☆Exc 6-Dvd Collectible Box Set Charlie Chan:chanthology-Anthology^390 Minutes!!☆

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Seller: telemosaic (2.527) 100%, Location: Canton, Massachusetts, Ships to: US & many other countries, Item: 293055133695 ☆EXC 6-DVD COLLECTIBLE BOX SET CHARLIE CHAN:CHANTHOLOGY-ANTHOLOGY-390 MINUTES!!☆ The Charlie Chan Chanthology DVD Box Set, 2004, 6-Disc Set. Condition is Very Good. Product Description Disc 1: CHARLIE CHAN IN THE SECRET SERVICE Disc 2: THE CHINESE CAT Disc 3: THE JADE MASK Disc 4: MEETING AT MIDNIGHT Disc 5: THE SCARLET CLUE Disc 6: THE SHANGHAI COBRA Synopsis: Though the Charlie Chan film franchise has earned brickbats for its casting of Caucasian actors as the Asian sleuth, the movies have retained popularity among aficionados of '40s-era B-crime pictures, and the six-disc Charlie Chan Chanthology, all featuring Sidney Toler as Chan, should please that crowd. The Missouri-born Toler starred in 11 Chan pictures for Fox before purchasing the rights to the character from creator Earl Derr Biggers's widow and bringing it to budget studio Monogram, where he starred in 11 more Chans before his death in 1947 (Roland Winters replaced him in six more features until 1949). At Monogram, Chan became a Secret Service Agent (a move calculated to cut down on exotic locations and sets), and comedy was integrated into the plots via Mantan Moreland's chauffeur Birmingham Brown; Benson Fong also joined the cast as Number Three Son Tommy, with occasional appearances by daughter Frances (Frances Chan) and son Eddie (Edwin Luke, brother of Keye Luke, who played Number One Son Lee in the Fox Chans). Other than that, the six films collected here (the first six Chans for Monogram, and all but five directed by Phil Rosen) are largely indistinguishable from one another save for the murder victims and their demises. In The Secret Service, Chan investigates the death of a wartime inventor; a San Francisco socialite expires in The Chinese Cat; daughter Frances is involved in the murder of a psychic in Meeting at Midnight (a.k.a. Black Magic); another government scientist is killed in The Jade Mask, and death by remote control is the focus of The Scarlet Clue. Director Phil Karlson (Kansas City Confidential) adds some noirish atmosphere to The Shanghai Cobra, which has bank employees dying from apparent snakebites. Dated and controversial as they may be, the Chan films are engaging diversions for vintage mystery fans. No extras are featured in the set. --Paul Gaita Special features Includes: The Secret Service, The Chinese Cat, The Jade Mask, Meeting at Midnight, The Scarlet Clue, and The Shanghai CobraProduct details Actors: Sidney Toler, Mantan Moreland, Arthur Loft, Gwen Kenyon, Sarah Edwards Directors: Phil Karlson, Phil Rosen Writers: Earl Derr Biggers, George Callahan, George Wallace Sayre Producers: James S. Burkett, Philip N. Krasne Format: Box set, Black & White, Full Screen, Subtitled, NTSC Language: English (Dolby Digital 2.0 Mono) Subtitles: English, French, Spanish Region: Region 1 (U.S. and Canada only. Read more about DVD formats.) Aspect Ratio: 1.33:1 Number of discs: 6 Rated: NR Not Rated Studio: MGM (Video & DVD) DVD Release Date: July 6, 2004 Run Time: 390 minutes----------------REVIEW: 5 out of 5 ST*RS!!! Charlie Chan Rules !!! Owen C., April 17 Format: DVD Verified Purchase if you like a slowly developing plot without tons of CG buy Chantology; if you like detective stories buy Chantology;just buy it, you can't go wrong. Remember how David Carridine played a Chinese monk on TV in Kung Fu? Keye Luke was in that series also. Because of all of these series, many people have been exposed to some fine Chinese actors even though they weren't in the main role. Forget Paul, get this if you like Charlie Chan!!! SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Charlie Chan From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search For the Australian pianist and composer, see Charlie Chan (composer), For the Chinese swimmer, see Charlie Chan (swimmer), ‹ The template Infobox character is being considered for merging, › Charlie ChanWarner Oland as Charlie Chan First appearance The House Without a Key Last appearance Charlie Chan and the Curse of the Dragon Queen Created by Earl Derr Biggers Portrayed by E,L, Park Warner Oland Manuel Arbó Sidney Toler Roland Winters Ross Martin Peter Ustinov Information Gender Male Occupation Detective Children 14 Religion Buddhist Nationality Chinese-American Charlie Chan is a fictional character created by Earl Derr Biggers, Biggers loosely based Chan on Honolulu, Hawaii detective Chang Apana, The benevolent and heroic Chan was conceived of as an alternative to Yellow Peril stereotypes and villains like Fu Manchu, Chan is a detective for the Honolulu police, though many stories feature Chan traveling the world as he investigates mysteries and solves crimes, Chan first appeared in Biggers' novels, then was featured in a number of media, Over four dozen films featuring Charlie Chan were made, beginning in 1926, The character, featured only as a supporting character, was first portrayed by East Asian actors, and the films met with little success, In 1931, for the first film centering on Chan, Charlie Chan Carries On, the Fox Film Corporation cast Swedish actor Warner Oland; the film became popular, and Fox went on to produce fifteen more Chan films with Oland in the title role, After Oland's death, American actor Sidney Toler was cast as Chan; Toler made twenty-two Chan films, first for Fox and then for Monogram Studios, After Toler's death, six films were made, st*rring Roland Winters, Readers and movie-goers of America initially greeted Chan warmly, seeing him as an attractive character who is portrayed as intelligent, heroic, benevolent and honorable in contrast to the racist depictions of evil or conniving Asians which often dominated Hollywood and national media in the early 20th Century, However, in later decades critics increasingly took a different view of the character, finding that Chan, despite his good qualities, reinforces condescending Asian stereotypes such as an alleged incapacity to speak idiomatic English and a tradition-bound and subservient nature, Many found it objectionable that he was played on screen by Caucasian actors in yellowface, Due in large part to this reappraisal of the Character, there has not been a Charlie Chan film made since 1981, The character has also been featured in several radio programs, two television shows, and comics, Contents 1 Books 2 Film, radio, and television adaptations 2,1 Films 2,1,1 Spanish-language adaptations 2,1,2 Chinese-language adaptations 2,1,3 Modern adaptations 2,2 Radio 2,3 Television adaptations 3 Comics and games 4 Modern interpretations and criticism 5 Bibliography 6 Filmography and DVD availability 7 Notes 8 See also 9 References 10 External links Books[edit] The character of Charlie Chan was created by Earl Derr Biggers, In 1919,[1] while visiting Hawaii, Biggers planned a detective novel to be called The House Without a Key, He did not begin to write that novel until four years later, however, when he was inspired to add a Chinese-American police officer to the plot after reading in a newspaper of Chang Apana (鄭阿平) and Lee Fook, two detectives on the Honolulu police force,[2] Biggers, who disliked the Yellow Peril stereotypes he found when he came to California,[3] explicitly conceived of the character as an alternative: "Sinister and wicked Chinese are old stuff, but an amiable Chinese on the side of law and order has never been used,"[4] It overwhelms me with sadness to admit it … for he is of my own origin, my own race, as you know, But when I look into his eyes I discover that a gulf like the heaving Pacific lies between us, Why? Because he, though among Caucasians many more years than I, still remains Chinese, As Chinese to-day as in the first moon of his existence, While I – I bear the brand – the label – Americanized,,,, I traveled with the current,,,, I was ambitious, I sought success, For what I have won, I paid the price, Am I an American? No, Am I, then, a Chinese? Not in the eyes of Ah Sing, — Charlie Chan, speaking of a murderer's accomplice, in Keeper of the Keys, by Earl Derr Biggers[5] The "amiable Chinese" made his first appearance in The House Without a Key (1925), The character was not central to the novel and was not mentioned by name on the dust jacket of the first edition,[6] In the novel, Chan is described as walking with "the light dainty step of a woman"[7] and as being "very fat indeed … an undistinguished figure in his Western clothes,"[8] According to critic Sandra Hawley, this description of Chan allows Biggers to portray the character as nonthreatening, the opposite of evil Chinese characters, such as Fu Manchu, while simultaneously emphasizing supposedly Chinese characteristics such as impassivity and stoicism, [9] Biggers wrote six novels in which Charlie Chan appears: The House Without a Key (1925) The Chinese Parrot (1926) Behind That Curtain (1928) The Black Camel (1929) Charlie Chan Carries On (1930) Keeper of the Keys (1932) Film, radio, and television adaptations[edit] Films[edit] The first film featuring Charlie Chan, as a supporting character, was The House Without a Key (1926), a ten-chapter serial produced by Pathé Studios, st*rring George Kuwa, a Japanese actor, as Chan,[10] A year later Universal Pictures followed with The Chinese Parrot, st*rring Japanese actor, Kamiyama Sojin, as Chan, again as a supporting character,[10] In both productions, Charlie Chan's role was minimized,[11] Contemporary reviews were unfavorable; in the words of one reviewer, speaking of The Chinese Parrot, Sojin plays "the Chink sleuth as a Lon Chaney cook-waiter … because Chaney can't stoop that low,"[12] Keye Luke, who played Charlie Chan's "No, 1" son Lee in a number of films In 1929, the Fox Film Corporation optioned Charlie Chan properties and produced Behind That Curtain, st*rring Korean actor E,L, Park,[13] Again, Chan's role was minimal, with Chan appearing only in the last ten minutes of the film,[13] For the first film to center mainly on the character of Chan, Warner Oland, a white actor, was cast in the title role in 1931's Charlie Chan Carries On, and it was this film that gained popular success, [14] Oland, a Swedish actor, had also played Fu Manchu in an earlier film, Oland, who claimed some Mongolian ancestry,[15] played the character as more gentle and self-effacing than he had been in the books, perhaps in "a deliberate attempt by the studio to downplay an uppity attitude in a Chinese detective,"[16] Oland st*rred in sixteen Chan films for Fox, often with Keye Luke, who played Chan's "Number One Son", Lee Chan, Oland's "warmth and gentle humor"[17] helped make the character and films popular; the Oland Chan films were among Fox's most successful,[18] By attracting "major audiences and box-office grosses on a par with A's"[19] they "kept Fox afloat" during the Great Depression,[20] Sidney Toler as Charlie Chan in Dangerous Money (1946) Oland died in 1938, and the Chan film, Charlie Chan at the Ringside, was rewritten with additional footage as Mr, Moto's Gamble, an entry in the Mr, Moto series, another contemporary series featuring an East Asian protagonist; Luke appeared as Lee Chan, not only in already shot footage but also in scenes with Moto actor Peter Lorre, Fox hired another white actor, Sidney Toler, to play Charlie Chan, and produced eleven Chan films through 1942,[21] Toler's Chan was less mild-mannered than Oland's, a "switch in attitude that added some of the vigor of the original books to the films,"[16] He is frequently accompanied, and irritated, by his Number Two Son, Jimmy Chan, played by Sen Yung,[22] When Fox decided to produce no further Chan films, Sidney Toler purchased the film rights,[21] Producers Philip N, Krasne and James S, Burkett of Monogram Pictures produced and released further Chan films, st*rring Toler, The budget for these films was reduced from Fox's average of $200,000 to $75,000,[21] For the first time, Chan was portrayed on occasion as "openly contemptuous of suspects and superiors,"[23] African-American comedic actor Mantan Moreland played chauffeur Birmingham Brown in 13 films (1944–1949) which led to criticism of the Monogram films in the forties and since;[23][24] some call his performances "brilliant comic turns",[25] while others describe Moreland's roles as an offensive and embarrassing stereotype,[24] Toler died in 1947 and was succeeded by Roland Winters for six films,[26] Keye Luke, missing from the series after 1938's Mr, Moto rework, returned as Charlie's son in the last two entries, Spanish-language adaptations[edit] Three Spanish-language Charlie Chan films were made in the 1930s and 1950s, The first, Eran Trece (There Were Thirteen) (1931), is a Spanish-language version of Charlie Chan Carries On (1931), The two films were made concurrently and followed the same production schedule, with each scene filmed twice the same day, once in English and then in Spanish,[27] The film followed essentially the same script as the Anglophonic version, with minor additions such as brief songs and skits and some changes to characters' names (for example, the character Elmer Benbow was renamed Frank Benbow),[28] A Cuban production, La Serpiente Roja (The Red Snake), followed in 1937,[29] In 1955, Producciones Cub-Mex produced a Mexican version of Charlie Chan called El Monstruo en la Sombra (Monster in the Shadow), st*rring Orlando Rodriguez as "Chan Li Po" (Charlie Chan in the original script),[29] The film was inspired by La Serpiente Roja as well as the American Warner Oland films,[29] Chinese-language adaptations[edit] During the 1930s and 1940s, five Chan films were produced in Shanghai and Hong Kong, In these films, Chan owns his detective agency and is aided, not by a son, but by a daughter, Manna, played first by Gu Meijun (顾梅君) in the Shanghai productions and then by Bai Yan (白燕) in postwar Hong Kong,[3] Chinese audiences also saw the original American Charlie Chan films, They were by far the most popular American films in 1930s China and among Chinese expatriates; "one of the reasons for this acceptance was this was the first time Chinese audiences saw a positive Chinese character in an American film, a departure from the sinister East Asian stereotypes in earlier movies like Thief of Baghdad and Welcome Danger, which incited riots that shut down the Shanghai theater showing it," Oland's visit to China was reported extensively in Chinese newspapers, and the actor was respectfully called "Mr, Chan",[3] Modern adaptations[edit] In Neil Simon's Murder By Death, Peter Sellers plays a Chinese detective called Sidney Wang, a parody of Chan, In 1980, Jerry Sherlock began production on a comedy film to be called Charlie Chan and the Dragon Lady, A group calling itself C,A,N, (Coalition of Asians to Nix) was formed, protesting the fact that non-Chinese actors, Peter Ustinov and Angie Dickinson, had been cast in the primary roles, Others protested that the film script contained a number of stereotypes; Sherlock responded that the film was not a documentary,[30] The film was released the following year as Charlie Chan and the Curse of the Dragon Queen and was an "abysmal failure,"[31][32] An updated film version of the character was planned in the 1990s by Miramax, While this Charlie Chan was to be "hip, slim, cerebral, sexy and,,, a martial-arts master,"[32] nonetheless the film did not come to fruition,[32] Actress Lucy Liu is slated to st*r in and executive-produce a new Charlie Chan film for Fox,[33] The film has been in preproduction since 2000; as of 2009 it is slated to be produced,[34] Radio[edit] On radio, Charlie Chan was heard in several different series on three networks (the NBC Blue Network, Mutual, and ABC) between 1932 and 1948,[35] Walter Connolly initially portrayed Chan on Esso Oil's Five st*r Theater, which serialized adaptations of Biggers novels,[36] Ed Begley, Sr, had the title role in N,B,C,'s The Adventures of Charlie Chan (1944–45), followed by Santos Ortega (1947–48), Leon Janney and Rodney Jacobs were heard as Lee Chan, Number One Son, and Dorian St, George was the announcer,[37] Radio Life magazine described Begley's Chan as "a good radio match for Sidney Toler's beloved film enactment,"[38] Television adaptations[edit] In 1956–57, The New Adventures of Charlie Chan, st*rring J, Carrol Naish in the title role, were made independently for TV syndication in 39 episodes, by Television Programs of America, The series was filmed in England,[39] In this series, Chan is based in London rather than the United States, Ratings were poor, and the series was canceled,[40] In the 1960s, Joey Forman played an obvious parody of Chan named "Harry Hoo" in two episodes of Get Smart, In the 1970s, Hanna-Barbera produced an animated series called The Amazing Chan and the Chan Clan, Keye Luke, who had played Chan's son in many Chan films of the 1930s and '40s, lent his voice to Charlie, employing a much-expanded vocabulary, The series focused on Chan's children, played initially by East Asian-American child actors before being recast, due to concerns that younger viewers would not understand the accented voices, The title character bears some resemblance to the Warner Oland depiction of Charlie Chan, Leslie Kumamota voiced Chan's daughter Anne, before being replaced by Jodie Foster,[41] The Return of Charlie Chan, a television film st*rring Ross Martin as Chan, was made in 1971 but did not air until 1979, Comics and games[edit] Alfred Andriola's Charlie Chan (6 June 1940) A Charlie Chan comic strip, drawn by Alfred Andriola, was distributed by the McNaught Syndicate beginning 24 October 1938,[42] Andriola was chosen by Biggers to draw the character,[43] Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the strip was dropped in May 1942,[44] Over decades, other Charlie Chan comic books have been published: Joe Simon and Jack Kirby created Prize Comics' Charlie Chan (1948) which ran for five issues, It was followed by a Charlton Comics title (four issues, 1955), DC Comics published The New Adventures of Charlie Chan,[45] a 1958 tie-in with the TV series; the DC series lasted for six issues, Dell Comics did the title for two issues in 1965, In the 1970s, Gold Key Comics published a short-lived series of Chan comics based on the Hanna-Barbera animated series, In addition, a board game, The Great Charlie Chan Detective Mystery Game (1937),[46] and a Charlie Chan Card Game (1939), have been released, Modern interpretations and criticism[edit] The character of Charlie Chan has been the subject of controversy, Some find the character to be a positive role model, while others argue that Chan is an offensive stereotype, Critic John Soister argues that Charlie Chan is both; when Biggers created the character, he offered a unique alternative to stereotypical evil Chinamen, a man who was at the same time "sufficiently accommodating in personality,,, unthreatening in demeanor,,, and removed from his Asian homeland,,, to quell any underlying xenophobia,"[47] Critic Michael Brodhead argues that "Biggers's sympathetic treatment of the Charlie Chan novels convinces the reader that the author consciously and forthrightly spoke out for the Chinese – a people to be not only accepted but admired, Biggers's sympathetic treatment of the Chinese reflected and contributed to the greater acceptance of Chinese-Americans in the first third of [the twentieth] century,"[48] S, T, Karnick writes in the National Review that Chan is "a brilliant detective with understandably limited facility in the English language [whose] powers of observation, logic, and personal rectitude and humility made him an exemplary, entirely honorable character,"[25] Ellery Queen called Biggers's characterization of Charlie Chan "a service to humanity and to inter-racial relations,"[6] Dave Kehr of The New York Times said Chan "might have been a stereotype, but he was a stereotype on the side of the angels,"[17] Luke agreed; when asked if he thought that the character was demeaning to the race, he responded, "Demeaning to the race? My God! You've got a Chinese hero!"[49] and "[W]e were making the best damn murder mysteries in Hollywood,"[20][50] Other critics, such as Yen Le Espiritu and Huang Guiyou, argue that Chan, while portrayed positively in some ways, is not on a par with white characters, but a "benevolent Other"[51] who is "one-dimensional,"[52] The films' use of white actors to portray East Asian characters indicates the character's "absolute Oriental Otherness;"[53] the films were only successful as "the domain of white actors who impersonated heavily-accented masters of murder mysteries as well as purveyors of cryptic proverbs, Chan's character "embodies the stereotypes of Chinese Americans, particularly of males: smart, subservient, effeminate,"[54] Chan is representative of a model minority, the good stereotype that counters a bad stereotype: "Each stereotypical image is filled with contradictions: the bloodthirsty Indian is tempered with the image of the noble savage; the bandido exists along with the loyal sidekick; and Fu Manchu is offset by Charlie Chan,"[55] However, Fu Manchu's evil qualities are presented as inherently Chinese, while Charlie Chan's good qualities are exceptional; "Fu represents his race; his counterpart stands away from the other Asian Hawaiians,"[43] Some argue that the character's popularity is dependent on its contrast with stereotypes of the Yellow Peril or Japanese people in particular, American opinion of China and Chinese-Americans grew more positive in the 1920s and 30s in contrast to the Japanese, who were increasingly viewed with suspicion, Sheng-mei Ma argues that the character is a psychological over-compensation to "rampant paranoia over the racial other,"[56] In June 2003, the Fox Movie Channel cancelled a planned Charlie Chan Festival, soon after beginning restoration for cablecasting, after a special-interest group protested, Fox reversed its decision two months later, and on 13 September 2003, the first film in the festival was aired on Fox, The films, when broadcast on the Fox Movie Channel, were followed by round-table discussions by prominent East Asians in the American entertainment industry, led by George Takei, most of whom were against the films,[3] Collections such as Frank Chin's Aiiieeee! An Anthology of Asian-American Writers and Jessica Hagedorn's Charlie Chan is Dead are put forth as alternatives to the Charlie Chan stereotype and "[articulate] cultural anger and exclusion as their animating force,"[57] Fox has released all of its extant Charlie Chan features on DVD,[25] and Warner Bros, (the current proprietor of the Monogram library) has issued all of the Sidney Toler and Roland Winters Monogram features on DVD, Some modern critics, particularly East Asian-Americans, dismiss the Charlie Chan character as "bovine" and "asexual",[58] allowing "white America … [to be] securely indifferent about us as men,"[59] Charlie Chan's good qualities are the product of what Frank Chin and Jeffery Chan call "racist love", arguing that Chan is a model minority and "kissass",[60] Fletcher Chan, however, argues that the Chan of Biggers's novels is not subservient to white characters, citing The Chinese Parrot as an example; in this novel, Chan's eyes blaze with anger at racist remarks and in the end, after exposing the murderer, Chan remarks "Perhaps listening to a 'Chinaman' is no disgrace,"[61] In the films, both Charlie Chan in London (1934) and Charlie Chan in Paris (1935) "contain scenes in which Chan coolly and wittily dispatches other characters' racist remarks,"[17] Yunte Huang manifests an ambivalent attitude, stating that in the USA, Chan "epitomizes the racist heritage and the creative genius of this nation’s culture,"[62] Huang also suggests that critics of Charlie Chan may have themselves, at times, "caricatured" Chan himself,[63] Chan's character has also come under fire for "nuggets of fortune cookie Confucius" [64] and the "counterfeit proverbs" which became so widespread in popular culture, The Biggers novels did not introduce the "Confucius say" proverbs, which were added in the films, but one novel features Chan remarking: "As all those who know me have learned to their distress, Chinese have proverbs to fit every possible situation," [65] Huang Yunte gives as examples "Tongue often hang man quicker than rope," "Mind, like parachute, only function when open," and "Man who flirt with dynamite sometime fly with angels," He argues, however, that these "colorful aphorisms" display "amazing linguistic acrobatic skills," Like the African American "signifying monkey," Huang continues, Chan "imparts as much insult as wisdom," [66] Bibliography[edit] Biggers, Earl Derr, The House Without a Key, New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1925, —, The Chinese Parrot, New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1926, —, Behind That Curtain, New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1928, —, The Black Camel, New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1929, —, Charlie Chan Carries On, New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1930, —, Keeper of the Keys, New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1932, Davis, Robert Hart, Charlie Chan in The Temple of the Golden Horde, 1974, Charlie Chan's Mystery Magazine, Reprinted by Wildside Press, 2003, ISBN 1-59224-014-3, Lynds, Dennis, Charlie Chan Returns, New York: Bantam Books, 1974, ASIN B000CD3I22, Pronzini, Bill, and Jeffrey M, Wallmann, Charlie Chan in the Pawns of Death, 1974, Charlie Chan's Mystery Magazine, Reprinted by Borgo Press, 2003, ISBN 978-1-59224-010-4, Avallone, Michael, Charlie Chan and the Curse of the Dragon Queen, New York: Pinnacle, 1981, ISBN 0-523-41505-2, Robert Hart Davis, "The Silent Corpse", Feb,1974, "Charlie Chan's Mystery Magazine", Robert Hart Davis, "Walk Softly, Strangler", Nov, 1973, Charlie Chan's Mystery Magazine", Jon L, Breen, "The Fortune Cookie", May 1971, "Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine",Filmography and DVD availability[edit] Unless otherwise noted, information is taken from Charles P, Mitchell's A Guide to Charlie Chan Films (1999), DVD releases have mostly been in box set format, The American Western Charlie Film title st*rring Directed by Theatrical release DVD release Notes Production Company The House Without a Key George Kuwa Spencer G, Bennet[67] 1926 Lost film, Silent Film Serial, Pathé Exchange The Chinese Parrot Sojin Paul Leni 1927 Lost film, Silent film Universal Behind That Curtain E,L, Park Irving Cummings 1929 Charlie Chan, Volume Three (20th Century Fox, 2007) First sound film in the series Fox Film Corporation Charlie Chan Carries On Warner Oland Hamilton MacFadden 1931 Lost film[68] Fox Film Corporation Eran Trece (in Spanish: There Were Thirteen) Manuel Arbó[69] David Howard (uncredited) 1931[70] Charlie Chan, Volume One (20th Century Fox, 2006) [71] Fox Film Corporation The Black Camel Warner Oland Hamilton MacFadden 1931 Charlie Chan, Volume Three (20th Century Fox, 2007) Fox Film Corporation Charlie Chan's Chance Warner Oland John Blystone 1932 Lost film Fox Film Corporation Charlie Chan's Greatest Case Warner Oland Hamilton MacFadden 1933 Lost film[72] Fox Film Corporation Charlie Chan's Courage Warner Oland George Hadden and Eugene Forde 1934 Lost film[73] Fox Film Corporation Charlie Chan in London Warner Oland Eugene Forde 1934 Charlie Chan, Volume One (20th Century Fox, 2006) Fox Film Corporation Charlie Chan in Paris Warner Oland Lewis Seiler 1935 Charlie Chan, Volume One (20th Century Fox, 2006) Fox Film Corporation Charlie Chan in Egypt Warner Oland Louis King 1935 Charlie Chan, Volume One (20th Century Fox, 2006) 20th Century Fox Charlie Chan in Shanghai Warner Oland James Tinling 1935 Charlie Chan, Volume One (20th Century Fox, 2006) 20th Century Fox Charlie Chan's Secret Warner Oland Gordon Wiles 1936 Charlie Chan, Volume Three (20th Century Fox, 2007) Public domain due to the omission of a valid copyright notice on original prints, 20th Century Fox Charlie Chan at the Circus Warner Oland Harry Lachman 1936 Charlie Chan, Volume Two (20th Century Fox, 2006) 20th Century Fox Charlie Chan at the Race Track Warner Oland H, Bruce Humberstone 1936 Charlie Chan, Volume Two (20th Century Fox, 2006) 20th Century Fox Charlie Chan at the Opera Warner Oland H, Bruce Humberstone 1936 Charlie Chan, Volume Two (20th Century Fox, 2006) 20th Century Fox Charlie Chan at the Olympics Warner Oland H, Bruce Humberstone 1937 Charlie Chan, Volume Two (20th Century Fox, 2006) 20th Century Fox Charlie Chan on Broadway Warner Oland Eugene Forde 1937 Charlie Chan, Volume Three (20th Century Fox, 2007) 20th Century Fox La Serpiente Roja (in Spanish) Aníbal de Mar Ernesto Caparrós 1937 Cuban film[74] Charlie Chan at Monte Carlo Warner Oland Eugene Forde 1937 Charlie Chan, Volume Three (20th Century Fox, 2007) Warner Oland's last film, 20th Century Fox Charlie Chan in Honolulu Sidney Toler H, Bruce Humberstone 1939 Charlie Chan, Volume Four (20th Century Fox, 2008) 20th Century Fox Charlie Chan in Reno Sidney Toler Norman Foster 1939 Charlie Chan, Volume Four (20th Century Fox, 2008) 20th Century Fox Charlie Chan at Treasure Island Sidney Toler Norman Foster 1939 Charlie Chan, Volume Four (20th Century Fox, 2008) 20th Century Fox City in Darkness Sidney Toler Herbert I, Leeds 1939 Charlie Chan, Volume Four (20th Century Fox, 2008) 20th Century Fox Charlie Chan in Panama Sidney Toler Norman Foster 1940 Charlie Chan, Volume Five (20th Century Fox, 2008) Charlie Chan's Murder Cruise Sidney Toler Eugene Forde 1940 Charlie Chan, Volume Five (20th Century Fox, 2008) Charlie Chan at the Wax Museum Sidney Toler Lynn Shores 1940 Charlie Chan, Volume Five (20th Century Fox, 2008) Murder Over New York Sidney Toler Harry Lachman 1940 Charlie Chan, Volume Five (20th Century Fox, 2008) 20th Century Fox Dead Men Tell Sidney Toler Harry Lachman 1941 Charlie Chan, Volume Five (20th Century Fox, 2008) 20th Century Fox Charlie Chan in Rio Sidney Toler Harry Lachman 1941 Charlie Chan, Volume Five (20th Century Fox, 2008) 20th Century Fox Castle in the Desert Sidney Toler Harry Lachman 1942 Charlie Chan, Volume Five (20th Century Fox, 2008) 20th Century Fox Charlie Chan in the Secret Service Sidney Toler Phil Rosen 1944 The Charlie Chan Chanthology (MGM, 2004) Monogram Pictures The Chinese Cat Sidney Toler Phil Rosen 1944 The Charlie Chan Chanthology (MGM, 2004) Monogram Pictures Black Magic Sidney Toler Phil Rosen 1944 The Charlie Chan Chanthology (MGM, 2004) [75] Monogram Pictures The Jade Mask Sidney Toler Phil Rosen 1945 The Charlie Chan Chanthology (MGM, 2004) Monogram Pictures The Scarlet Clue Sidney Toler Phil Rosen 1945 The Charlie Chan Chanthology (MGM, 2004) Public domain due to the omission of a valid copyright notice on original prints, Monogram Pictures The Shanghai Cobra Sidney Toler Phil Karlson 1945 The Charlie Chan Chanthology (MGM, 2004) Monogram Pictures The Red Dragon Sidney Toler Phil Rosen 1946 Charlie Chan 3-Film Collection (Warner Archive, 2016) Monogram Pictures Dangerous Money Sidney Toler Terry O, Morse 1946 TCM Spotlight: Charlie Chan Collection (Turner Classic Movies, 2010) Public domain due to the omission of a valid copyright notice on original prints, Monogram Pictures Dark Alibi Sidney Toler Phil Karlson 1946 TCM Spotlight: Charlie Chan Collection (Turner Classic Movies, 2010) Public domain due to the omission of a valid copyright notice on original prints, Monogram Pictures Shadows Over Chinatown Sidney Toler Terry O, Morse 1946 Charlie Chan Collection (Warner Home Video, 2013) Monogram Pictures The Trap Sidney Toler Howard Bretherton 1946 TCM Spotlight: Charlie Chan Collection (Turner Classic Movies, 2010) Public domain due to the omission of a valid copyright notice on original prints, Sidney Toler's last film, Monogram Pictures The Chinese Ring Roland Winters William Beaudine[76] 1947 TCM Spotlight: Charlie Chan Collection (Turner Classic Movies, 2010) Public domain due to the omission of a valid copyright notice on original prints, Roland Winters' first film Monogram Pictures Docks of New Orleans Roland Winters Derwin Abrahams 1948 Charlie Chan Collection (Warner Home Video, 2013) Monogram Pictures Shanghai Chest Roland Winters William Beaudine 1948 Charlie Chan Collection (Warner Home Video, 2013) Monogram Pictures The Golden Eye Roland Winters William Beaudine 1948 Charlie Chan Collection (Warner Home Video, 2013) Public domain due to the omission of a valid copyright notice on original prints, Monogram Pictures The Feathered Serpent Roland Winters William Beaudine[76] 1948 Charlie Chan 3-Film Collection (Warner Archive, 2016) Monogram Pictures Sky Dragon Roland Winters Lesley Selander 1949 Charlie Chan 3-Film Collection (Warner Archive, 2016) Monogram Pictures El Monstruo en la Sombra (in Spanish) Orlando Rodríguez Zacarias Urquiza[77] 1955 Mexican Film[78] The Return of Charlie Chan (aka Happiness is a Warm Clue) Ross Martin Daryl Duke[79] 1973 TV film[80] Universal Television Charlie Chan and the Curse of the Dragon Queen Peter Ustinov Clive Donner[79] 1981 Chinese Charlie Chan Film title st*rring Directed by Theatrical release DVD release Notes The Disappearing Corpse (in Chinese) Xu Xinyuan Xu Xinfu 1937 [3] The Pearl Tunic (in Chinese) Xu Xinyuan Xu Xinfu 1938 [3] The Radio Station Murder (in Chinese) Xu Xinyuan Xu Xinfu 1939 [3] Charlie Chan Smashes an Evil Plot (in Chinese) Xu Xinyuan Xu Xinfu 1941 [3] Charlie Chan Matches Wits with the Prince of Darkness (in Chinese) Xu Xinyuan Xu Xinfu 1948 [3] Mystery of the Jade Fish (in Chinese) Lee Ying Lee Ying c,1950 (distributed in New York in 1951) [81] Notes[edit] ^ Mitchell (1999), xxv, ^ This point is debated, Hawley says Apana directly inspired Biggers (135); Herbert says Apana may have done so (20), However, Biggers himself, in a 1931 interview, cited both Apana and Fook as inspirations for the character of Charlie Chan ("Creating Charlie Chan" [1931]), When Biggers actually met Apana a few years later, he found that his character and Apana had little in common, ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i "Charlie Chan in China", The Chinese Mirror: A Journal of Chinese Film History, May 2008, Archived from the original on 8 July 2011, Retrieved 18 April 2011, ^ Earl Derr Biggers, quoted in "Creating Charlie Chan" (1931), ^ Quoted in Sommer (), 211, ^ Jump up to: a b Queen (1969), 102, ^ The House Without a Key, quoted in Odo (2002), 388, ^ The House Without a Key, quoted in Hawley (1991), 136, ^ Hawley (1991), p, 136, ^ Jump up to: a b Hanke (1989), xii, ^ Mitchell (1999), xviii, ^ Quoted in Soister (2004), 71, ^ Jump up to: a b Mitchell (1999), 2, ^ Balio (1995), 336, ^ Quoted in Hanke (2004), 1, ^ Jump up to: a b Hanke (1989), 111, ^ Jump up to: a b c Kehr, Dave (20 June 2006), "New DVD's: Charlie Chan", The New York Times, ^ Balio (1995), 316, ^ Balio (1995), 317, ^ Jump up to: a b Lepore, Jill, "CHAN, THE MAN'" The New Yorker, 9 August 2010, ^ Jump up to: a b c Hanke (1989), 169, ^ Hanke (1989), 111-114, ^ Jump up to: a b Hanke (1989), 170, ^ Jump up to: a b Cullen, et al (2007), 794, ^ Jump up to: a b c Karnick (2006), ^ Hanke (1989), 220, ^ Mitchell (1999), 153, ^ Mitchell (1999), 153-154, ^ Jump up to: a b c Mitchell (1999), 235, ^ Chan (2001), 58, ^ Pitts (1991), 301, ^ Jump up to: a b c Sengupta (1997), ^ Littlejohn (2008), ^ Yang Jie (2009), ^ Huang, Yunte; Charlie Chan: The Untold Story of the Honorable Detective and His Rendezvous with American History, pp, 265-266; W, W, Norton & Company, 15 August 2011 ^ Dunning (1998), 149, ^ Cox (2002), 9, ^ Quoted in Dunning (1998), 149, ^ Mitchell (1999), 237, ^ Mitchell (1999), 238, ^ Mitchell (1999), 240, ^ Young (2007), 128, Ma (2000), 13 gives the dates as 1935 to 1938; however, Young's obituary in The New York Times states that the strip began in 1938, ^ Jump up to: a b Ma (2000), 13, ^ Young (2007), 128, ^ Anderson and Eury (2005), 1923, ^ Rinker (1988), 312, ^ Soister (), 67, ^ Michael Brodhead, quoted in Chan (2001), 56, ^ Quoted in Hanke (2004), xv, ^ Quoted in Hanke (2004), xiii, ^ Kato (2007), 138, ^ Le Espiritu (1996), 99, ^ Dave (2005), xiii, ^ Huang (2006), 211, ^ Michael Omi, quoted in Chan (2001), 51, ^ Ma (2000), 4, ^ Dave (2005), 339, ^ Kim (1982), 179, ^ Frank Chin and Jeffery Chan, quoted in Kim (1982), 179, ^ Chin and Chan, quoted in Kim (1982), 179, ^ The Chinese Parrot, quoted in Chan (2007), ^ Huang (2011), p, xx, ^ Huang (2011), p, 280, ^ Hanke (1989), p, xv, ^ Hawley (1991), p, 137, ^ Huang (2010), p, 287, ^ Struss (1987), 114, ^ "2005 Archive of Screened Films: Mary Pickford Theater (Moving Image Research Center, Library of Congress)", loc,gov, Retrieved 24 May 2016, ^ Hanke states that Chan was played by "Juan Torenas"; however, the more recent Guide to Charlie Chan Films by Charles P, Mitchell states that a Juan Torena played a supporting role in the film and that Arbó was the st*r (Mitchell [1999], 153), Mitchell's book features a reproduction of the original movie poster, which lists Arbó's name before Torena's and in larger print, ^ Hardy (1997), 76, suggests the date is 1932, ^ Spanish-language version of Charlie Chan Carries On, ^ Remake of The House Without a Key, ^ Re-make of The Chinese Parrot, ^ Brunsdale, Mitzi M, (26 July 2010), "Icons of Mystery and Crime Detection: From Sleuths to Superheroes", ABC-CLIO, Retrieved 21 March 2018 – via Google Books, ^ Later retitled Meeting at Midnight for TV ^ Jump up to: a b Reid (2004), 86, ^ Willis (1972), 329, ^ "CHARLIE CHAN: El monstruo en la sombra (1955)", tommenterprises,tripod,com, Retrieved 21 March 2018, ^ Jump up to: a b Pitts (1991), 305, ^ Filmed in 1971; aired on British television in 1973; aired on ABC in 1979 as The Return of Charlie Chan (Pitts [1991], 301), ^ New York State Archives Movie Script Collection (dialogue continuity in English), See also[edit]Books portalComics portalFilm portalGames portalRadio portalTelevision portal Portrayal of East Asians in HollywoodReferences[edit] "Alfred Andriola (obituary)", The New York Times, 30 March 2009, pp, A28, Anderson, Murphy; Michael Eury (2005), The Justice League Companion: A Historical and Speculative Overview of the Silver Age Justice League of America, TwoMorrows Publishing, ISBN 1-893905-48-9, Balio, Tino (1995), Grand design: Hollywood as a modern business enterprise, 1930–1939, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-20334-8, Chan, Fletcher (26 March 2007), "Charlie Chan: A Hero of Sorts", California Literary Review, Retrieved 20 May 2009, Chan, Jachinson (2001), Chinese American masculinities: from Fu Manchu to Bruce Lee, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-8153-4029-X, "Charlie Chan in China", The Chinese Mirror: A Journal of Chinese Film History, May 2008, Archived from the original on 8 July 2011, Retrieved 21 May 2009, "Creating Charlie Chan" (22 March 1931), In Popular Culture (1975), Ed, by David Manning White, Ayer Publishing, ISBN 0-405-06649-X, Cox, Jim (2002), Radio Crime Fighters: Over 300 Programs from the Golden Age, McFarland Publishing, ISBN 0-7864-1390-5, Cullen, Frank; Florence Hackman; Donald McNeilly (2007), Vaudeville, Old & New: An Encyclopedia of Variety Performers in America, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-93853-8, Dave, Shilpa; LeiLani Nishime; Tasha G, Oren (2005), East Main Street: Asian American popular culture, New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-1963-5, Gevinson, Alan (1997), Within Our Gates: Ethnicity in American Feature Films, 1911–1960, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-20964-8, Hanke, Ken (1989), Charlie Chan at the Movies, McFarland Publishing, ISBN 0-7864-1921-0, Hardy, Phil (1997), The BFI companion to crime, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 0-304-33215-1, Hawley, Sandra (1991), Goldstein, Jonathan, Jerry Israel and Hilary Conroy (ed,), The Importance of Being Charlie Chan, Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press, pp, 132–147, ISBN 9780934223133 Huang, Guiyou (2006), The Columbia guide to Asian American literature since 1945, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-12620-4, Huang, Yunte (2010), Charlie Chan: The Untold Story of the Honorable Detective and His Rendezvous with American History, New York: W W Norton, ISBN 978-0-393-06962-4, Retrieved 24 May 2016, Karnick, S, T, (25 July 2006), "The Business End of Ethnic Politics", National Review Online, Archived from the original on 9 January 2009, Retrieved 19 May 2009, Kato, M,T, (2007), From Kung Fu to Hip Hop: Globalization, revolution, and popular culture, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-7914-6991-3, Kim, Elaine H, (1982), Asian American Literature, an introduction to the writings and their social context, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, ISBN 0-87722-260-6, Le Espiritu, Yen (1996), Asian American Women and Men, Rowman and Littlefield, ISBN 0-8039-7255-5, Littlejohn, Janice Rhoshalle (14 January 2008), "Lucy Liu returns to television", The Boston Globe, Retrieved 25 August 2009,[dead link] Ma, Sheng-mei (2000), The deathly embrace: orientalism and Asian American identity, University of Minnesota Press, ISBN 0-8166-3711-3, Mitchell, Charles P, (1999), A Guide to Charlie Chan Films, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-30985-X, Odo, Franklin (2002), The Columbia documentary history of the Asian American experience, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-11030-8, Pitts, Michael R (1991), Famous movie detectives II, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-8108-2345-4, Queen, Ellery (1969), In the Queens' Parlor, and Other Leaves from the Editors' Notebook, Biblio & Tannen, ISBN 0-8196-0238-8, Rinker, Harry L, (1988), Warman's Americana and Collectibles, Warman Publishing, ISBN 0-911594-12-4, Sengupta, Somini (5 January 1997), "Charlie Chan, Retooled for the 90's", The New York Times, Retrieved 21 May 2009, Soister, John (2004), Up from the vault: rare thrillers of the 1920s and 1930s, McFarland Publishing, ISBN 0-7864-1745-5, Sommer, Doris (2003), Bilingual games: some literary investigations, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 1-4039-6012-7, Struss, Karl; Scott Eyman (1987), Five American cinematographers: interviews with Karl Struss, Joseph Ruttenberg, James Wong Howe, Linwood Dunn, and William H, Clothier, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-8108-1974-0, Willis, Donald C, (1972), Horror and Science Fiction Films: A Checklist, Scarecrow Press, ISBN 0-8108-0508-1, Yang, Jie (30 January 2009), "Lucy Liu, Kung Fu actress", CCTV International, Retrieved 25 August 2009, Young, William H (2007), The Great Depression in America: a cultural encyclopedia, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-33521-4, External links[edit]Wikiquote has quotations related to: Charlie ChanWikimedia Commons has media related to Charlie Chan, The "Charlie Chan" Novels Behind That Curtain Charlie Chan Carries On Keeper Of The Keys The Black Camel The Chinese Parrot The House Without A Key About Charlie Chan Charlie Chan Biography Charlie Chan fansite Public-domain Charlie Chan radio programs The Charlie Chan Family Home show vte Charlie Chan Authority control LCCN: no2018173938WorldCat Identities (via LCCN): no2018-173938 Categories: Charlie ChanCharlie Chan derived worksCharlie Chan filmsFictional American people of Chinese descentFictional American police detectivesFictional characters from HawaiiFictional characters based on real peopleFictional characters introduced in 1919Fictional Chinese people in literatureAsian-American issuesEthnic and racial stereotypesAmerican comic stripsAmerican radio dramasCrime film charactersDetective radio programsFilm seriesAmerican film seriesCrime films by seriesFilm series introduced in 1926Novels by Earl Derr BiggersSeries of booksMedia franchises introduced in 19251930s American radio programs1938 comics debutsComics characters introduced in 19381940s American radio programsABC radio programsCharlton Comics titlesCrestwood Publications titlesDC Comics titlesDell Comics titlesMutual Broadcasting System programsNBC Blue Network radio programs ---------------- SOME GENERAL INFO ABOUT Detective fiction From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search "Detective story" redirects here, For other uses, see Detective Story,hide This article has multiple issues, Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page, (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article needs additional citations for verification, (March 2010) The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject, (March 2010) Detective fiction is a subgenre of crime fiction and mystery fiction in which an investigator or a detective—either professional, amateur or retired—investigates a crime, often murder, The detective genre began around the same time as speculative fiction and other genre fiction in the mid-nineteenth century and has remained extremely popular, particularly in novels,[1] Some of the most famous heroes of detective fiction include C, Auguste Dupin, Sherlock Holmes, and Hercule Poirot, Juvenile stories featuring The Hardy Boys, Nancy Drew, and The Boxcar Children have also remained in print for several decades, Contents 1 Beginnings of detective fiction 1,1 In ancient literature 1,2 Early Arabic/Persian detective fiction 1,3 Early Chinese detective fiction 1,4 Early Western detective fiction 1,5 Establishment of the genre 2 Golden Age detective novels 2,1 'Whodunit' 2,2 Agatha Christie 3 Modern regional detective fiction 3,1 Japanese detective fiction 3,2 Chinese detective fiction 3,3 Other regional and ethnic subcultures 4 Subgenres 4,1 Standard private eye, or "hardboiled" 4,2 Inverted detective 4,3 Police procedural 4,4 Historical mystery 4,5 Cozy mysteries 4,6 Serial killer mystery 4,7 Legal thriller or courtroom 4,8 Locked-room mystery 4,9 Amateur railway detective 5 Modern criticism of detective fiction 5,1 Preserving the story's secrets 5,2 Plausibility and coincidence 5,3 Effects of technology[53] 6 Detective Commandments 7 Influential fictional detectives 7,1 Sherlock Holmes 7,2 Hercule Poirot 7,3 C, Auguste Dupin 7,4 Ellery Queen 8 Detective debuts and swansongs 9 Books 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading Beginnings of detective fiction[edit] In ancient literature[edit] Some scholars, such as R, H, Pfeiffer, have suggested that certain ancient and religious texts bear similarities to what would later be called detective fiction, In the Old Testament story of Susanna and the Elders (the Protestant Bible locates this story within the apocrypha), the account told by two witnesses broke down when Daniel cross-examines them, In response, author Julian Symons has argued that "those who search for fragments of detection in the Bible and Herodotus are looking only for puzzles" and that these puzzles are not detective stories,[2] In the play Oedipus Rex by Ancient Greek playwright Sophocles, the protagonist discovers the truth about his origins after questioning various witnesses, Although "Oedipus's enquiry is based on supernatural, pre-rational methods that are evident in most narratives of crime until the development of Enlightenment thought in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries", this narrative has "all of the central characteristics and formal elements of the detective story, including a mystery surrounding a murder, a closed circle of suspects, and the gradual uncovering of a hidden past,"[3] Early Arabic/Persian detective fiction[edit] The One Thousand and One Nights contains several of the earliest detective stories, anticipating modern detective fiction,[4] The oldest known example of a detective story was "The Three Apples", one of the tales narrated by Scheherazade in the One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights), In this story, a fisherman discovers a heavy, locked chest along the Tigris river, which he then sells to the Abbasid Caliph, Harun al-Rashid, When Harun breaks open the chest, he discovers the body of a young woman who has been cut into pieces, Harun then orders his vizier, Ja'far ibn Yahya, to solve the crime and to find the murderer within three days, or be executed if he fails in his assignment,[5] Suspense is generated through multiple plot twists that occur as the story progressed,[6] With these characteristics this may be considered an archetype for detective fiction,[7] It anticipates the use of reverse chronology in modern detective fiction, where the story begins with a crime before presenting a gradual reconstruction of the past,[4] The main difference between Ja'far ("The Three Apples") and later fictional detectives, such as Sherlock Holmes and Hercule Poirot, is that Ja'far has no actual desire to solve the case, The whodunit mystery is solved when the murderer himself confessed his crime,[8] This in turn leads to another assignment in which Ja'far has to find the culprit who instigated the murder within three days or else be executed, Ja'far again fails to find the culprit before the deadline, but owing to chance, he discovers a key item, In the end, he manages to solve the case through reasoning in order to prevent his own execution,[9] On the other hand, two other Arabian Nights stories, "The Merchant and the Thief" and "Ali Khwaja", contain two of the earliest fictional detectives, who uncover clues and present evidence to catch or convict a criminal known to the audience, with the story unfolding in normal chronology and the criminal already known to the audience, The latter involves a climax where the titular detective protagonist Ali Khwaja presents evidence from expert witnesses in a court,[4] Early Chinese detective fiction[edit] Gong'an fiction (公案小说, literally:"case records of a public law court") is the earliest known genre of Chinese detective fiction, Some well-known stories include the Yuan Dynasty story Circle of Chalk (Chinese: 灰闌記), the Ming Dynasty story collection Bao Gong An (Chinese: 包公案) and the 18th century Di Gong An (Chinese: 狄公案) story collection, The latter was translated into English as Celebrated Cases of Judge Dee by Dutch sinologist Robert Van Gulik, who then used the style and characters to write the original Judge Dee series, The hero/detective of these novels was typically a traditional judge or similar official based on historical personages such as Judge Bao (Bao Qingtian) or Judge Dee (Di Renjie), Although the historical characters may have lived in an earlier period (such as the Song or Tang dynasty) most stories are written in the later Ming or Qing Dynasty period, These novels differ from the Western style tradition in several points as described by Van Gulik:[10] The detective is the local magistrate who is usually involved in several unrelated cases simultaneously; The criminal is introduced at the very beginning of the story and his crime and reasons are carefully explained, thus constituting an inverted detective story rather than a "puzzle"; The stories have a supernatural element with ghosts telling people about their death and even accusing the criminal; The stories are filled with digressions into philosophy, the complete texts of official documents, and much more, resulting in long books; and The novels tend to have a huge cast of characters, typically in the hundreds, all described with their relation to the various main actors in the story, Van Gulik chose Di Gong An to translate because in his view it was closer to the Western literary style and more likely to appeal to non-Chinese readers, One notable fact is that a number of Gong An works may have been lost or destroyed during the Literary Inquisitions and the wars in ancient China,[11] Moreover, in the traditional Chinese culture, this genre was low-prestige, and therefore was less worthy of preservation than works such as philosophy or poetry, Only little or incomplete case volumes can be found; for example, the only copy of Di Gong An was found at a second-hand book store in Tokyo, Japan, Early Western detective fiction[edit] Edgar Allan Poe (1809–1849) One of the earliest examples of detective fiction in Western Literature is Voltaire's Zadig (1748), which features a main character who performs feats of analysis,[12] Things as They Are; or, The Adventures of Caleb Williams (1794) by William Godwin portrays the law as protecting the murderer and destroying the innocent,[13] Thomas Skinner Sturr's anonymous Richmond, or stories in the life of a Bow Street officer was published in London in 1827; the Danish crime story The Rector of Veilbye by Steen Steensen Blicher was written in 1829; and the Norwegian crime novel Mordet paa Maskinbygger Roolfsen ("The Murder of Engine Maker Roolfsen") by Maurits Hansen was published in December 1839, "Das Fräulein von Scuderi" is an 1819 short story by E, T, A, Hoffmann, in which Mlle de Scudery establishes the innocence of the police's favorite suspect in the murder of a jeweller, This story is sometimes cited as the first detective story and as a direct influence on Edgar Allan Poe's "The Murders in the Rue Morgue" (1841),[14] Also suggested as a possible influence on Poe is ‘The Secret Cell’, a short story published in September 1837 by William Evans Burton, It has been suggested that this story may have been known to Poe, who in 1839 worked for Burton,[15] The story was about a London policeman who solves the mystery of a kidnapped girl, Burton's fictional detective relied on practical methods such as dogged legwork, knowledge of the underworld and undercover surveillance, rather than brilliance of imagination or intellect, Establishment of the genre[edit] Detective fiction in the English-speaking world is considered to have begun in 1841 with the publication of Poe's "The Murders in the Rue Morgue",[12] featuring "the first fictional detective, the eccentric and brilliant C, Auguste Dupin", When the character first appeared, the word detective did not even exist, However, the character's name, "Dupin", originated from the English word dupe or deception,[16] Poe devised a "plot formula that's been successful ever since, give or take a few shifting variables,"[17] Poe followed with further Auguste Dupin tales: "The Mystery of Marie Rogêt" in 1843 and "The Purloined Letter" in 1845, Poe referred to his stories as "tales of ratiocination",[12] In stories such as these, the primary concern of the plot is ascertaining truth, and the usual means of obtaining the truth is a complex and mysterious process combining intuitive logic, astute observation, and perspicacious inference, "Early detective stories tended to follow an investigating protagonist from the first scene to the last, making the unravelling a practical rather than emotional matter,"[17] "The Mystery of Marie Rogêt" is particularly interesting because it is a barely fictionalized account based on Poe's theory of what happened to the real-life Mary Cecilia Rogers, Émile Gaboriau was a pioneer of the detective fiction genre in France, In Monsieur Lecoq (1868), the title character is adept at disguise, a key characteristic of detectives,[18] Gaboriau's writing is also considered to contain the first example of a detective minutely examining a crime scene for clues,[19] Charles Dickens (1812–1870), Photo from 1858 Another early example of a whodunit is a subplot in the novel Bleak House (1853) by Charles Dickens, The conniving lawyer Tulkinghorn is killed in his office late one night, and the crime is investigated by Inspector Bucket of the Metropolitan police force, Numerous characters appeared on the staircase leading to Tulkinghorn's office that night, some of them in disguise, and Inspector Bucket must penetrate these mysteries to identify the murderer, Dickens also left a novel unfinished at his death, The Mystery of Edwin Drood,[20][21] Wilkie Collins (1824–1889) Dickens's protégé, Wilkie Collins (1824–1889)—sometimes referred to as the "grandfather of English detective fiction"—is credited with the first great mystery novel, The Woman in White, T, S, Eliot called Collins's novel The Moonstone (1868) "the first, the longest, and the best of modern English detective novels,,, in a genre invented by Collins and not by Poe",[22] and Dorothy L, Sayers called it "probably the very finest detective story ever written",[23] The Moonstone contains a number of ideas that have established in the genre several classic features of the 20th century detective story: English country house robbery An "inside job" red herrings A celebrated, skilled, professional investigator Bungling local constabulary Detective inquiries Large number of false suspects The "least likely suspect" A rudimentary "locked room" murder A reconstruction of the crime A final twist in the plot Arthur Conan Doyle (1859–1930) Although The Moonstone is usually seen as the first detective novel, there are other contenders for the honor, A number of critics suggest that the lesser known Notting Hill Mystery (1862–63), written by the pseudonymous "Charles Felix" (later identified as Charles Warren Adams[24][25]), preceded it by a number of years and first used techniques that would come to define the genre,[24][26] Literary critics Chris Willis and Kate Watson consider Mary Elizabeth Braddon's first book, the even earlier The Trail of the Serpent (1861), the first British detective novel,[27] The novel "features an unusual and innovative detective figure, Mr, Peters, who is lower class and mute, and who is initially dismissed both by the text and its characters,"[27] Braddon's later and better-remembered work, Aurora Floyd (printed in 1863 novel form, but serialized in 1862–63[28]), also features a compelling detective in the person of Detective Grimstone of Scotland Yard, Tom Taylor's melodrama The Ticket-of-Leave Man, an adaptation of Léonard by Édouard Brisbarre and Eugène Nus,[29] appeared in 1863, introducing Hawkshaw the Detective, In short, it is difficult to establish who was the first to write the English-language detective novel, as various authors were exploring the theme simultaneously, In 1887, Arthur Conan Doyle created Sherlock Holmes, arguably the most famous of all fictional detectives, Although Sherlock Holmes is not the original fiction detective (he was influenced by Poe's Dupin and Gaboriau's Lecoq), his name has become a byword for the part, Conan Doyle stated that the character of Holmes was inspired by Dr, Joseph Bell, for whom Doyle had worked as a clerk at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, Like Holmes, Bell was noted for drawing large conclusions from the smallest observations,[30] A brilliant London-based "consulting detective" residing at 221B Baker Street, Holmes is famous for his intellectual prowess and is renowned for his skillful use of astute observation, deductive reasoning, and forensic skills to solve difficult cases, Conan Doyle wrote four novels and fifty-six short stories featuring Holmes, and all but four stories are narrated by Holmes's friend, assistant, and biographer, Dr, John H, Watson, Golden Age detective novels[edit] Agatha Christie (1890–1976) The period between World War I and World War II (the 1920s and 1930s) is generally referred to as the Golden Age of Detective Fiction,[31] During this period, a number of very popular writers emerged, including mostly British but also a notable subset of American and New Zealand writers, Female writers constituted a major portion of notable Golden Age writers, Agatha Christie, Dorothy L, Sayers, Josephine Tey, Margery Allingham, and Ngaio Marsh were particularly famous female writers of this time,[31] Apart from Ngaio Marsh (a New Zealander), they were all British, Various conventions of the detective genre were standardized during the Golden Age, and in 1929, some of them were codified by writer Ronald Knox in his 'Decalogue' of rules for detective fiction, One of his rules was to avoid supernatural elements so that the focus remained on the mystery itself,[31] Knox has contended that a detective story "must have as its main interest the unravelling of a mystery; a mystery whose elements are clearly presented to the reader at an early stage in the proceedings, and whose nature is such as to arouse curiosity, a curiosity which is gratified at the end,"[32] Another common convention in Golden Age detective stories involved an outsider — sometimes a salaried investigator or a police officer, but often a gifted amateur — investigating a murder committed in a closed environment by one of a limited number of suspects, The most widespread subgenre of the detective novel became the whodunit (or whodunnit, short for "who done it?"), In this subgenre, great ingenuity may be exercised in narrating the crime, usually a homicide, and the subsequent investigation, This objective was to conceal the identity of the criminal from the reader until the end of the book, when the method and culprit are both revealed, According to scholars Carole Kismaric and Marvi Heiferman, "The golden age of detective fiction began with high-class amateur detectives sniffing out murderers lurking in rose gardens, down country lanes, and in picturesque villages, Many conventions of the detective-fiction genre evolved in this era, as numerous writers — from populist entertainers to respected poets — tried their hands at mystery stories,"[17] John Dickson Carr — who also wrote as Carter Dickson — used the “puzzle” approach in his writing which was characterized by including a complex puzzle for the reader to try to unravel, He created ingenious and seemingly impossible plots and is regarded as the master of the "locked room mystery", Two of Carr's most famous works are The Case of Constant Suicides (1941) and The Hollow Man (1935),[33] Another author, Cecil Street — who also wrote as John Rhode — wrote of a detective, Dr, Priestley, who specialised in elaborate technical devices, In the United States, the whodunit subgenre was adopted and extended by Rex Stout and Ellery Queen, along with others, The emphasis on formal rules during the Golden Age produced great works, albeit with highly standardized form, The most successful novels of this time included “an original and exciting plot; distinction in the writing, a vivid sense of place, a memorable and compelling hero and the ability to draw the reader into their comforting and highly individual world,”[31] 'Whodunit'[edit] Main article: Whodunit A whodunit or whodunnit (a colloquial elision of "Who [has] done it?" or "Who did it?") is a complex, plot-driven variety of the detective story in which the audience is given the opportunity to engage in the same process of deduction as the protagonist throughout the investigation of a crime, The reader or viewer is provided with the clues from which the identity of the perpetrator may be deduced before the story provides the revelation itself at its climax, The "whodunit" flourished during the so-called "Golden Age" of detective fiction, between 1920 and 1950, when it was the predominant mode of crime writing, Agatha Christie[edit] Agatha Christie is not only the most famous Golden Age writer, but also considered one of the most famous authors of all genres of all time, At the time of her death in 1976, “she was the best-selling novelist in history,”[32] Many of the most popular books of the Golden Age were written by Agatha Christie, She produced long series of books featuring detective characters like Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple, amongst others, Her use of basing her stories on complex puzzles, “combined with her stereotyped characters and picturesque middle-class settings”, is credited for her success,[32] Christie's works include Murder on the Orient Express (1934), Death on the Nile (1937), and And Then There Were None (1939), Modern regional detective fiction[edit] Japanese detective fiction[edit] Edogawa Rampo is the first Japanese modern mystery writer and the founder of the Detective Story Club in Japan, Rampo was an admirer of western mystery writers, He gained his fame in early 1920s, when he began to bring to the genre many bizarre, erotic and even fantastic elements, This is partly because of the social tension before World War II,[34] In 1957, Seicho Matsumoto received the Mystery Writers of Japan Award for his short story The Face (顔 kao), The Face and Matsumoto's subsequent works began the "social school" (社会派 shakai ha) within the genre, which emphasized social realism, described crimes in an ordinary setting and sets motives within a wider context of social injustice and political corruption,[34] Since the 1980s, a "new orthodox school" (新本格派 shin honkaku ha) has surfaced, It demands restoration of the classic rules of detective fiction and the use of more self-reflective elements, Famous authors of this movement include Soji Shimada, Yukito Ayatsuji, Rintaro Norizuki, Alice Arisugawa, Kaoru Kitamura and Taku Ashibe, Chinese detective fiction[edit] Through China's Golden Age of crime fiction (1900–1949), translations of Western classics, and native Chinese detective fictions[35] circulated within the country, Cheng Xiaoqing had first encountered Conan Doyle’s highly popular stories as an adolescent, In the ensuing years, he played a major role in rendering them first into classical and later into vernacular Chinese, Cheng Xiaoqing’s translated works from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle introduced China to a new type of narrative style, Western detective fiction that was translated often emphasized “individuality, equality, and the importance of knowledge” , appealing to China that it was the time for opening their eyes to the rest of the world, This style began China's interest in popular crime fiction, and is what drove Cheng Xiaoqing to write his own crime fiction novel, Sherlock in Shanghai,[36] In the late 1910s, Cheng began writing detective fiction very much in Conan Doyle’s style, with Bao as the Watson-like narrator; a rare instance of such a direct appropriation from foreign fiction,[36] Famed as the “Oriental Sherlock Holmes”,[35] the duo Huo Sang and Bao Lang become counterparts to Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes and Dr, Watson characters, Other regional and ethnic subcultures[edit] Especially in the United States, detective fiction emerged in the 1960s, and gained prominence in later decades, as a way for authors to bring stories about various subcultures to mainstream audiences, One scholar wrote about the detective novels of Tony Hillerman, set among the Native American population around New Mexico, "many American readers have probably gotten more insight into traditional Navajo culture from his detective stories than from any other recent books,"[37] Other notable writers who have explored regional and ethnic communities in their detective novels are Harry Kemelman, whose Rabbi Small series were set in the Conservative Jewish community of Massachusetts; Walter Mosley, whose Easy Rawlins books are set in the African American community of 1950s Los Angeles; and Sara Paretsky, whose V, I, Warshawski books have explored the various subcultures of Chicago, Stories about robbers and detectives were very popular in Russia since old times, The most famous hero in XVIII cent, was Ivan Osipov (1718 — after 1756), nicknamed Ivan Kain, Another examples of early russian detective stories are: "Bitter Fate" (1789) by M, D, Chulkov (1743—1792)[38], "The Finger Ring" (1831) by Yevgeny Baratynsky, "The White Ghost" (1834) by Mikhail Zagoskin, "Crime and Punishment " (1866) and "The Brothers Karamazov" (1880) by Fyodor Dostoevsky[39], Detective fictions in modern russian literature with clear detective plots st*rted with "The Garin Death Ray" (1926–1927) and "The Black Gold" (1931) by Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy, "Mess-Mend" by Marietta Shaginyan, "The Investigator's Notes" by Lev Sheinin[40], Boris Akunin is famous Russian writer of historical detective fiction in modern-day Russia, Subgenres[edit] Standard private eye, or "hardboiled"[edit] Martin Hewitt, created by British author Arthur Morrison in 1894, is one of the first examples of the modern style of fictional private detective, This character is described as an "'Everyman' detective meant to challenge the detective-as-superman that Holmes represented,"[41] By the late 1920s, Al Capone and the Mob were inspiring not only fear, but piquing mainstream curiosity about the American crime underworld, Popular pulp fiction magazines like Black Mask capitalized on this, as authors such as Carrol John Daly published violent stories that focused on the mayhem and injustice surrounding the criminals, not the circumstances behind the crime, Very often, no actual mystery even existed: the books simply revolved around justice being served to those who deserved harsh treatment, which was described in explicit detail,"[17] The overall theme these writers portrayed reflected "the changing face of America itself,"[41] In the 1930s, the private eye genre was adopted wholeheartedly by American writers, One of the primary contributors to this style was Dashiell Hammett with his famous private investigator character, Sam Spade,[42] His style of crime fiction came to be known as "hardboiled", which is described as a genre that "usually deals with criminal activity in a modern urban environment, a world of disconnected signs and anonymous strangers,"[42] "Told in st*rk and sometimes elegant language through the unemotional eyes of new hero-detectives, these stories were an American phenomenon,"[17] In the late 1930s, Raymond Chandler updated the form with his private detective Philip Marlowe, who brought a more intimate voice to the detective than the more distanced "operative's report" style of Hammett's Continental Op stories,[43] Despite struggling through the task of plotting a story, his cadenced dialogue and cryptic narrations were musical, evoking the dark alleys and tough thugs, rich women and powerful men about whom he wrote, Several feature and television movies have been made about the Philip Marlowe character, James Hadley Chase wrote a few novels with private eyes as the main heroes, including Blonde's Requiem (1945), Lay Her Among the Lilies (1950), and Figure It Out for Yourself (1950), The heroes of these novels are typical private eyes, very similar to or plagiarizing Raymond Chandler's work,[44] Ross Macdonald, pseudonym of Kenneth Millar, updated the form again with his detective Lew Archer, Archer, like Hammett's fictional heroes, was a camera eye, with hardly any known past, "Turn Archer sideways, and he disappears," one reviewer wrote, Two of Macdonald's strengths were his use of psychology and his beautiful prose, which was full of imagery, Like other 'hardboiled' writers, Macdonald aimed to give an impression of realism in his work through violence, sex and confrontation, The 1966 movie Harper st*rring Paul Newman was based on the first Lew Archer story The Moving Target (1949), Newman reprised the role in The Drowning Pool in 1976, Michael Collins, pseudonym of Dennis Lynds, is generally considered the author who led the form into the Modern Age, His PI, Dan Fortune, was consistently involved in the same sort of David-and-Goliath stories that Hammett, Chandler, and Macdonald wrote, but Collins took a sociological bent, exploring the meaning of his characters' places in society and the impact society had on people, Full of commentary and clipped prose, his books were more intimate than those of his predecessors, dramatizing that crime can happen in one's own living room, The PI novel was a male-dominated field in which female authors seldom found publication until Marcia Muller, Sara Paretsky, and Sue Grafton were finally published in the late 1970s and early 1980s, Each author's detective, also female, was brainy and physical and could hold her own,[45] Their acceptance, and success, caused publishers to seek out other female authors, Inverted detective[edit] An inverted detective story, also known as a "howcatchem", is a murder mystery fiction structure in which the commission of the crime is shown or described at the beginning,[46] usually including the identity of the perpetrator,[47] The story then describes the detective's attempt to solve the mystery, There may also be subsidiary puzzles, such as why the crime was committed, and they are explained or resolved during the story, This format is the opposite of the more typical "whodunit", where all of the details of the perpetrator of the crime are not revealed until the story's climax, Police procedural[edit] Many detective stories have police officers as the main characters, These stories may take a variety of forms, but many authors try to realistically depict the routine activities of a group of police officers who are frequently working on more than one case simultaneously, Some of these stories are whodunits; in others, the criminal is well known, and it is a case of getting enough evidence, In the 1940s the police procedural evolved as a new style of detective fiction, Unlike the heroes of Christie, Chandler, and Spillane, the police detective was subject to error and was constrained by rules and regulations, As Gary Huasladen says in Places for Dead Bodies, "not all the clients were insatiable bombshells, and invariably there was life outside the job," The detective in the police procedural does the things police officers do to catch a criminal, Writers include Ed McBain, P, D, James, and Bartholomew Gill,[46] Historical mystery[edit] These works are set in a time period considered historical from the author's perspective, and the central plot involves the solving of a mystery or crime (usually murder), Though works combining these genres have existed since at least the early 20th century, many credit Ellis Peters's Cadfael Chronicles (1977–1994) for popularizing what would become known as the historical mystery,[48][49] Cozy mysteries[edit] "Cozy mysteries" began in the late 20th century as a reinvention of the Golden Age whodunit; these novels generally shy away from violence and suspense and frequently feature female amateur detectives, Modern cozy mysteries are frequently, though not necessarily in either case, humorous and thematic (culinary mystery, animal mystery, quilting mystery, etc,) This style features minimal violence, sex, and social relevance; a solution achieved by intellect or intuition rather than police procedure, with order restored in the end; honorable and well bred characters; and a setting in a closed community, Writers include Agatha Christie, Dorothy L, Sayers, and Elizabeth Daly,[46] Serial killer mystery[edit] Another subgenre of detective fiction is the serial killer mystery, which might be thought of as an outcropping of the police procedural, There are early mystery novels in which a police force attempts to contend with the type of criminal known in the 1920s as a homicidal maniac, such as a few of the early novels of Philip Macdonald and Ellery Queen's Cat of Many Tails, However, this sort of story became much more popular after the coining of the phrase "serial killer" in the 1970s and the publication of The Silence of the Lambs in 1988, These stories frequently show the activities of many members of a police force or government agency in their efforts to apprehend a killer who is selecting victims on some obscure basis, They are also often much more violent and suspenseful than other mysteries, Legal thriller or courtroom[edit] The legal thriller or courtroom novel is also related to detective fiction, The system of justice itself is always a major part of these works, at times almost functioning as one of the characters,[citation needed] In this way, the legal system provides the framework for the legal thriller as much as the system of modern police work does for the police procedural, The legal thriller usually st*rts its business with the court proceedings following the closure of an investigation, often resulting in a new angle on the investigation, so as to bring about a final outcome different from the one originally devised by the investigators, In the legal thriller, court proceedings play a very active, if not to say decisive part in a case reaching its ultimate solution, Erle Stanley Gardner popularized the courtroom novel in the 20th century with his Perry Mason series, Contemporary authors of legal thrillers include Michael Connelly, Linda Fairstein, John Grisham, John Lescroat, Paul Levine, Lisa Scottoline, and Scott Turow, Locked-room mystery[edit] The locked-room mystery is a subgenre of detective fiction in which a crime—almost always murder—is committed under circumstances which it was seemingly impossible for the perpetrator to commit the crime and/or evade detection in the course of getting in and out of the crime scene, The genre was established in the 19th century, Edgar Allen Poe's "The Murders in the Rue Morgue" (1841) is considered the first locked-room mystery; since then, other authors have used the scheme, The crime in question typically involves a crime scene with no indication as to how the intruder could have entered or left, i,e,, a locked room, Following other conventions of classic detective fiction, the reader is normally presented with the puzzle and all of the clues, and is encouraged to solve the mystery before the solution is revealed in a dramatic climax, Amateur railway detective[edit] One of the most prolific writers of the railway detective genre is Keith Miles, who is also best known as Edward Marston, His "Railway Detective" series, published by Allison & Busby, is set in the mid-19th century, against the background of the "Railway Age", The cases, oftentimes linked with railways, unravel through the endeavors of two Scotland Yard detectives, To the end of 2017, there are sixteen titles in the series, Modern criticism of detective fiction[edit] Preserving the story's secrets[edit] Even if they do not mean to, advertisers, reviewers, scholars and aficionados sometimes give away details or parts of the plot, and sometimes—for example in the case of Mickey Spillane's novel I, the Jury—even the solution, After the credits of Billy Wilder's film Witness for the Prosecution, the cinemagoers are asked not to talk to anyone about the plot so that future viewers will also be able to fully enjoy the unravelling of the mystery, Plausibility and coincidence[edit] For series involving amateur detectives, their frequent encounters with crime often test the limits of plausibility, The character Miss Marple, for instance, dealt with an estimated two murders a year[citation needed]; De Andrea has described Marple's home town, the quiet little village of St, Mary Mead, as having "put on a pageant of human depravity rivaled only by that of Sodom and Gomorrah"[citation needed], Similarly, TV heroine Jessica Fletcher of Murder, She Wrote was confronted with bodies wherever she went, but most notably in her small hometown of Cabot Cove, Maine; The New York Times estimated that, by the end of the series' 12-year run, nearly 2% of the town's residents had been killed,[50] It is arguably more convincing if police, forensic experts or similar professionals are made the protagonist of a series of crime novels, The television series Monk has often made fun of this implausible frequency, The main character, Adrian Monk, is frequently accused of being a "bad luck charm" and a "murder magnet" as the result of the frequency with which murder happens in his vicinity,[51] Likewise Kogoro Mori of the manga series Detective Conan got that kind of unflattering reputation, Although Mori is actually a private investigator with his own agency, the police never intentionally consult him as he stumbles from one crime scene to another, The role and legitimacy of coincidence has frequently been the topic of heated arguments ever since Ronald A, Knox categorically stated that "no accident must ever help the detective" (Commandment No, 6 in his "Decalogue"),[52] Effects of technology[53][edit] Technological progress has also rendered many plots implausible and antiquated, For example, the predominance of mobile phones, pagers, and PDAs has significantly altered the previously dangerous situations in which investigators traditionally might have found themselves, One tactic that avoids the issue of technology altogether is the historical detective genre, As global interconnectedness makes legitimate suspense more difficult to achieve, several writers—including Elizabeth Peters, P, C, Doherty, Steven Saylor, and Lindsey Davis—have eschewed fabricating convoluted plots in order to manufacture tension, instead opting to set their characters in some former period, Such a strategy forces the protagonist to rely on more inventive means of investigation, lacking as they do the technological tools available to modern detectives, As technology advances, so does the genre of crime fiction, as we now have the issue of cyber crime, or a crime that involves a computer and a network,[54] There is also the new issue of cyberterrorism, which is being more frequently incorporated into modern crime fiction, Detective Commandments[edit] Several authors have attempted to set forth a sort of list of “Detective Commandments” for prospective authors of the genre, According to "Twenty Rules for Writing Detective Stories," by Van Dine in 1928: "The detective story is a kind of intellectual game, It is more—it is a sporting event, And for the writing of detective stories there are very definite laws—unwritten, perhaps, but nonetheless binding; and every respectable and self-respecting concocter of literary mysteries lives up to them, Herewith, then, is a sort of credo, based partly on the practice of all the great writers of detective stories, and partly on the promptings of the honest author's inner conscience,"[55] Ronald Knox wrote a set of Ten Commandments or Decalogue in 1929,[52] see article on the Golden Age of Detective Fiction, A general consensus among crime fiction authors is there is a specific set of rules that must be applied for a novel to truly be considered part of the detective fiction genre, As noted in "Introduction to the Analysis of Crime Fiction",[56] crime fiction from the past 100 years has generally contained 8 key rules to be a detective novel: A crime, most often murder, is committed early in the narrative There are a variety of suspects with different motives A central character formally or informally acts as a detective The detective collects evidence about the crimes and its victim Usually the detective interviews the suspects, as well as the witnesses The detective solves the mystery and indicates the real criminal Usually this criminal is now arrested or otherwise punished Influential fictional detectives[edit] Main article: Fictional detectives Sherlock Holmes[edit] Sherlock Holmes is British detective fiction written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, The first appearance of Sherlock Holmes is at “A study in Scarlet”, At first, Sherlock Holmes did not result massive success, however st*rting from 1891, after published Sherlock Holmes at “Strand Magazine”, it became unquestionably popular,[57] After Sherlock Holmes, many detective stories followed Conan Doyle’s structure and also include characters which have Sherlock Holmes characteristics, Sherlock Holmes as a series is perhaps the most popular form of detective fiction, Doyle attempted to kill the character off after twenty-three stories, but by popular request, he continued to write the Sherlock Holmes series, Sherlock Holmes is not only referenced as the titular character, but has also influenced many other areas outside of detective fiction, For example, the BBC-produced TV series Sherlock gained a very large fandom after first airing in 2010, imbuing a renewed interest in the character in the general public, Because of the popularity of Holmes, Conan Doyle was often regarded as being “as well-known as Queen Victoria”,[57] Hercule Poirot[edit] Hercule Poirot is a fictional Belgian private detective, created by Agatha Christie, As the one of Christie's most famous and long-lived characters, he appeared in 33 novels, one play (Black Coffee), and more than 50 short stories published between 1920 and 1975, The stories are throughout the Hercule Poirot's whole life in the UK, which he first appeared in The Mysterious Affair at Styles (published in 1920) and died in Curtain (published in 1975), which is Agatha Christie's last work, August 6, 1975, The New York Times published the obituary of Poirot's death and the cover of the newly published novel on the front page,[58][59] C, Auguste Dupin[edit] Le Chevalier C, Auguste Dupin is a fictional character created by Edgar Allan Poe, Dupin made his first appearance in Poe's "The Murders in the Rue Morgue" (1841), widely considered the first detective fiction story, He reappears in "The Mystery of Marie Rogêt" (1842) and "The Purloined Letter" (1844), C, Auguste Dupin is generally acknowledged as the first detective in fiction, The character served as the prototype for many that were created later, including Sherlock Holmes by Arthur Conan Doyle and Hercule Poirot by Agatha Christie, Conan Doyle once wrote, "Each [of Poe's detective stories] is a root from which a whole literature has developed,,, Where was the detective story until Poe breathed the breath of life into it?" Ellery Queen[edit] Ellery Queen is a fictional detective-hero, created by Manfred Bennington Lee (1905–1971), and Frederic Dannay (1905~1982), as well as a joint pseudonym for the cousins Dannay and Lee, Ellery Queen first appeared in The Roman Hat Mystery (1929), and was the hero of more than 30 novels and several short story collections, During the 1930s and much of the 1940s, that detective-hero was possibly the best known American fictional detective,[60] Detective debuts and swansongs[edit] Many detectives appear in more than one novel or story, Here is a list of a few debut and swansong stories: Detective Author Debut Swansong Misir Ali Humayun Ahmed Devi Jakhan Namibe Andhar Roderick Alleyn Ngaio Marsh A Man Lay Dead Light Thickens Lew Archer Ross Macdonald The Moving Target The Blue Hammer Byomkesh Bakshi Sharadindu Bandyopadhyay Satyanweshi Bishupal Badh Parashor Barma Premendra Mitra Goenda Kobi ParasharTom Barnaby Caroline Graham The Killings at Badger's Drift A Ghost in the Machine Martin Beck Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö Roseanna The Terrorists Bimal Hemendra Kumar Roy jakher dhan Anita Blake Laurell K, Hamilton Guilty Pleasures Harry Bosch Michael Connelly The Black Echo Father Brown G, K, Chesterton "The Blue Cross" Brother Cadfael Ellis Peters A Morbid Taste for Bones Brother Cadfael's Penance Vincent Calvino Christopher G, Moore Spirit House Albert Campion Margery Allingham The Crime at Black Dudley Georgia Cantini Grazia Verasani Quo Vadis, Baby? Nick Charles Dashiell Hammett The Thin Man Elvis Cole Robert Crais The Monkey's Raincoat Lord Edward Corinth and Verity Browne David Roberts Sweet Poison Sweet Sorrow Jerry Cornelius Michael Moorcock The Final Programme Dr, Phil D'Amato Paul Levinson "The Chronology Protection Case" Harry D'Amour Clive Barker "The Last Illusion" Adam Dalgliesh PD James Cover Her Face The Private Patient Andrew Dalziel and Peter Pascoe Reginald Hill A Clubbable Woman Midnight Fugue Peter Decker Faye Kellerman The Ritual Bath Alex Delaware Jonathan Kellerman When the Bough BreaksHarry Devlin Martin Edwards All the Lonely People Harry Dresden Jim Butcher Storm Front Nancy Drew Carolyn Keene The Secret of the Old Clock Auguste Dupin Edgar Allan Poe "The Murders in the Rue Morgue" Marcus Didius Falco Lindsey Davis The Silver Pigs Feluda Satyajit Ray Feludar Goyendagiri Robertson-er Ruby Erast Fandorin Boris Akunin The Winter Queen Kate Fansler Amanda Cross In the Last Analysis The Edge of Doom Dr, Gideon Fell John Dickson Carr Hag's Nook Dark of the Moon Sir John Fielding and Jeremy Proctor Bruce Alexander Blind Justice Gordianus the Finder Steven Saylor Roman Blood Rei Furuya Gosho Aoyama Detective Conan Dirk Gently (Svlad Cjelli) Douglas Adams Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency Saguru Hakuba Gosho Aoyama Magic Kaito Mike Hammer Mickey Spillane I, the Jury The Hardy Boys (ghostwriters) The Tower Treasure Heiji Hattori Gosho Aoyama Detective Conan Sherlock Holmes Sir Arthur Conan Doyle A Study in Scarlet The Adventure of Shoscombe Old Place Jayanta Hemendra Kumar Roy Jayanter KeertiKikira Bimal Kar Kapalikera Ekhono Ache Ekti Photo Churir Rahasya Shinichi Kudo / Conan Edogawa Gosho Aoyama Detective Conan Jake Lassiter Paul Levine "To Speak For The Dead" Joe Leaphorn Tony Hillerman The Blessing Way Thomas Lynley and Barbara Havers Elizabeth George A Great Deliverance Philip Marlowe Raymond Chandler The Big Sleep Playback Miss Marple Agatha Christie The Murder at the Vicarage Sleeping Murder Travis McGee John D, MacDonald The Deep Blue Good-by The Lonely Silver Rain Mehul and Kairav Adventures of Mehul & Kairav A Modest Beginning Sir Henry Merrivale Carter Dickson The Plague Court Murders The Cavalier's Cup Kinsey Millhone Sue Grafton 'A' is for Alibi 'Y' is for Yesterday Kogoro Mori Gosho Aoyama Detective Conan Inspector Morse Colin Dexter Last Bus to Woodstock Remorseful Day Thursday Next Jasper Fforde The Eyre Affair Gideon Oliver Aaron Elkins Fellowship of Fear Stephanie Plum Janet Evanovich One for the Money Hercule Poirot Agatha Christie The Mysterious Affair at Styles Curtain Ellery Queen Ellery Queen The Roman Hat Mystery A Fine and Private Place Jack Reacher Lee Child Killing Floor Precious Ramotswe Alexander McCall Smith The No, 1 Ladies' Detective Agency John Rebus Ian Rankin Knots and Crosses Dave Robicheaux James Lee Burke The Neon Rain Kiriti Roy Nihar Ranjan Gupta Kalo Bhramar avagunthita Lincoln Rhyme Jeffery Deaver The Bone Collector Matthew Scudder Lawrence Block Sins of the Fathers Masumi Sera Gosho Aoyama Detective Conan Miss Silver Patricia Wentworth Grey Mask The Girl in the Cellar Spenser Robert B, Parker The Godwulf Manuscript Dan Shepherd Stephen Leather True Colours Sam Spade Dashiell Hammett The Maltese Falcon Cormoran Strike J,K, Rowling The Cuckoo's Calling Lethal White Tintin Hergé Tintin in the Land of the Soviets Tintin and Alph-Art Philip Trent E, C, Bentley Trent's Last Case Trent Intervenes Kurt Wallander Henning Mankell Faceless Killers V,I, Warshawski Sara Paretsky Indemnity Only Reginald Wexford Ruth Rendell From Doon with Death Lord Peter Wimsey Dorothy L, Sayers Whose Body? Busman's Honeymoon Nero Wolfe Rex Stout Fer-de-Lance A Family Affair Huo Sang Chen Xiaoqing The Shadow in the Lamplight Books[edit] Bloody Murder: From the Detective Story to the Crime Novel—A History by Julian Symons ISBN 0-571-09465-1 Stacy Gillis and Philippa Gates (Editors), The Devil Himself: Villainy in Detective Fiction and Film, Greenwood, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31655-4 The Manichean Investigators: A Postcolonial and Cultural Rereading of the Sherlock Holmes and Byomkesh Bakshi Stories by Pinaki Roy, New Delhi: Sarup and Sons, 2008, ISBN 978-81-7625-849-4 Killer Books by Jean Swanson & Dean James, Berkley Prime Crime edition 1998, Penguin Putnam Inc, New York ISBN 0-425-16218-4 Delightful Murder: A Social History of the Crime Story by Ernest Mandel, 1985, Univ, of Minnesota Press, See also[edit]Fiction portalNovels portal Closed circle of suspects Crime fiction Inverted detective story Japanese detective fiction List of Ace mystery double titles List of Ace mystery letter-series single titles List of Ace mystery numeric-series single titles List of crime writers List of detective fiction authors List of female detective characters Mafia Mystery fiction Mystery film Whodunit References[edit] ^ Michael, Cox (1992), Victorian Tales of Mystery and Detection: An Oxford Anthology, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0192123084, ^ Scaggs, John (2005), Crime Fiction (The New Critical Idiom), Routledge, p, 8, ISBN 978-0415318259, ^ Scaggs, John (2005), Crime Fiction (The New Critical Idiom), Routledge, pp, 9–11, ISBN 978-0415318259, ^ Jump up to: a b c Gerhardi, Mia I, (1963), The Art of Story-Telling, Brill Archive, pp, 169–170, ^ Pinault, David (1992), Story-Telling Techniques in the Arabian Nights, Brill Publishers, pp, 86–91, ISBN 978-90-04-09530-4 ^ Pinault, David (1992), Story-Telling Techniques in the Arabian Nights, Brill Publishers, pp, 93, 95, 97, ISBN 978-90-04-09530-4 ^ Pinault, David (1992), Story-Telling Techniques in the Arabian Nights, Brill Publishers, 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"Aurora Floyd"", www,broadviewpress,com, Broadview Press, Retrieved 27 February 2014, ^ "The Ticket-of-Leave Man" in Dictionary Central http://www,dictionarycentral,com/definition/the-ticket-of-leave-man,html , Accessed 2013,12,10, ^ Lycett, Andrew (2007), The Man Who Created Sherlock Holmes: The Life and Times of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Free Press, pp, 53–54, 190, ISBN 978-0-7432-7523-1 ^ Jump up to: a b c d "P,D, James: Who killed the golden age of crime? | The Spectator", The Spectator, 2013-12-14, Retrieved 2018-03-29, ^ Jump up to: a b c Bernthal, J, C, (2016), Queering Agatha Christie: Revisiting the Golden Age of Detective Fiction, Springer, pp, 1–24, ISBN 978-3-319-33533-9, ^ McKinty, Adrian (2014-01-29), "The top 10 locked-room mysteries", the Guardian, Retrieved 2018-03-29, ^ Jump up to: a b Manji, G, (1993), Crime fiction with a social consciousness, Japan Quarterly, 40(2), 157, Retrieved from https://search,proquest,com/docview/1304283380 ^ Jump up to: a b Kinkley, Jeffrey C, (2000), Chinese Justice, the Fiction: Law and Literature in Modern China, Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0804734431, ^ Jump up to: a b Cheng, Xiaoqing (2007), Sherlock in Shanghai : stories of crime and detection, Translated by Wong, Timothy C, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, ISBN 9780824864286, OCLC 256676525, ^ "Canonization, Modern Literature, and the Detective Story, John G, Cawelti, from Theory and practice of classic detective fiction, Jerome Delamater, etc,, Hofstra University, 1997, p, 8 ^ "Откуда есть пошёл детектив русский,,,", Константин Ситников, from "Наука и жизнь", 2011, № 6 ^ "Поэтика детектива", Пётр Моисеев, Moscow: Высшая школа экономики, 2017 ^ "Советский приключенческий детектив первой половины XX века", Булычева Вера Павловна, from "Гуманитарные, социально-экономические и общественные науки", 2014, p, 2 ^ Jump up to: a b Rzepka, Charles J, (2005-09-30), Detective Fiction, Polity, ISBN 9780745629421, ^ Jump up to: a b Messent, P, (2006), Introduction: From private eye to police procedural—the logic of contemporary crime fiction ^ Beal, W, (2014), Philip marlowe, family man, College Literature, 41(2), 11–28, doi:10,1353/lit,2014,0021 ^ Pristed, B, B, (2013), Glasnost noire: The soviet and post-soviet publication and reception of James Hadley Chase, Book History, 16(1), 329–363, doi:10,1353/bh,2013,0000 ^ Nora, Martin, (1996), "In the business of believing women's stories": Feminism through detective fiction (Sara Paretsky, Sue Grafton) (Thesis), Wilfrid Laurier University, ^ Jump up to: a b c Hwang, Amy, "LibGuides: Mystery Fiction and Film: Genres of Mystery and Crime Fiction", libguides,enc,edu, Retrieved 2018-03-19, ^ Dictionary of literary themes and motifs, Seigneuret, Jean-Charles, New York: Greenwood Press, 1988, ISBN 9780313263965, OCLC 15696167, ^ Jr, David B, Rivkin (2010-02-27), "Historical Mystery Novels", Wall Street Journal, ISSN 0099-9660, Retrieved 2018-03-19, ^ "Mysteries of History", PublishersWeekly,com, Retrieved 2018-03-19, ^ Barron, James (1996-04-14), "Whodunit? That Under-40 Crowd", The New York Times, ISSN 0362-4331, Retrieved 2018-03-29, ^ "The butler did it: A passion for mystery novels", mondayeveningclub,blogspot,ca, 2009-02-28, Retrieved 2018-03-22, ^ Jump up to: a b "Father Knox's Decalogue: The Ten Rules of (Golden Age) Detective Fiction", www,thrillingdetective,com, Retrieved 2018-03-22, ^ "Stav Sherez: crime fiction and technology – Dead Good", Dead Good, 2017-01-29, Retrieved 2018-03-22, ^ Moore, Robert (2005), Cyber crime: Investigating High-Technology Computer Crime, Mississippi: Anderson Publishing Co, ISBN 978-1593453039, ^ "Twenty rules for writing detective stories (1928) by S, S, Van Dine", Gaslight,mtroyal,ca, Archived from the original on 2013-01-13, Retrieved 2013-02-14, ^ Milda, Danytė (2011), Introduction to the analysis of crime fiction : a user-friendly guide, Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, ISBN 9789955126980, ^ Jump up to: a b Armstrong, Jennifer Keishin, "How Sherlock Holmes changed the world", Retrieved 2018-03-22, ^ "Agatha Christie: Characters – Poirot", 2010-04-12, Retrieved 2018-03-29, ^ Lask, Thomas (1975-08-06), "Hercule Poirot Is Dead; Famed Belgian Detective", The New York Times, ISSN 0362-4331, Retrieved 2018-03-21, ^ Herbert, Rosemary (2003), Whodunit?: A Who's who in Crime & Mystery Writing, Oxford University Press, p, 161, ISBN 978-0-19-515761-1, Further reading[edit]Wikimedia Commons has media related to Crime fiction, Witschi, N, S, (2002), Traces of Gold: California's Natural Resources and the Claim to Realism in Western American Literature, Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press,, ISBN 978-0-8173-1117-9 An exhibition of detective fiction, Monash University Library show vte Detective, mystery, and crime fiction show vte Lists of fictional agents Authority control LCCN: sh85037260NDL: 00571582 Categories: Crime fictionDetective fictionLiterary genresWorks about law enforcementFilm genres THANKS FOR LOOKING!!! Track Page Views With Auctiva's FREE Counter Condition: Very Good, Movie/TV Title: Charlie Chan, Brand: MGM, Former Rental: No, Genre: Thriller & Mystery, Region Code: DVD: 1 (US, Canada...), Leading Role: Sidney Toler, Format: DVD, Rating: NR

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