement; while he had not been involved in the act, he was targeted due to his family's prominence in Dutch society.[9] Hepburn's half-brother Ian was deported to Berlin to work in a German labour camp, and her other half-brother Alex went into hiding to avoid the same fate.[9] "We saw young men put against the wall and shot, and they'd close the street and then open it and you could pass by again...Don't discount anything awful you hear or read about the Nazis. It's worse than you could ever imagine."[9] —Hepburn on the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands After her uncle's death, Hepburn, Ella and Miesje left Arnhem to live with her grandfather, Baron Aarnoud van Heemstra, in nearby Velp.[9] Around that time Hepburn performed silent dance performances in order to raise money for the Dutch resistance effort.[20] It was long believed that she participated in the Dutch resistance itself,[9] but in 2016 the Airborne Museum 'Hartenstein' reported that after extensive research it had not found any evidence of such activities.[21] In addition to other traumatic events, she witnessed the transportation of Dutch Jews to concentration camps, later stating that "more than once I was at the station seeing trainloads of Jews being transported, seeing all these faces over the top of the wagon. I remember, very sharply, one little boy standing with his parents on the platform, very pale, very blond, wearing a coat that was much too big for him, and he stepped on the train. I was a child observing a child."[22] After the Allied landing on D-Day, living conditions grew worse and Arnhem was subsequently heavily damaged during Operation Market Garden. During the Dutch famine that followed in the winter of 1944, the Germans blocked the resupply routes of the Dutch people's already-limited food and fuel supplies as retaliation for railway strikes that were held to hinder German occupation. Like others, Hepburn's family resorted to making flour out of tulip bulbs to bake cakes and biscuits;[23][24] she developed acute anemia, respiratory problems and edema as a result of malnutrition.[25] The van Heemstra family was also seriously financially affected by the occupation, during which many of their properties, including their principal estate in Arnhem, were badly damaged or destroyed.[26] Entertainment career[edit] Ballet studies and early acting roles (1945–1952)[edit] After the war ended in 1945, Hepburn moved with her mother and siblings to Amsterdam, where she began ballet training under Sonia Gaskell, a leading figure in Dutch ballet, and Russian Olga Tarassova.[27] As the family's fortunes had been lost during the war, Ella supported them by working as a cook and housekeeper for a wealthy family.[28] Hepburn made her film debut in 1948, playing an air stewardess in Dutch in Seven Lessons, an educational travel film made by Charles van der Linden and Henry Josephson.[29] Later that year, Hepburn moved to London to take up a ballet scholarship with Ballet Rambert, which was then based in Notting Hill. [30][c] She supported herself with part-time work as a model, and dropped "Ruston" from her surname. After she was told by Rambert that despite her talent, her height and weak constitution (the after-effect of wartime malnutrition) would make the status of prima ballerina unattainable, she decided to concentrate on acting.[31][32][33] While Ella worked in menial jobs to support them, Hepburn appeared as a chorus girl[34] in the West End musical theatre revues High Button Shoes (1948) at the London Hippodrome, and Cecil Landeau's Sauce Tartare (1949) and Sauce Piquante (1950) at the Cambridge Theatre. During her theatrical work, she took elocution lessons with actor Felix Aylmer to develop her voice.[35] After being spotted by a casting director while performing in Sauce Piquante, Hepburn was registered as a freelance actress with the Associated British Picture Corporation. She appeared in the BBC Teleplay The Silent Village,[36] as well as minor roles in the 1951 films One Wild Oat, Laughter in Paradise, Young Wives' Tale and The Lavender Hill Mob, before being cast in her first major supporting role in Thorold Dickinson's The Secret People (1952), in which she played a prodigious ballerina, performing all of her own dancing sequences.[37] Hepburn was then offered a small role in a film being shot in both English and French, Monte Carlo Baby (French: Nous Irons à Monte Carlo, 1952), which was filmed in Monte Carlo. Coincidentally, French novelist Colette was at the Hôtel de Paris in Monte Carlo during the filming, and decided to cast Hepburn in the title role in the Broadway play Gigi.[38] Hepburn went into rehearsals having never spoken on stage and required private coaching.[39] When Gigi opened at the Fulton Theatre on 24 November 1951, she received praise for her performance, despite criticism that the stage version was inferior to the French film adaptation.[40] Life called her a "hit",[40] while The New York Times stated that "her quality is so winning and so right that she is the success of the evening".[39] She also received a Theatre World Award for the role.[41] The play ran for 219 performances, closing on 31 May 1952,[41] before going on tour which began 13 October 1952 in Pittsburgh and visited Cleveland, Chicago, Detroit, Washington D.C. and Los Angeles before closing on 16 May 1953 in San Francisco.[9] Roman Holiday and stardom (1953–1960)[edit] Hepburn in a screen testfor Roman Holiday (1953) which was also used as promotional material Hepburn had her first starring role in Roman Holiday (1953), playing Princess Ann, a European princess who, while escaping the reins of royalty, falls in love with an American newsman (Gregory Peck). Its producers initially wanted Elizabeth Taylor for the role, but director William Wyler was so impressed by Hepburn's screen test that he cast her instead. Wyler later commented, "She had everything I was looking for: charm, innocence, and talent. She also was very funny. She was absolutely enchanting and we said, 'That's the girl!'"[42] Originally, the film was to have had only Gregory Peck's name above its title, with "Introducing Audrey Hepburn" beneath in smaller font. However, Peck suggested to Wyler that he elevate her to equal billing so that her name appeared before the title and in type as large as his: "You've got to change that because she'll be a big star and I'll look like a big jerk."[43] The film was a box office success, and Hepburn gained critical acclaim for her portrayal, unexpectedly winning an Academy Award for Best Actress, a BAFTA Award for Best British Actress in a Leading Role, and a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama in 1953. In his review in The New York Times, A. H. Weiler wrote: "Although she is not precisely a newcomer to films Audrey Hepburn, the British actress who is being starred for the first time as Princess Anne, is a slender, elfin and wistful beauty, alternately regal and childlike in her profound appreciation of newly-found, simple pleasures and love. Although she bravely smiles her acknowledgement of the end of that affair, she remains a pitifully lonely figure facing a stuffy future."[44] Hepburn with William Holden in the film Sabrina(1954) Hepburn was signed to a seven-picture contract with Paramount with 12 months in between films to allow her time for stage work.[45] She was featured on 7 September 1953 cover of TIME magazine, and also became noted for her personal style.[46] Following her success in Roman Holiday, Hepburn starred in Billy Wilder's romantic Cinderella-story comedy Sabrina (1954), in which wealthy brothers (Humphrey Bogart and William Holden) compete for the affections of their chauffeur's innocent daughter (Hepburn). For her performance, she was nominated for the 1954 Academy Award for Best Actress while winning the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role the same year. Bosley Crowther of The New York Timesstated that she was "a young lady of extraordinary range of sensitive and moving expressions within such a frail and slender frame. She is even more luminous as the daughter and pet of the servants' hall than she was as a princess last year, and no more than that can be said."[47] Hepburn also returned to the stage in 1954, playing a water spirit who falls in love with a human in the fantasy play Ondine on Broadway. A New York Times critic commented that "somehow Miss Hepburn is able to translate [its intangibles] into the language of the theatre without artfulness or precociousness. She gives a pulsing performance that is all grace and enchantment, disciplined by an instinct for the realities of the stage". Her performance won her the 1954 Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Play the same year she won the Academy Award for Roman Holiday, making her one of three actresses to receive the Academy and Tony Awards for Best Actress in the same year (the other two are Shirley Booth and Ellen Burstyn).[48] During the production, Hepburn and her co-star Mel Ferrer began a relationship, and were married on 25 September 1954 in Switzerland.[49] Hepburn and Mel Ferrer on the set of War and Peace Although she appeared in no new film releases in 1955, Hepburn received the Golden Globe for World Film Favorite that year.[50] Having become one of Hollywood's most popular box-office attractions, she went on to star in a series of successful films during the remainder of the decade, including her BAFTA- and Golden Globe-nominated role as Natasha Rostova in War and Peace (1956), an adaptation of the Tolstoy novel set during the Napoleonic wars, starring Henry Fonda and her husband Mel Ferrer. In 1957, she exhibited her dancing abilities in her debut musical film, Funny Face (1957) wherein Fred Astaire, a fashion photographer, discovers a beatnik bookstore clerk (Hepburn) who, lured by a free trip to Paris, becomes a beautiful model. The same year Hepburn starred in another romantic comedy, Love in the Afternoon, alongside Gary Cooper and Maurice Chevalier. Hepburn with Anthony Perkins in the film Green Mansions (1959) Hepburn played Sister Luke in The Nun's Story (1959), which focuses on the character's struggle to succeed as a nun, alongside co-star Peter Finch. The role produced a third Academy Award nomination for Hepburn and earned her a second BAFTA Award. A review in Variety read, "Hepburn has her most demanding film role, and she gives her finest performance", while Films in Review stated that her performance "will forever silence those who have thought her less an actress than a symbol of the sophisticated child/woman. Her portrayal of Sister Luke is one of the great performances of the screen."[51] Reportedly, she spent hours in convents and with members of the Church to bring truth to her portrayal, stating that she "gave more time, energy and thought to this than to any of my previous screen performances."[52] Following The Nun's Story, Hepburn received a lukewarm reception for starring with Anthony Perkins in the romantic adventure Green Mansions (1959), in which she played Rima, a jungle girl who falls in love with a Venezuelan traveller,[53] and The Unforgiven (1960), her only western film, in which she appeared opposite Burt Lancaster and Lillian Gish in a story of racism against a group of Native Americans.[54] Breakfast at Tiffany's and continued success (1961–1967)[edit] Hepburn as Holly Golightly in Breakfast at Tiffany's(1961), wearing the familiar little black dress by Givenchyand the Roger Scemamanecklace Hepburn next starred as New York call girl Holly Golightly in Blake Edwards's Breakfast at Tiffany's (1961), a film loosely based on the Truman Capote novella of the same name. Capote disapproved of many changes that were made to sanitise the story for the film adaptation, and would have preferred Marilyn Monroe to have been cast in the role, although he also stated that Hepburn "did a terrific job".[55] The character is considered one of the best-known in American cinema, and a defining role for Hepburn.[56] The dress she wears during the opening credits is considered an icon of the twentieth century and perhaps the most famous "little black dress" of all time.[57][58][59][60] Hepburn stated that the role was "the jazziest of my career"[61] yet admitted: "I'm an introvert. Playing the extroverted girl was the hardest thing I ever did."[62] She was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance. Shirley MacLaine and Hepburn in the trailer for The Children's Hour(1961) The same year, Hepburn also starred in William Wyler's controversial drama The Children's Hour (1961), in which she and Shirley MacLaine played teachers whose lives become troubled after a student accuses them of being lesbians.[56] Due to the social mores of the time, the film and Hepburn's performance went largely unmentioned, both critically and commercially. Bosley Crowther of The New York Times opined that the film "is not too well acted" with the exception of Hepburn who "gives the impression of being sensitive and pure" of its "muted theme",[63] while Variety magazine also complimented Hepburn's "soft sensitivity, mar-velous [sic] projection and emotional understatement" adding that Hepburn and MacLaine "beautifully complement each other".[64] With Cary Grant in Charade (1963) Hepburn next appeared opposite Cary Grant in the comic thriller Charade (1963), playing a young widow pursued by several men who chase the fortune stolen by her murdered husband. The 59-year-old Grant, who had previously withdrawn from the starring male lead roles in Roman Holiday and Sabrina, was sensitive about his age difference with 34-year-old Hepburn, and was uncomfortable about the romantic interplay. To satisfy his concerns, the filmmakers agreed to change the screenplay so that Hepburn's character romantically pursued his.[65] The film turned out to be a positive experience for him, stating that "All I want for Christmas is another picture with Audrey Hepburn."[66] The role earned Hepburn her third and final competitive BAFTA Award and another Golden Globe nomination. Critic Bosley Crowther was less kind to her performance, stating that "Hepburn is cheerfully committed to a mood of how-nuts-can-you-be in an obviously comforting assortment of expensive Givenchy costumes."[67] Hepburn reteamed with her Sabrina co-star William Holden in Paris When It Sizzles (1964), a screwball comedy in which she played the young assistant of a Hollywood screenwriter, who aids his writer's block by acting out his fantasies of possible plots. Its production was troubled by a number of problems. Holden unsuccessfully tried to rekindle a romance with the now-married Hepburn, and his alcoholism was beginning to affect his work. After principal photography began, she demanded the dismissal of cinematographer Claude Renoir after seeing what she felt were unflattering dailies.[68] Superstitious, she also insisted on dressing room 55 because that was her lucky number and required that Givenchy, her long-time designer, be given a credit in the film for her perfume.[68] Dubbed "marshmallow-weight hokum" by Variety upon its release in April,[69] the film was "uniformly panned"[68] but critics were kinder to Hepburn's performance, describing her as "a refreshingly individual creature in an era of the exaggerated curve".[69] Hepburn with cinematographer Harry Stradling, Jr. on the set of My Fair Lady Hepburn's second film of 1964 was George Cukor's film adaptation of the stage musical My Fair Lady, released in November. Soundstage wrote that "not since Gone with the Wind has a motion picture created such universal excitement as My Fair Lady",[48] yet Hepburn's casting in the role of Cockney flower girl Eliza Doolittlesparked controversy. Julie Andrews, who had originated the role in the stage show, had not been offered the part because producer Jack L. Warner thought Hepburn or Elizabeth Taylor were more "bankable" propositions. Hepburn initially asked Warner to give the role to Andrews but was eventually cast. Further friction was created when, although non-singer Hepburn had sung in Funny Face and had lengthy vocal preparation for the role in My Fair Lady, her vocals were dubbed by Marni Nixon as the songs were not written for her vocal range.[70][71] Hepburn was initially upset and walked off the set when informed.[d] The press further played up the fabricated rivalry between Hepburn and Andrews, when the latter won an Academy Award for Mary Poppins at the 37th Academy Awards (1964) but Hepburn was not even nominated, despite My Fair Lady's accumulation of eight out of a possible twelve awards. Regardless, critics greatly applauded Hepburn's "exquisite" performance.[71] Crowther wrote that "the happiest thing about [My Fair Lady] is that Audrey Hepburn superbly justifies the decision of Jack Warner to get her to play the title role."[70] Gene Ringgold of Soundstage also commented that "Audrey Hepburn is magnificent. She is Eliza for the ages",[48] while adding, "Everyone agreed that if Julie Andrews was not to be in the film, Audrey Hepburn was the perfect choice."[48] As the decade carried on, Hepburn appeared in an assortment of genres including the heist comedy How to Steal a Million (1966) where she played the daughter of a famous art collector, whose collection consists entirely of forgeries. Fearing her father's exposure, she sets out to steal one of his priceless statues with the help of a man played by Peter O'Toole. It was followed by two films in 1967. The first was Two for the Road, a non-linear and innovative British dramedy that traces the course of a couple's troubled marriage. Director Stanley Donen said that Hepburn was more free and happy than he had ever seen her, and he credited that to co-star Albert Finney.[72] The second, Wait Until Dark, is a suspense thriller in which Hepburn demonstrated her acting range by playing the part of a terrorised blind woman. Filmed on the brink of her divorce, it was a difficult film for her, as husband Mel Ferrer was its producer. She lost fifteen pounds under the stress, but she found solace in co-star Richard Crenna and director Terence Young. Hepburn earned her fifth and final competitive Academy Award nomination for Best Actress; Bosley Crowther affirmed, "Hepburn plays the poignant role, the quickness with which she changes and the skill with which she manifests terror attract sympathy and anxiety to her and give her genuine solidity in the final scenes."[73] Semi-retirement and final projects (1968–1993)[edit] After 1967, Hepburn chose to devote more time to her family and acted only occasionally in the following decades. She attempted a comeback in 1976, playing Maid Marian in the period piece Robin and Marian with Sean Connery co-starring as Robin Hood, which was moderately successful. In 1979, Hepburn reunited with director Terence Young in the production of Bloodline, sharing top-billing with Ben Gazzara, James Mason and Romy Schneider. The film, an international intrigue amid the jet-set, was a critical and box-office failure. Hepburn's last starring role in a feature film was opposite Gazzara in the comedy They All Laughed (1981), directed by Peter Bogdanovich. The film was overshadowed by the murder of one of its stars, Dorothy Stratten, and received only a limited release. Six years later, Hepburn co-starred with Robert Wagner in a made-for-television caper film, Love Among Thieves (1987). After finishing her last motion picture role in 1988—a cameo appearance as an angel in Steven Spielberg's Always—Hepburn completed only two more entertainment-related projects, both critically acclaimed. Gardens of the World with Audrey Hepburn was a PBS documentary series, which was filmed on location in seven countries in the spring and summer of 1990. A one-hour special preceded it in March 1991, and the series itself began airing the day after her death, 21 January 1993. For the debut episode, Hepburn was posthumously awarded the 1993 Emmy Award for Outstanding Individual Achievement – Informational Programming. The other project was a spoken word album, Audrey Hepburn's Enchanted Tales, which features readings of classic children's stories and was recorded in 1992. It earned her a posthumous Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children.[74] Humanitarian career[edit] In the 1950s, Hepburn narrated two radio programmes for UNICEF, re-telling children's stories of war.[75] In 1989, Hepburn was appointed a Goodwill Ambassador of UNICEF. On her appointment, she stated that she was grateful for receiving international aid after enduring the German occupation as a child, and wanted to show her gratitude to the organisation.[76] 1988–1989[edit] Hepburn's first field mission for UNICEF was to Ethiopia in 1988. She visited an orphanage in Mek'ele that housed 500 starving children and had UNICEF send food. Of the trip, she said, "I have a broken heart. I feel desperate. I can't stand the idea that two million people are in imminent danger of starving to death, many of them children, [and] not because there isn't tons of food sitting in the northern port of Shoa. It can't be distributed. Last spring, Red Cross and UNICEF workers were ordered out of the northern provinces because of two simultaneous civil wars... I went into rebel country and saw mothers and their children who had walked for ten days, even three weeks, looking for food, settling onto the desert floor into makeshift camps where they may die. Horrible. That image is too much for me. The 'Third World' is a term I don't like very much, because we're all one world. I want people to know that the largest part of humanity is suffering."[77] In August 1988 Hepburn went to Turkey on an immunisation campaign. She called Turkey "the loveliest example" of UNICEF's capabilities. Of the trip, she said "the army gave us their trucks, the fishmongers gave their wagons for the vaccines, and once the date was set, it took ten days to vaccinate the whole country. Not bad."[78]In October, Hepburn went to South America. Of her experiences in Venezuela and Ecuador, Hepburn told the United States Congress, "I saw tiny mountain communities, slums, and shantytowns receive water systems for the first time by some miracle – and the miracle is UNICEF. I watched boys build their own schoolhouse with bricks and cement provided by UNICEF." Hepburn toured Central America in February 1989, and met with leaders in Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala. In April, she visited Sudan with Wolders as part of a mission called "Operation Lifeline". Because of civil war, food from aid agencies had been cut off. The mission was to ferry food to southern Sudan. Hepburn said, "I saw but one glaring truth: These are not natural disasters but man-made tragedies for which there is only one man-made solution – peace."[78] In October 1989, Hepburn and Wolders went to Bangladesh. John Isaac, a UN photographer, said, "Often the kids would have flies all over them, but she would just go hug them. I had never seen that. Other people had a certain amount of hesitation, but she would just grab them. Children would just come up to hold her hand, touch her – she was like the Pied Piper."[9] 1990–1992[edit] In October 1990 Hepburn went to Vietnam, in an effort to collaborate with the government for national UNICEF-supported immunisation and clean water programmes. In September 1992, four months before she died, Hepburn went to Somalia. Calling it "apocalyptic", she said, "I walked into a nightmare. I have seen famine in Ethiopia and Bangladesh, but I have seen nothing like this – so much worse than I could possibly have imagined. I wasn't prepared for this."[78][79] Though scarred by what she had seen, Hepburn still had hope. "Taking care of children has nothing to do with politics. I think perhaps with time, instead of there being a politicisation of humanitarian aid, there will be a humanisation of politics." Recognition[edit] United States president George H. W. Bush presented Hepburn with the Presidential Medal of Freedom in recognition of her work with UNICEF, and the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences posthumously awarded her the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award for her contribution to humanity.[80][81] In 2002, at the United Nations Special Session on Children, UNICEF honoured Hepburn's legacy of humanitarian work by unveiling a statue, "The Spirit of Audrey", at UNICEF's New York headquarters. Her service for children is also recognised through the US Fund for UNICEF's Audrey Hepburn Society.[82][83] Personal life[edit] Marriages, relationships and children[edit] With first husband Mel Ferrer in Mayerling In 1952, Hepburn became engaged to James Hanson,[84] whom she had known since her early days in London. She called it "love at first sight", but after having her wedding dress fitted and the date set, she decided the marriage would not work because the demands of their careers would keep them apart most of the time.[85] She issued a public statement about her decision, saying "When I get married, I want to be really married".[86] In the early 1950s, she also dated future Hair producer Michael Butler.[87] At a cocktail party hosted by mutual friend Gregory Peck, Hepburn met American actor Mel Ferrer, and suggested that they star together in a play.[48][48][88] The meeting led them to collaborate in Ondine, during which they began a relationship. Eight months later, on 25 September 1954, they were married in Bürgenstock, Switzerland,[89] while preparing to star together in the film War and Peace(1955). Hepburn had two miscarriages, one in March 1955,[90] and another in 1959, after she fell from a horse during the filming of The Unforgiven (1960). When she became pregnant for the third time, she took a year off work to prevent miscarriage; their son, Sean Hepburn Ferrer, was born on 17 July 1960. She had two more miscarriages in 1965 and 1967.[91] Hepburn and Andrea Dotti Despite the insistence from gossip columns that their marriage would not last, Hepburn claimed that she and Ferrer were inseparable and happy together, though she admitted that he had a bad temper.[92] Ferrer was rumoured to be too controlling, and had been referred to by others as being her "Svengali" – an accusation that Hepburn laughed off.[93] William Holden was quoted as saying, "I think Audrey allows Mel to think he influences her." After a 14-year marriage, the couple divorced in 1968.[94] President Ronald Reagan with Hepburn and Robert Wolders in 1981 Hepburn met her second husband, Italian psychiatrist Andrea Dotti, on a Mediterraneancruise with friends in June 1968. She believed she would have more children and possibly stop working. They married on 18 January 1969; their son, Luca Dotti, was born on 8 February 1970. While pregnant with Luca in 1969, Hepburn was more careful, resting for months before delivering the baby via caesarean section. She wanted to have a third child, but had another miscarriage in 1974.[95] Dotti was unfaithful and she had a romantic relationship with actor Ben Gazzara during the filming of the 1979 movie Bloodline.[96] The Dotti-Hepburn marriage lasted thirteen years and was dissolved in 1982.[97] From 1980 until her death, Hepburn was in a relationship with Dutch actor Robert Wolders,[24] the widower of actress Merle Oberon. She had met Wolders through a friend during the later years of her second marriage. In 1989, she called the nine years she had spent with him the happiest years of her life, and stated that she considered them married, just not officially.[98] Illness and death[edit] Hepburn's grave in Tolochenaz, Switzerland Upon returning from Somalia to Switzerland in late September 1992, Hepburn began suffering from abdominal pain. While initial medical tests in Switzerland had inconclusive results, a laparoscopy performed at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles in early November revealed a rare form of abdominal cancer belonging to a group of cancers known as pseudomyxoma peritonei.[99] Having grown slowly over several years, the cancer had metastasised as a thin coating over her small intestine. After surgery, Hepburn began chemotherapy.[100] Hepburn and her family returned home to Switzerland to celebrate her last Christmas. As she was still recovering from surgery, she was unable to fly on commercial aircraft. Her longtime friend, fashion designer Hubert de Givenchy, arranged for socialite Rachel Lambert "Bunny" Mellon to send her private Gulfstream jet, filled with flowers, to take Hepburn from Los Angeles to Geneva. She spent her last days in hospice care at her home in Tolochenaz, Vaud and was occasionally well enough to take walks in her garden, but gradually became more confined to bedrest.[101] On the evening of 20 January 1993, Hepburn died in her sleep at home. After her death, Gregory Peck went on camera and tearfully recited her favourite poem, "Unending Love" by Rabindranath Tagore.[102] Funeral services were held at the village church of Tolochenaz on 24 January 1993. Maurice Eindiguer, the same pastor who wed Hepburn and Mel Ferrer and baptised her son Sean in 1960, presided over her funeral, while Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan of UNICEF delivered a eulogy. Many family members and friends attended the funeral, including her sons, partner Robert Wolders, half-brother Ian Quarles van Ufford, ex-husbands Andrea Dotti and Mel Ferrer, Hubert de Givenchy, executives of UNICEF, and fellow actors Alain Delon and Roger Moore.[103] Flower arrangements were sent to the funeral by Gregory Peck, Elizabeth Taylor, and the Dutch royal family.[104] Later on the same day, Hepburn was interred at the Tolochenaz Cemetery.[105] In her will, she appointed her two sons as co-equal heirs to her estate, subject to various bequests of her most precious jewels to her closest family and friends. To Robert Wolders, her long-time companion, she left two silver candlesticks which were worth about 500 CHF (Swiss Francs) at the time (1993). Hubert de Givenchy was named executor of her estate, along with her two Swiss attorneys.[106] Legacy[edit] A shoe tree owned by Hepburn in the Salvatore Ferragamo Museum "How shall I sum up my life? I think I've been particularly lucky." — Audrey Hepburn[107] Audrey Hepburn's legacy has endured long after her death. The American Film Institute named Hepburn third among the Greatest Female Stars of All Time. She is one of few entertainers who have won Academy, Emmy, Grammy and Tony Awards. She won a record three BAFTA Awards for Best British Actress in a Leading Role. In her last years, she remained a visible presence in the film world. She received a tribute from the Film Society of Lincoln Center in 1991 and was a frequent presenter at the Academy Awards. She received the BAFTA Lifetime Achievement Award in 1992. She was the recipient of numerous posthumous awards including the 1993 Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Awardand competitive Grammy and Emmy Awards. She has been the subject of many biographies since her death including the 2000 dramatisation of her life titled The Audrey Hepburn Story which starred Jennifer Love Hewitt and Emmy Rossum as the older and younger Hepburn respectively.[108] In January 2009, Hepburn was named on The Times’ list of the top 10 British actresses of all time.[109] Audrey Hepburn's Star on Hollywood Walk of Fame. Hepburn's image is widely used in advertising campaigns across the world. In Japan, a series of commercials used colourised and digitally enhanced clips of Hepburn in Roman Holiday to advertise Kirin black tea. In the United States, Hepburn was featured in a 2006 Gap commercial which used clips of her dancing from Funny Face, set to AC/DC's "Back in Black", with the tagline "It's Back – The Skinny Black Pant". To celebrate its "Keep it Simple" campaign, the Gap made a sizeable donation to the Audrey Hepburn Children's Fund.[110] In 2012, Hepburn was among the British cultural icons selected by artist Sir Peter Blake to appear in a new version of his most famous artwork – the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album cover – to celebrate the British cultural figures of his life that he most admires.[111] In 2013, a computer-manipulated representation of Hepburn was used in a television advert for the British chocolate bar Galaxy.[112][113] On 4 May 2014, Google featured a doodle on its homepage on what would have been Hepburn's 85th birthday.[114] Audrey Hepburn wax figure at Madame Tussauds Vienna Sean Ferrer founded the Audrey Hepburn Children's Fund[115] in memory of his mother shortly after her death. The US Fund for UNICEF also founded the Audrey Hepburn Society:[116] chaired by Luca Dotti, it celebrates UNICEF's biggest donors and has raised almost US$100,000,000 to date. Dotti also became patron of the Pseudomyxoma Survivor charity, dedicated to providing support to patients of the rare cancer Hepburn suffered from, pseudomyxoma peritonei,[117] and the rare disease ambassador since 2014 and for 2015 on behalf of European Organisation for Rare Diseases.[118] Style icon[edit] Hepburn with a short hair style and wearing one of her signature looks: black turtleneck, slim black trousers and ballet flats Hepburn was noted for her fashion choices and distinctive look, to the extent that journalist Mark Tungate has described her as a recognisable brand.[119] When she first rose to stardom in Roman Holiday (1953), she was seen as an alternative feminine ideal that appealed more to women than to men, in comparison to the curvy and more sexual Grace Kelly and Elizabeth Taylor.[120][121] With her short hair style, thick eyebrows, slim body and "gamine" looks, she presented a look which young women found easier to emulate than those of more sexual film stars.[122] In 1954, fashion photographer Cecil Beaton declared Hepburn the "public embodiment of our new feminine ideal" in Vogue, and wrote that "Nobody ever looked like her before World War II ... Yet we recognise the rightness of this appearance in relation to our historical needs. The proof is that thousands of imitations have appeared."[121] The magazine and its British version frequently reported on her style throughout the following decade.[123] Alongside model Twiggy, Hepburn has been cited as one of the key public figures who made being very slim fashionable.[122] Added to the International Best Dressed List in 1961, Hepburn was associated with a minimalistic style, usually wearing clothes with simple silhouettes which emphasised her slim body, monochromatic colours, and occasional statement accessories.[124] In the late 1950s, Audrey Hepburn popularised plain black leggings.[125] Academic Rachel Moseley describes the combination of "slim black trousers, flat ballet-style pumps and a fine black jersey" as one of her signature looks alongside little black dresses, noting that this style was new at the time when women still wore skirts and high heels more often than trousers and flat shoes.[122] With George Peppard in Breakfast at Tiffany's (1961) With Cary Grant in Charade (1963) Hepburn was in particular associated with French fashion designer Hubert de Givenchy, who was first hired to design her on-screen wardrobe for her second Hollywood film, Sabrina (1954), when she was still unknown as a film actor and he a young couturier just starting his fashion house.[126] Although initially disappointed that "Miss Hepburn" was not Katharine Hepburn as he had mistakenly thought, Givenchy and Hepburn formed a lifelong friendship.[126][127] She became his muse,[126][127] and the two became so closely associated with each other that academic Jayne Sheridan has stated "we might ask 'Did Audrey Hepburn create Givenchy or was it the other way around?'".[128] In addition to Sabrina, Givenchy designed her costumes for Love in the Afternoon (1957), Breakfast at Tiffany's (1961), Funny Face (1957), Charade (1963), Paris When It Sizzles (1964) and How to Steal a Million (1966), as well as clothed her off screen.[126] According to Moseley, fashion plays an unusually central role in many of Hepburn's films, stating that "the costume is not tied to the character, functioning 'silently' in the mise-en-scène, but as 'fashion' becomes an attraction in the aesthetic in its own right".[129] Hepburn herself stated that Givenchy "gave me a look, a kind, a silhouette. He has always been the best and he stayed the best. Because he kept the spare style that I love. What is more beautiful than a simple sheath made an extraordinary way in a special fabric, and just two earrings?"[130] She also became the face of Givenchy's first perfume, L'Interdit, in 1957.[131] In addition to her partnership with Givenchy, Hepburn was credited with boosting the sales of Burberry trench coats when she wore one in Breakfast at Tiffany's, and was associated with Italian footwear brand Tod's.[132] With Gregory Peck in Roman Holiday (1953) In her private life, Hepburn preferred to wear casual and comfortable clothes, contrary to the haute couture she wore on screen and at public events.[133] Despite being admired for her beauty, she never considered herself attractive, stating in a 1959 interview that "you can even say that I hated myself at certain periods. I was too fat, or maybe too tall, or maybe just plain too ugly... you can say my definiteness stems from underlying feelings of insecurity and inferiority. I couldn't conquer these feelings by acting indecisive. I found the only way to get the better of them was by adopting a forceful, concentrated drive."[134] In 1989, she stated that "my look is attainable ... Women can look like Audrey Hepburn by flipping out their hair, buying the large glasses and the little sleeveless dresses."[124] Hepburn's influence as a style icon continues several decades after the height of her acting career in the 1950s and 1960s. Moseley notes that especially after her death in 1993, she became increasingly admired, with magazines frequently advising readers on how to get her look and fashion designers using her as inspiration.[135][122] In 2004, Hepburn was named the "most beautiful woman of all time"[136] and "most beautiful woman of the 20th century"[137] in polls by Evian and QVC respectively, and in 2015, was voted "the most stylish Brit of all time" in a poll commissioned by Samsung.[138] Her film costumes fetch large sums of money in auctions: one of the "little black dresses" designed by Givenchy for Breakfast at Tiffany's was sold by Christie's for a record sum of £467,200 in 2006.[139][e] Hepburn, c. 1956 On 19 April 2015 a robot called Sophia, modelled after Hepburn, was activated.[143][144] Peter O'Toole Peter O'Toole as T. E. Lawrence in Lawrence of Arabia (1962) BornPeter Seamus O'Toole[1] 2 August 1932 Disputed: either Connemara, County Galway, Ireland or Leeds, Yorkshire, England Died14 December 2013 (aged 81) St John's Wood, London, England NationalityDisputed Alma materRoyal Academy of Dramatic Art OccupationActor, author Years active1954–2012 Height6 ft 2 in (188 cm) Spouse(s)Siân Phillips (m. 1959; div. 1979) Partner(s)Karen Brown (1982-1988) Children3; including Kate O'Toole Peter Seamus O'Toole [1] (/oʊˈtuːl/; 2 August 1932 – 14 December 2013) was a British stage and film actor of Irish descent. He attended the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and began working in the theatre, gaining recognition as a Shakespearean actor at the Bristol Old Vic and with the English Stage Company before making his film debut in 1959. He achieved international recognition playing T. E. Lawrence in Lawrence of Arabia (1962) for which he received his first nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor. He was nominated for this award another seven times – for Becket(1964), The Lion in Winter (1968), Goodbye, Mr. Chips (1969), The Ruling Class (1972), The Stunt Man (1980), My Favorite Year (1982), and Venus (2006) – and holds the record for the most Academy Award nominations for acting without a win. In 2002, O'Toole was awarded the Academy Honorary Award for his career achievements.[2] He was additionally the recipient of four Golden Globe Awards, one British Academy Film Award and one Primetime Emmy Award. Contents [hide] 1Early life 2Career 3Personal life 4Death 5Filmography 6Stage appearances 6.11955–58 Bristol Old Vic 6.21959 Royal Court Theatre 6.31960 Royal Shakespeare Company, Stratford 6.41963 National Theatre 6.51963–65 6.61966 Gaiety Theatre, Dublin 6.71969 Abbey Theatre, Dublin 6.81973–74 Bristol Old Vic 6.91978 Toronto, Washington and Chicago 6.101980–99 7Books authored 8Awards 8.1Academy Award nominations 9References 10External links Early life O'Toole was born in 1932. Some sources give his birthplace as Connemara, County Galway, Ireland,[3] while others cite St James University Hospital, Leeds, England.[4][5] O'Toole claimed he was not certain of his birthplace or date, noting in his autobiography that, while he accepted 2 August as his birthdate, said he had a birth certificate from each country, with the Irish one giving a June 1932 birth date. Peter had an elder sister, Patricia.[1] He grew up in Hunslet, south Leeds,[6] son of Constance Jane Eliot (née Ferguson), a Scottish[7] nurse, and Patrick Joseph "Spats" O'Toole, an Irish metal plater, football player and racecourse bookmaker.[8][9][10][11] When O'Toole was one year old, his family began a five-year tour of major racecourse towns in Northern England. He and his sister were brought up in the Roman Catholic faith of their father.[12][13] O'Toole was evacuated from Leeds early in the Second World War and went to a Catholic school for seven or eight years, St Joseph's Secondary School at Joseph Street, Hunslet, where he was "implored" to become right-handed. "I used to be scared stiff of the nuns: their whole denial of womanhood – the black dresses and the shaving of the hair – was so horrible, so terrifying ... Of course, that's all been stopped. They're sipping gin and tonic in the Dublin pubs now, and a couple of them flashed their pretty ankles at me just the other day", he said.[14] Upon leaving school O'Toole obtained employment as a trainee journalist and photographer on the Yorkshire Evening Post, until he was called up for national serviceas a signaller in the Royal Navy. As reported in a radio interview in 2006 on NPR, he was asked by an officer whether he had something he had always wanted to do. His reply was that he had always wanted to try being either a poet or an actor. O'Toole attended the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) from 1952 to 1954 on a scholarship after being rejected by the Abbey Theatre's drama school in Dublin by the director Ernest Blythe, because he couldn't speak the Irish language. At RADA, he was in the same class as Albert Finney, Alan Bates and Brian Bedford. O'Toole described this as "the most remarkable class the academy ever had, though we weren't reckoned for much at the time. We were all considered dotty."[15] Career O'Toole began working in the theatre, gaining recognition as a Shakespearean actor at the Bristol Old Vic and with the English Stage Company, before making his television debut in 1954. He first appeared on film in 1959 in a minor role in The Day They Robbed the Bank of England.[16] O'Toole's major break came when he was chosen to play T. E. Lawrence in Sir David Lean's Lawrence of Arabia (1962), after Marlon Brando proved unavailable and Albert Finney turned down the role. His performance was ranked number one in Premiere magazine's list of the 100 Greatest Performances of All Time.[17] The role introduced him to US audiences and earned him the first of his eight nominations for the Academy Award for Best Actor. T. E. Lawrence, portrayed by O'Toole, was selected in 2003 as the tenth-greatest hero in cinema history by the American Film Institute.[18] O'Toole in the TV film Present Laughter (1968) O'Toole was one of several actors to be Oscar-nominated for playing the same role in two different films: he played King Henry II in both Becket (1964) and The Lion in Winter (1968). O'Toole played Hamlet under Laurence Olivier's direction in the premiere production of the Royal National Theatre in 1963. He demonstrated his comedic abilities alongside Peter Sellers in the Woody Allen-scripted comedy What's New Pussycat? (1965). He appeared in Seán O'Casey's Juno and the Paycock at Dublin's Gaiety Theatre.[citation needed] As King Henry II in The Lion in Winter (1968) In 1969, he played the title role in the film Goodbye, Mr. Chips, a musical adaptation of James Hilton's novella, starring opposite Petula Clark. He was nominated for an Academy Award as Best Actor and won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy. O'Toole fulfilled a lifetime ambition in 1970 when he performed on stage in Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot, alongside Donal McCann, at Dublin's Abbey Theatre. In 1972, he played both Miguel de Cervantes and his fictional creation Don Quixote in Man of La Mancha, the motion picture adaptation of the 1965 hit Broadway musical, opposite Sophia Loren. The film was a critical and commercial failure, criticised for using mostly non-singing actors. His singing was dubbed by tenor Simon Gilbert,[19] but the other actors did their own singing. O'Toole and co-star James Coco, who played both Cervantes's manservant and Sancho Panza, both received Golden Globe nominations for their performances. In 1980, O'Toole starred as Tiberius in the Penthouse-funded biopic, Caligula. In 1980, he received critical acclaim for playing the director in the behind-the-scenes film The Stunt Man.[20][21] He received mixed reviews as John Tanner in Man and Superman and Henry Higgins in Pygmalion, and won a Laurence Olivier Award for his performance in Jeffrey Bernard is Unwell (1989).[22] O'Toole was nominated for another Oscar for My Favorite Year (1982), a light romantic comedy about the behind-the-scenes at a 1950s TV variety-comedy show, in which O'Toole plays an aging swashbuckling film star reminiscent of Errol Flynn. He also appeared in 1987's The Last Emperor, as Sir Reginald Johnston. He won a Primetime Emmy Award for his role as Bishop Pierre Cauchon in the 1999 mini-series Joan of Arc. In 2004, he played King Priam in the summer blockbuster Troy. In 2005, he appeared on television as the older version of legendary 18th century Italian adventurer Giacomo Casanova in the BBC drama serial Casanova. The younger Casanova, seen for most of the action, was played by David Tennant, who had to wear contact lenses to match his brown eyes to O'Toole's blue. O'Toole was once again nominated for the Best Actor Academy Award for his portrayal of Maurice in the 2006 film Venus, directed by Roger Michell, his eighth such nomination.[citation needed] O'Toole co-starred in the Pixar animated film Ratatouille (2007), an animated film about a rat with dreams of becoming the greatest chef in Paris, as Anton Ego, a food critic. He also appeared in the second season of Showtime's successful drama series The Tudors (2008), portraying Pope Paul III, who excommunicates King Henry VIII from the church; an act which leads to a showdown between the two men in seven of the ten episodes. Also in 2008, he starred alongside Jeremy Northam and Sam Neill in the New Zealand/British film Dean Spanley, based on an Alan Sharp adaptation of Irish author Lord Dunsany's short novel, My Talks with Dean Spanley.[23] On 10 July 2012, O'Toole released a statement announcing his retirement from acting.[24] Personal life While studying at RADA in the early 1950s, O'Toole was active in protesting against British involvement in the Korean War. Later, in the 1960s, he was an active opponent of the Vietnam War. He played a role in the creation of the current form of the well-known folksong "Carrickfergus" which he related to Dominic Behan, who put it in print and made a recording in the mid-1960s.[25] In 1959, he married Welsh actress Siân Phillips, with whom he had two daughters: actress Kate and Patricia. They were divorced in 1979. Phillips later said in two autobiographies that O'Toole had subjected her to mental cruelty, largely fuelled by drinking, and was subject to bouts of extreme jealousy when she finally left him for a younger lover.[26] Publicity photo for Lawrence of Arabia (1962) O'Toole and his girlfriend, model Karen Brown,[27] had a son, Lorcan Patrick O'Toole (born 17 March 1983), when O'Toole was fifty years old. Lorcan, now an actor, was a pupil at Harrow School, boarding at West Acre from 1996.[28] Severe illness almost ended O'Toole's life in the late 1970s. His stomach cancer was misdiagnosed as resulting from his alcoholic excess.[29] O'Toole underwent surgery in 1976 to have his pancreas and a large portion of his stomach removed, which resulted in insulin-dependent diabetes. In 1978, he nearly died from a blood disorder. He eventually recovered, however, and returned to work. He resided on the Sky Road, just outside Clifden, Connemara, County Galway from 1963, and at the height of his career maintained homes in Dublin, London and Paris (at the Ritz, which was where his character supposedly lived in the film How to Steal a Million). In an interview with National Public Radio in December 2006, O'Toole revealed that he knew all 154 of Shakespeare's sonnets. A self-described romantic, O'Toole regarded the sonnets as among the finest collection of English poems, reading them daily. In Venus, he recites Sonnet 18 ("Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?"). O'Toole wrote two memoirs. Loitering With Intent: The Child chronicles his childhood in the years leading up to World War II and was a New York Times Notable Book of the Year in 1992. His second, Loitering With Intent: The Apprentice, is about his years spent training with a cadre of friends at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. O'Toole played rugby league as a child in Leeds[30] and was also a rugby union fan, attending Five Nations matches with friends and fellow rugby fans Richard Harris, Kenneth Griffith, Peter Finch and Richard Burton. He was also a lifelong player, coach and enthusiast of cricket[31] and a fan of Sunderland A.F.C.[32] O'Toole was interviewed at least three times by Charlie Rose on his eponymous talk show. In a 17 January 2007 interview, O'Toole stated that British actor Eric Porterhad most influenced him, adding that the difference between actors of yesterday and today is that actors of his generation were trained for "theatre, theatre, theatre". He also believes that the challenge for the actor is "to use his imagination to link to his emotion" and that "good parts make good actors". However, in other venues (including the DVD commentary for Becket), O'Toole credited Donald Wolfit as being his most important mentor. In an appearance on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart(11 January 2007), O'Toole stated that the actor with whom he most enjoyed working was Katharine Hepburn.[citation needed] Although he lost faith in organised religion as a teenager, O'Toole expressed positive sentiments regarding the life of Jesus Christ. In an interview for The New York Times,[33] he said "No one can take Jesus away from me... there's no doubt there was a historical figure of tremendous importance, with enormous notions. Such as peace." He called himself "a retired Christian" who prefers "an education and reading and facts" to faith.[33] Death O'Toole's memorial plaque in St Paul's Church in Covent Garden O'Toole died on 14 December 2013 at Wellington Hospital in St John's Wood, London, aged 81.[34] His funeral was held at Golders Green Crematorium in London on 21 December 2013, where he was cremated in a wicker coffin.[35] O'Toole's remains are planned to be taken to Connemara, Ireland. They are currently being kept at the residence of the President of Ireland, Áras an Uachtaráin, by the President Michael D. Higgins who is an old friend of the actor. His family plan to return to Ireland to fulfill his wishes and take them to the west of Ireland when they can.[36] On 18 May 2014, a new prize was launched in memory of Peter O'Toole at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School; this includes an annual award given to two young actors from the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, including a professional contract at Bristol Old Vic Theatre.[37] He has a memorial plaque in St Paul's, the Actors' Church in Covent Garden. On 21 April 2017, the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin announced that Kate O'Toole had placed her father's archive at the humanities research centre.[38] The collection includes O'Toole's scripts, extensive published and unpublished writings, props, photographs, letters, medical records, and more. It joins the archives of several of O'Toole's collaborators and friends including Donald Wolfit, Eli Wallach, Peter Glenville, Sir Tom Stoppard, and Dame Edith Evans.[39][40] Filmography Main article: Peter O'Toole filmography Stage appearances 1955–58 Bristol Old Vic King Lear (1956) (Cornwall) The Recruiting Officer (1956) (Bullock) Major Barbara (1956) (Peter Shirley) Othello (1956) (Lodovico) Pygmalion (1957) (Henry Higgins) A Midsummer Night's Dream (1957) (Lysander) Look Back in Anger (1957) (Jimmy Porter) Man and Superman (1958) (Tanner) Hamlet (1958) (Hamlet) Amphitryon '38 (1958) (Jupiter) Waiting for Godot (1957) (Vladimir) 1959 Royal Court Theatre The Long and the Short and the Tall (Bamforth) 1960 Royal Shakespeare Company, Stratford The Taming of the Shrew (Petruchio) The Merchant of Venice (Shylock) Troilus and Cressida (Thersites) 1963 National Theatre Hamlet (title role) directed by Laurence Olivier[41] 1963–65 Baal (Phoenix Theatre, 1963) Ride a Cock Horse (Piccadilly Theatre, 1965) 1966 Gaiety Theatre, Dublin Juno and the Paycock (Jack Boyle) Man and Superman (Tanner) 1969 Abbey Theatre, Dublin Waiting for Godot (Vladimir) 1973–74 Bristol Old Vic Uncle Vanya (Vanya) Plunder (D'Arcy Tuck) The Apple Cart (King Magnus) Judgement (monologue) 1978 Toronto, Washington and Chicago Uncle Vanya (Vanya) Present Laughter (Gary Essendine) Caligula (Tiberius) 1980–99 Macbeth (1980) (Macbeth) (Old Vic Theatre) Man and Superman (Theatre Royal, Haymarket) Pygmalion (Professor Higgins) (Shaftesbury Theatre, 1984 and Yvonne Arnaud Theatre, Guildford) The Apple Cart (Theatre Royal Haymarket, 1986) Pygmalion (Professor Higgins) (Plymouth Theatre, New York, 1987) Jeffrey Bernard is Unwell (Apollo Theatre, 1989, Shaftesbury Theatre, 1991 and Old Vic, 1999) Our Song (Apollo Theatre, 1992). Books authored Loitering with Intent: The Child (1992) Loitering with Intent: The Apprentice (1997) Awards Main article: List of awards and nominations received by Peter O'Toole Academy Award nominations O'Toole was nominated eight times for the Academy Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role, but was never able to win a competitive Oscar. In 2002,[2] the Academy honoured him with an Academy Honorary Award for his entire body of work and his lifelong contribution to film. O'Toole initially balked about accepting, and wrote the Academy a letter saying that he was "still in the game" and would like more time to "win the lovely bugger outright". The Academy informed him that they would bestow the award whether he wanted it or not. He told Charlie Rose in January 2007 that his children admonished him, saying that it was the highest honour one could receive in the filmmaking industry. O'Toole agreed to appear at the ceremony and receive his Honorary Oscar. It was presented to him by Meryl Streep, who has the most Oscar nominations of any actor or actress (19). He joked with Robert Osborne, during an interview at Turner Classic Movie's film festival that he's the "Biggest Loser of All Time", due to his lack of an Academy Award, after many nominations.[42] YearFilmWinnerAlso Nominated 1962Lawrence of ArabiaGregory Peck – To Kill a MockingbirdBurt Lancaster – Birdman of Alcatraz Jack Lemmon – Days of Wine and Roses Marcello Mastroianni – Divorce Italian Style 1964BecketRex Harrison – My Fair LadyRichard Burton – Becket Anthony Quinn – Zorba the Greek Peter Sellers – Dr. Strangelove 1968The Lion in WinterCliff Robertson – CharlyAlan Arkin – The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter Alan Bates – The Fixer Ron Moody – Oliver! 1969Goodbye, Mr. ChipsJohn Wayne – True GritRichard Burton – Anne of the Thousand Days Dustin Hoffman – Midnight Cowboy Jon Voight – Midnight Cowboy 1972The Ruling ClassMarlon Brando – The Godfather (declined)Michael Caine – Sleuth Laurence Olivier – Sleuth Paul Winfield – Sounder 1980The Stunt ManRobert De Niro – Raging BullRobert Duvall – The Great Santini John Hurt – The Elephant Man Jack Lemmon – Tribute 1982My Favorite YearBen Kingsley – GandhiDustin Hoffman – Tootsie Jack Lemmon – Missing Paul Newman – The Verdict 2006VenusForest Whitaker – The Last King of ScotlandLeonardo DiCaprio – Blood Diamond Ryan Gosling – Half Nelson Will Smith – The Pursuit of Happyness References William Wyler (/ˈwaɪlər/; July 1, 1902 – July 27, 1981) was an American film director, producer and screenwriter. Notable works include Ben-Hur (1959), The Best Years of Our Lives (1946), and Mrs. Miniver (1942), all of which won Academy Awards for Best Director, as well as Best Picture in their respective years, making him the only director of three Best Picture winners as of 2018. Wyler received his first Oscar nomination for directing Dodsworth in 1936, starring Walter Huston, Ruth Chatterton and Mary Astor, "sparking a 20-year run of almost unbroken greatness."[1]:24 Film historian Ian Freer calls Wyler a "bona fide perfectionist", whose penchant for retakes and an attempt to hone every last nuance, "became the stuff of legend."[1]:57 His ability to direct a string of classic literary adaptations into huge box-office and critical successes made him one of "Hollywood's most bankable moviemakers" during the 1930s and 1940s and into the 60's. Through his talent for staging, editing, and camera movement, he turned dynamic theatrical spaces into cinematic ones.[2] He helped propel a number of actors to stardom, finding and directing Audrey Hepburn in her Hollywood debut film, Roman Holiday (1953), and directing Barbra Streisand in her debut film, Funny Girl (1968). Both of these performances won Academy Awards. He directed Olivia de Havilland to her second Oscar in The Heiress (1949) and Laurence Olivier in Wuthering Heights (1939), for his first Oscar nomination. Olivier credited Wyler with teaching him how to act for the screen. And Bette Davis, who received three Oscar nominations under his direction and won her second Oscar in Jezebel (1938), said Wyler made her a "far, far better actress" than she had ever been. Other popular Wyler films include: Hell's Heroes (1930), Dodsworth (1936), The Westerner (1940), The Letter (1940), Friendly Persuasion (1956), The Big Country (1958), The Children's Hour (1961) and How to Steal a Million (1966). Contents [hide] 1Early life 2Directing career 2.11920s 2.21930s 2.31940s 2.41950s 2.51960s 3Style 4Legacy 5Personal life and death 6Honors and awards 7Filmography 8References 9External links Early life[edit] Wyler was born to a Jewish family[3]:1220 in Mulhouse, Alsace (then part of the German Empire).[4]:3 His Swiss-born father, Leopold, started as a traveling salesmanwhich he later turned into a thriving haberdashery business in Mulhouse.[5]:37[6] His mother, Melanie (née Auerbach;[2] died February 13, 1955, Los Angeles, aged 77), was German-born, and a cousin of Carl Laemmle, founder of Universal Pictures. During Wyler's childhood, he attended a number of schools and developed a reputation as "something of a hellraiser", being expelled more than once for misbehavior.[3]:1222 His mother often took him and his older brother Robert to concerts, opera, and the theatre, as well as the early cinema. Sometimes at home his family and their friends would stage amateur theatricals for personal enjoyment.[3]:1223 Wyler was supposed to take over the family haberdashery business in Mulhouse, France. After World War I, he spent a dismal year working in Paris at 100.000 Chemises selling shirts and ties. He was so poor that he often spent his time wandering around the Pigalle district. After realizing that Willy was not interested in the haberdashery business, his mother, Melanie, contacted her distant cousin, Carl Laemmle who owned Universal Studios, about opportunities for him. Laemmle was in the habit of coming to Europe each year, searching for promising young men who would work in America. In 1921, Wyler, while traveling as a Swiss citizen (his father's status automatically conferred Swiss citizenship to his sons), met Laemmle who hired him to work at Universal Studios in New York. As Wyler said: "America seemed as far away as the moon." Booked onto a ship to New York with Laemmle upon his return voyage, he met a young Czech man, Paul Kohner (later the famous independent agent), aboard the same ship. Their enjoyment of the first class trip was short-lived, however, as they found they had to pay back the cost of the passage out of their $25 weekly income as messengers to Universal Pictures. After working in New York for several years, and even serving in the New York Army National Guard for a year, Wyler moved to Hollywood to become a director.[5]:37 Directing career[edit] 1920s[edit] Around 1923, Wyler arrived in Los Angeles and began work on the Universal Studios lot in the swing gang, cleaning the stages and moving the sets. His break came when he was hired as a second assistant editor. But, his work ethic was uneven, he would sneak off and play billiards in a pool hall across the street from the studio, or organize card games during working hours. After some ups and downs (including getting fired), Wyler focused on becoming a director and put all his effort into it. He started as a third assistant director and by 1925 he became the youngest director on the Universal lot directing the westerns that Universal was famed for turning out. Wyler was so focused on his work that he would dream about "different ways (for an actor) to get on a horse". In several of the one-reelers, he would join the posse in the inevitable chase of the 'bad man'. He directed his first non-Western, the lost Anybody Here Seen Kelly?, in 1928. This was followed by his first part-talkie films, The Shakedown and The Love Trap. He proved himself an able craftsman. In 1928 he became a naturalized United States citizen.[4]:73 1930s[edit] In the early 1930s began directing such films as Hell's Heroes, Dead End, and The Good Fairy. He became well known for his insistence on multiple retakes, resulting in often award-winning and critically acclaimed performances from his actors. After leaving Universal he began a long collaboration with Samuel Goldwyn for whom he directed such classics as Dodsworth (1936),[7] These Three (1936), Dead End (1937), Wuthering Heights (1939),[8] The Westerner (1940), The Little Foxes (1941) and The Best Years of Our Lives (1946). It was during this time that Wyler began his famous collaboration with cinematographer Greg Toland. Toland and Wyler virtually created the "deep focus" style of filmmaking wherein multiple layers of action or characters could be seen in one scene, most famous being the bar scene in The Best Years of Our Lives. Toland went on to use the deep focus he mastered with Wyler when he shot Orson Welle's Citizen Kane.[9][10] It was all Wyler. I had known all the horrors of no direction and bad direction. I now knew what a great director was and what he could mean to an actress. I will always be grateful to him for his toughness and his genius. Bette Davis, discussing Jezebel[4]:162[11] Bette Davis received three Oscar nominations for her screen work under Wyler, and won her second Oscar for her performance in Wyler's 1938 film Jezebel.[12][13] She told Merv Griffin in 1972 that Wyler trained her with that film to be a "far, far better actress" than she had been.[14] She recalled a scene that was only a bare paragraph in the script, but "without a word of dialog, Willy created a scene of power and tension. This was moviemaking on the highest plane," she said. "A scene of such suspense that I never have not marveled at the direction of it."[4]:162 During her acceptance speech when she received the AFI Life Achievement Award in 1977, she thanked him.[15] Olivier and Oberon in Wuthering Heights Laurence Olivier, whom Wyler directed in Wuthering Heights (1939) for his first Oscar nomination, credited Wyler with teaching him how to act for the screen, despite clashing with Wyler on multiple occasions. Olivier would go on to hold the record for the most nominations in the Best Actor category at nine, tied with Spencer Tracy. Critic Frank S. Nugent wrote in the New York Times, "William Wyler has directed it magnificently. It is, unquestionably, one of the most distinguished pictures of the year."[16]:88 Variety described Olivier's performance as "fantastic... he not only brings conviction to his portrayal but translates intelligently its mystical quality."[16]:93 Five years later, in 1944, while visiting London, Wyler met with Olivier and his actress wife, Vivien Leigh. She invited him to see her performance in The Doctor's Dilemma, and Olivier asked him to direct him in his planned film, Henry V. But Wyler said he was "not a Shakespearian" and turned down the offer.[17][18] If any film actor is having trouble with his career, can't master the medium and, anyway, wonders whether it's worth it, let him pray to meet a man like William Wyler. Laurence Olivier[16]:86 In 1950, Wyler and Olivier made a second film together, Carrie, which was not a commercial success. However, some critics state that it nonetheless contains Olivier's finest film performance, but because of its old-fashioned story, the film was very under-appreciated:[16]:128[19]In critic Michael Billington's opinion: If there were any justice in the world, Laurence Olivier would have got an Oscar for his unforgettable performance in Carrie.[20]:137 Director and screenwriter John Huston had been a close friend of Wyler during his career. When he was twenty-eight and penniless, sleeping in parks in London, Huston returned to Hollywood to see if he could find work. Wyler, four years his senior, had met Huston when he was directing his father, Walter Huston, in A House Divided in 1931, and they got along well. Wyler read dialogue suggestions that Huston had given to his father Walter and hired John to work on the dialogue for the script. He later inspired Huston to become a director and became his "early mentor."[21]:xiii When America entered World War II in 1941, Wyler, Huston, Anatole Litvakand Frank Capra, by then all directors, enlisted at the same time.[22] Later in his career, Huston recalled his friendship with Wyler during an interview: Willy was certainly my best friend in the industry.... We seemed instantly to have many things in common.... Willy liked the things that I liked. We'd go down to Mexico. We'd go up in the mountains. And we'd gamble. He was a wonderful companion....He was equally capable of playing Beethoven on his violin, speeding around town on his motorcycle, or schussing down steep virgin snow trails.[23] 1940s[edit] In 1941, Wyler directed Mrs. Miniver, based on the 1940 novel; it was the story of a middle-class English family adjusting to the war in Europe and the bombing blitz in London.[24][25] It starred Greer Garson and Walter Pidgeon. Pidgeon originally had doubts about taking on the role, until fellow actor Paul Lukas told him, "You will find working with Wyler to be the most delightful experience you ever had, and that's the way it turned out." Pidgeon recalls: "One thing that would have been a terrific regret in my life is if I had succeeded in getting out of doing Mrs. Miniver"[26]:335 He received his first Oscar nomination for his role, while his co-star, Greer Garson, won her first and only Academy Award for her performance. The idea for the film was controversial, since it was intended to make America less isolationist. By portraying the real-life suffering of British citizens in a fictional story, Americans might be more prone to help Britain during their war effort.[24][27] The film succeeded in its propaganda elements, showing England during its darkest days of the war.[26]:145 Years later, after having been in the war himself, Wyler said that the film "only scratched the surface of war... It was incomplete."[26]:228 However, before America entered the war in December 1941, all films that could be considered anti-Nazi were banned by the Hays Office.[28]:277 Yet in 1939, Warner Brothers had made the blatantly anti-Nazi film, "Confessions of a Nazi Spy" starring Edward G. Robinson. This is considered the first anti-Nazi film produced by a major Hollywood studio and was based on articles former FBI agent Leon G. Turrou had written that cost him his job with the agency.[29] He also wrote a popular book at its time called "Nazi Spies in America".[30] Charlie Chaplin had released his anti-Hitler film The Great Dictator in 1940 which was also his first true sound film. [31] The statement that the Hayes Office banned all anti-Nazi films before 1941 can not be taken seriously. U.S. ambassador to England, Joseph Kennedy, told the studios to stop making pro-British and anti-German films. Kennedy felt that British defeat was imminent.[32] But MGM producer Eddie Mannix disagreed, saying that "someone should salute England. And even if we lose $100,000, that'll be okay."[28]:344 Mrs. Miniver went on to win six Academy Awards, becoming the top box office hit of 1942. It was Wyler's first Academy Award for Best Director.[33] Dear Mad Willy. I saw Mrs. Miniver last night. It is absolutely wonderful. You repeatedly amaze me with the demonstrations of your talent and I ask you to believe that it is with genuine pleasure that I salute this latest and greatest example of your work. producer David Selznick[5]:235 President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill both loved the film, said historian Emily Yellin, and Roosevelt wanted prints rushed to theaters nationwide. The Voice of America radio network broadcast the minister's speech from the film, magazines reprinted it, and it was copied onto leaflets and dropped over German-occupied countries. Churchill sent MGM head Louis B. Mayer a telegram claiming that "Mrs. Miniver is propaganda worth 100 battleships."[34] Bosley Crowther wrote in his New York Times review that Mrs. Miniverwas the finest film yet made about the war, "and a most exalting tribute to the British."[35] Between 1942 and 1945 Wyler volunteered to serve as a major in the United States Army Air Forces and directed a pair of documentaries: The Memphis Belle: A Story of a Flying Fortress (1944), about a Boeing B-17 and its U.S. Army Air Force crew;[36] and Thunderbolt! (1947), highlighting a P-47 fighter-bomber squadron in the Mediterranean. Wyler filmed The Memphis Belle at great personal risk, flying over enemy territory on actual bombing missions in 1943; on one flight, Wyler lost consciousness from lack of oxygen. Wyler's associate, cinematographer Harold J. Tannenbaum, a First Lieutenant, was shot down and perished during the filming.[37] Director Steven Spielberg describes Wyler's filming of Memphis Belle in the 2017 Netflix series, Five Came Back.[38] Working on Thunderbolt! Wyler was exposed to such loud noise that he passed out. When he awoke, he found he was deaf in one ear.[4] Partial hearing with the aid of a hearing aid eventually came back years later.[39] Wyler returned from the War a disabled veteran.[40] Returning from the War and unsure whether he could work again, Wyler turned to a subject that he knew well[40] and directed a film which captured the mood of the nation as it turned to peace after the war, The Best Years of Our Lives (1946).[41] This story of the homecoming of three veterans from World War II dramatized the problems of returning veterans in their adjustment back to civilian life. Arguably his most personal film, Best Years drew on Wyler's own experience returning home to his family after three years on the front. The Best Years of Our Lives won the Academy Award for Best Director (Wyler's second) and Academy Award for Best Picture, as well as seven other Academy Awards. Audrey Hepburn in Roman Holiday(1953) In 1949 Wyler directed The Heiress, which earned Olivia de Havilland her second Oscar and garnered additional Oscars for Best Art Direction, Best Costume Design, and Best Music. The film is considered by some to be a highlight in her career, "that could strike envy even in the most versatile and successful actress," according to one critic.[42][43][44] De Havilland had seen the play in New York and felt she could play the lead perfectly. She then called Wyler to convince him to have Paramount buy the film rights. He flew to New York to see the play, and moved by the story, convinced the studio to buy it. Along with de Havilland, he managed to get Montgomery Clift and Ralph Richardson to co-star.[17]:265[45][46] 1950s[edit] In 1951, Wyler produced and directed Kirk Douglas and Eleanor Parker in Detective Story, portraying a day in the lives of the various people in a detective squad. Lee Grant and Joseph Wiseman made their screen debuts in the film, which was nominated for four Academy Awards, including one for Grant.[47] Critic Bosley Crowther lauded the film, describing it as "a brisk, absorbing film by producer-director William Wyler, with the help of a fine, responsive cast."[48] During the immediate postwar period, Wyler directed a handful of critically acclaimed and influential films. Roman Holiday(1953) introduced Audrey Hepburn to American audiences in her first starring role, winning her an Academy Award for Best Actress.[49][50] Wyler said of Hepburn years later, when describing truly great actresses, "In that league there's only ever been Garbo, and the other Hepburn, and maybe Bergman. It's a rare quality, but boy, do you know when you've found it."[51] The film was an instant hit, also winning for Best Costume Design (Edith Head), and Best Writing (Dalton Trumbo). Hepburn would eventually do three movies with Wyler, who her son said was one of the most important directors in her career.[52][53] Friendly Persuasion (1956) was awarded the Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) at the Cannes Film Festival. And in 1959, Wyler directed Ben-Hur, which won 11 Oscars, a feat unequaled until Titanic in 1997. He had also assisted in the production of the 1925 version. Charlton Heston as Ben-Hur Wyler and its star, Charlton Heston, both knew what the film meant for MGM, which had massive investments in its final outcome, with the film's budget having gone from $7 million to $15 million, and the fact that MGM was already in dire financial straits.[54] They were aware that if it failed at the box office, MGM might go bankrupt.[55] The film, like many epics, was difficult to make. When Heston was asked which scene he enjoyed doing most, he said "I didn't enjoy any of it. It was hard work."[56] Part of the reason for that was the financial stress placed on making the film a success. With a cast of fifteen thousand extras, a leading star, and being shot on 70mm film with stereophonic tracks, it was the most expensive film ever made at that time.[55] The nine-minute chariot race, for example, took six months to film.[57] Ben-Hur became a great box office success. Wyler won his third Academy Award for Best Director and Charlton Heston his first and only Academy Award as its star.[58][59][60] Heston recalled in his autobiography that at first he had doubts about taking the role. But his agent advised him otherwise: "Don't you know that actors take parts with Wyler without even reading the damn script? I'm telling you, you have to do this picture!"[17] Kirk Douglas had lobbied Wyler, who directed him in Detective Story in 1951, for the title role, but only after Wyler had already decided on Heston. He offered him instead the role of Messala, which Douglas rejected. Douglas then went on to star in Spartacus (1960).[61][62] Ben-Hur cost $15 million to produce but earned $47 million by the end of 1961 and $90 million worldwide.[63][64] Audiences mobbed movie theaters in the months after it opened. Critic Pauline Kael praised Wyler's achievement: I admire the artist who can make something good for the art house audience; but I also applaud the commercial heroism of a director who can steer a huge production and keep his sanity and perspective and decent human feelings beautifully intact.[65]:96 1960s[edit] In 1968 he directed Barbra Streisand in her debut film, Funny Girl, costarring Omar Sharif, which became a huge financial success.[17]:385 It was nominated for eight Academy Awards, and like Audrey Hepburn in her first starring role, Streisand won as Best Actress, becoming the thirteenth actor to win an Oscar under his direction.[17]:385[66][67] Streisand had already starred in the Broadway musical of Funny Girl, with seven hundred performances. And although she knew the part well, Wyler still had to mold her stage role for the screen.[68] She naturally wanted to be involved in the film's production, often asking Wyler questions, but they got along well.[69][70][71] "Things were ironed out when she discovered some of us knew what we were doing," kidded Wyler. What originally attracted him to direct Streisand was similar to what attracted him about Audrey Hepburn, who had also been new to film audiences. He met with Streisand during her musical run and became excited at the prospect of guiding another new star into an award-winning performance. He sensed and admired that Streisand had the same kind of dedication to being an actress as did Bette Davis, early in her career. "It just needed to be controlled and toned down for the movie camera."[20] Wyler said afterwards: I'm terribly fond of her. She was very professional, very good, a hard worker, too hard at times. She would work day and night if you would let her. She is absolutely tireless.[72][73] Style[edit] Wyler had worked with cinematographer Gregg Toland for six of his films, mostly in the 1930s. Toland used deep focus photographic technique for most of them, whereby he could keep all objects on the screen, whether foreground or background, in sharp focus at the same time. The technique gives the illusion of depth, and therefore makes the scene more true to life.[65]:77 A perfectionist, Wyler earned the nickname "40-take Wyler". On the set of Jezebel, Wyler forced Henry Fonda through 40 takes of one particular scene, his only guidance being "Again!" after each take. When Fonda asked for more direction, Wyler responded, "It stinks." Similarly, when Charlton Heston quizzed the director about the supposed shortcomings of his performance in Ben-Hur, Wyler simply told Heston "Be better!"[74] However, Heston notes that by the time a scene is done, regardless of how hard it was to do, it always came off well: The only answer I have is that his taste is impeccable and every actor knows it. Your faith in his taste and what it will do for your performance is what makes casting a Wyler picture a cinch...doing a film for Wyler is like getting the works in a Turkish bath. You darn near drown, but you come out smelling like a rose."[4]:351 Legacy[edit] Bette Davis in Jezebel (1938) Fourteen actors won Oscars under Wyler's direction, including Bette Davis in Jezebel (1938) and her nomination for The Letter(1940).[75] Davis summed up their work together: "It was he who helped me to realize my full potential as an actress. I met my match in this exceptionally creative and talented director."[65]:79[76] Other Oscar winners were Olivia de Havilland in The Heiress (1949), Audrey Hepburn in her debut film, Roman Holiday(1953),[77] Charlton Heston in Ben-Hur (1959), and Barbra Streisand in her debut film, Funny Girl (1968). Wyler's films garnered more awards for participating artists and actors than any other director's in the history of Hollywood.[78]He received 12 Oscar nominations for Best Director in total, while dozens of his collaborators and actors won Oscars or were nominated. In 1965, Wyler won the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award for career achievement. Eleven years later, he received the American Film Institute Life Achievement Award. In addition to his Best Picture and Best Director Oscar wins, 13 of Wyler's films earned Best Picture nominations. Other late Wyler films include The Children's Hour (1961), which was nominated for five Academy Awards.[79] Later films included The Collector (1963), Funny Girl (1968), and his final film, The Liberation of L.B. Jones (1970). Personal life and death[edit] Wyler was briefly married to actress Margaret Sullavan (from November 25, 1934 – March 13, 1936)[80] and married actress Margaret "Talli" Tallichet on October 23, 1938.[81][82] The couple remained together until his death; they had five children: Catherine, Judith, William Jr., Melanie and David. Catherine said during an interview that her mother played an important part in his career, often being his "gatekeeper" and his reader of scripts presented to him.[83] On July 24, 1981, Wyler gave an interview with his daughter, Catherine, for Directed by William Wyler, a PBS documentary about his life and career.[84] Three days later, he died from a heart attack. He is interred at Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery, near his older brother, Robert Wyler, sister-in-law, actress Cathy O'Donnelland his son, William "Billy" Wyler, Jr in Glendale, California.[85][86][87][88] Honors and awards[edit] Wyler is the most nominated director in Academy Awards history with twelve nominations. He won the Academy Award for Best Direction on three occasions, for his direction of Ben-Hur, The Best Years of Our Lives, and Mrs. Miniver. He is tied with Frank Capra and behind John Ford, who won four Oscars in this category. He is also only director in Academy history to direct three Best Picture-winning films (the three for which he won Best Director), and directed more Best Picture nominees than anyone else (thirteen). He has the distinction of having directed more actors to Oscar-nominated performances than any other director in history: thirty-six. Out of these nominees, fourteen went on to win Oscars, also a record.[89] He received the fourth AFI Life Achievement Award in 1976.[90] Among those who thanked him for directing her in her debut film, was Barbra Streisand.[91] For his contributions to the motion picture industry, on February 8, 1960, Wyler has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1731 Vine Street.[92][93] YearFilmCategoryResult Academy Awards 1936DodsworthBest DirectorNominated 1939Wuthering HeightsBest DirectorNominated 1940The LetterBest DirectorNominated 1941The Little FoxesBest DirectorNominated 1942Mrs. MiniverBest DirectorWon 1946The Best Years of Our LivesBest DirectorWon 1949The HeiressBest Motion PictureNominated Best DirectorNominated 1952Detective StoryBest DirectorNominated 1953Roman HolidayBest Motion PictureNominated Best DirectorNominated 1957Friendly PersuasionBest Motion PictureNominated Best DirectorNominated 1959Ben-HurBest DirectorWon 1965The CollectorBest DirectorNominated Irving G. Thalberg Memorial AwardWon Directors Guild of America 1952Detective StoryOutstanding Directorial AchievementNominated 1954Roman HolidayOutstanding Directorial AchievementNominated 1957Friendly PersuasionOutstanding Directorial AchievementNominated 1959The Big CountryOutstanding Directorial AchievementNominated 1960Ben-HurOutstanding Directorial AchievementWon 1962The Children's HourOutstanding Directorial AchievementNominated 1966Lifetime Achievement Award 1969Funny GirlOutstanding Directorial AchievementNominated Filmography[edit] This is a list of films directed by William Wyler. Silent films YearTitleStudioGenreCastNotes 1925The Crook BusterUniversalWesternJack Mower, Janet GaynorUMS* 1926The Gunless Bad ManUniversalWesternUMS 1926Ridin' for LoveUniversalWesternUMS 1926The Fire BarrierUniversalWesternUMS 1926Don't ShootUniversalWesternUMS 1926The Pinnacle RiderUniversalWesternUMS 1926Martin of the MountedUniversalWesternUMS 1926Lazy LightningUniversalWesternUBSS** 1926The Stolen RanchUniversalWesternUBSS 1927The Two FisterUniversalWesternUMS 1927Kelcy Gets His ManUniversalWesternUMS 1927Tenderfoot CourageUniversalWesternUMS 1927The Silent PartnerUniversalWesternUMS 1927Blazing DaysUniversalWesternUBSS 1927Straight Shootin'UniversalWesternUBSS 1927Galloping JusticeUniversalWesternUMS 1927The Haunted HomesteadUniversalWesternUMS 1927Hard FistsUniversalWesternUBSS 1927The Lone StarUniversalWesternUMS 1927The Ore RaidersUniversalWesternUMS 1927The Home TrailUniversalWesternUMS 1927Gun JusticeUniversalWesternUMS 1927The Phantom OutlawUniversalWesternUMS 1927The Square ShooterUniversalWesternUMS 1927The Horse TraderUniversalWesternUMS 1927Daze of the WestUniversalWesternUMS 1927The Border CavalierUniversalWesternUBSS 1927Desert DustUniversalWesternTed Wells 1928Thunder RidersUniversalWesternTed Wells 1928Anybody Here Seen Kelly?UniversalComedyBessie Love, Tom Moore 1929The ShakedownUniversalDramaJames Murray, Barbara KentPart-Talking film 1929The Love TrapUniversalComedyLaura La Plante, Neil HamiltonPart-Talking film * Universal's Mustang Series. Wyler made 21 two-reeler films for this series, all with a duration of 24 minutes. ** Universal's Blue Streak Series. Wyler made 6 five-reeler films for this series, all with a duration of an hour. Sound films YearTitleStudioGenreCastNotes 1930Hell's HeroesUniversalDramaCharles Bickford, Raymond Hatton, Fred Kohler 1930The StormUniversalDramaLupe Vélez, Paul Cavanagh, William Boyd 1931A House DividedUniversalDramaWalter Huston, Kent Douglas, Helen Chandler 1932Tom Brown of CulverUniversalDramaTom Brown, H.B. Warner, Slim Summerville 1933Her First MateUniversalComedySlim Summerville, Zasu Pitts, Una Merkel 1933Counsellor at LawUniversalDramaJohn Barrymore, Bebe Daniels 1934GlamourUniversalDramaPaul Lukas, Constance Cummings, Philip Reed 1935The Good FairyUniversalComedyMargaret Sullavan 1935The Gay DeceptionFoxComedyFrances Dee, Francis Lederer 1936These ThreeSamuel Goldwyn Co.DramaMiriam Hopkins, Merle Oberon, Joel McCrea 1936DodsworthSamuel Goldwyn Co.DramaWalter Huston, Ruth Chatterton, Mary AstorNominated - Academy Award for Best Picture 1936Come and Get ItSamuel Goldwyn Co.DramaJoel McCrea, Edward Arnold, Frances Farmer, Walter BrennanReplaced Howard Hawks after 42 days Won - Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor 1937Dead EndSamuel Goldwyn Co.CrimeHumphrey Bogart, Joel McCrea, Sylvia SydneyNominated - Academy Award for Best Picture 1938JezebelWarner Bros.RomanceBette Davis, Henry Fonda, George BrentNominated - Academy Award for Best Picture Won - Academy Award for Best Actress Won - Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress 1939Wuthering HeightsSamuel Goldwyn Co.RomanceLaurence Olivier, Merle OberonNominated - Academy Award for Best Picture 1940The WesternerSamuel Goldwyn Co.WesternGary Cooper, Walter BrennanWon - Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor 1940The LetterWarner Bros. First NationalDramaBette Davis, Herbert MarshallNominated - Academy Award for Best Picture 1941The Little FoxesSamuel Goldwyn Co.DramaBette Davis, Herbert Marshall, Teresa WrightNominated - Academy Award for Best Picture 1942Mrs. MiniverMGMWarDramaGreer Garson, Walter Pidgeon, Teresa WrightWon - Academy Award for Best Picture Won - Academy Award for Best Actress Won - Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress 1944The Memphis BelleFirst Motion Picture UnitWarDocumentary First Technicolor film 1946The Best Years of Our LivesSamuel Goldwyn Co.War DramaFredric March, Dana Andrews, Harold Russell, Teresa WrightWon - Academy Award for Best Picture Won - Academy Award for Best Actor Won - Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor 1947Thunderbolt!United States Air ForceWarCo-directed with John Sturges Documentary / Short Film 1949The HeiressParamountDramaOlivia De Havilland, Montgomery Clift, Miriam HopkinsNominated - Academy Award for Best Picture Won - Academy Award for Best Actress 1951Detective StoryParamountFilm-noirKirk Douglas, Eleanor Parker 1952CarrieParamountDramaLaurence Olivier, Jennifer Jones, Miriam Hopkins 1953Roman HolidayParamountRomanceAudrey Hepburn, Gregory PeckNominated - Academy Award for Best Picture Won - Academy Award for Best Actress 1955The Desperate HoursParamountFilm-noirHumphrey Bogart, Fredric March 1956Friendly PersuasionAllied ArtistsDramaGary CooperDeLuxe Color film Nominated - Academy Award for Best Picture 1958The Big CountryAnthony ProductionsDramaGregory Peck, Jean Simmons, Charlton HestonTechnicolor film Won - Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor 1959Ben-HurMGMDramaCharlton HestonTechnicolor film Won - Academy Award for Best Picture Won - Academy Award for Best Actor Won - Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor 1961The Children's HourMirisch ProductionsDramaAudrey Hepburn, Shirley MacLaine, James Garner, Miriam Hopkins 1965The CollectorColumbiaDramaTerence Stamp, Samantha EggarTechnicolor film 1966How to Steal a MillionFoxComedyAudrey Hepburn, Peter O'TooleTechnicolor film 1968Funny GirlColumbia / RastarDramaBarbra Streisand, Omar SharifTechnicolor film Nominated - Academy Award for Best Picture Won - Academy Award for Best Actress 1970The Liberation of L.B. JonesColumbiaDramaLee J. Cobb, Anthony Zerbe, Roscoe Lee Browne, Lola FalanaTechnicolor film ebay4323 Condition: Used, Condition: The condition is very good . Folded twice. ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ), Size: Size around 27" x 31" ( Not accurate ), Country/Region of Manufacture: Israel

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